Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research
Volume 6 of Mykhailo Hrushevsky’s History of Ukraine-Rus′ focuses on life in Ukraine before the Cossack age of the seventeenth century. The volume bears the broadly inclusive and telling subtitle of Economic, Cultural, and National Life in the 14th to 17th Centuries. It depicts life in Ukraine during the transitional Lithuanian-Polish period of its history. Presented here are the master historian’s discussion and analysis of economic life, society, political affairs, everyday life, culture, church history, interethnic relations, and national identity in the Ukrainian lands during that time. This English translation of Hrushevsky’s volume 6 is the seventh tome in the ten-volume series (in twelve books) to appear, following volumes 1 (1997), 7 (1999), 8 (2002), 9, bk. 1 (2005), 9, bk. 2, pt. 1 (2008) and pt. 2 (2010).
The volume opens with an account of trade, manufacture, and agriculture in the lands of western Ukraine and the initially less settled lands of central and eastern Ukraine. Relying on a wealth of sources, including statistical and other data, Hrushevsky thoroughly examines the rural economy, tracing developments in agricultural practice and husbandry from Old Rus′ times to the expanded grain production, increased corvée, and exhaustive use of natural resources in the late fifteenth and subsequent centuries. He discusses the composition of Ukraine’s population and its cultural and national interrelations, with attention to the peasantry, the burgher stratum, the clerical order, the nobility, and the highest echelon of society, the magnates. Hrushevsky’s depiction of everyday life includes in-depth information about cultural, religious, and national traditions, education, book and literary production, and artistic creativity. His analysis of social values and norms uses sources ranging from individuals’ wills to contemporary accounts of daily life to the religious works of the ascetic Ivan Vyshensky. Topics also treated in depth include the religious lay brotherhoods, the guild system, and the Ostrih Academy.
The latter part of the volume focuses on the origins and development of the ideological, religio-national, and political struggle within the Orthodox Church for and against church union. It includes discussion of the roles of the Catholic Church and the Lithuanian, Polish, and (after 1569) Commonwealth governments. Also discussed are the literary polemics that shaped the struggle over the Union of Brest (1596), including the works of Ipatii Potii, Stefan Zyzanii, and Meletii Smotrytsky. The volume relates the course of the struggle to the first decades of the seventeenth century, when the new phenomenon of Cossackdom was coming to the fore in Ukrainian affairs. Hrushevsky’s own bibliographical Notes have been amplified by editor’s additions of major works published subsequently. The editorial apparatus also includes a glossary, two maps, a bibliography of works cited by Hrushevsky, two appendixes, and a comprehensive index.
The preparation of this volume for publication was funded by a generous donation from Dr. Jeanette Bayduza and the late Dr. Peter Jacyk, founding donor of the Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research. Additional support was provided from the estate of the late Edward Brodacky of London, England, and by individual donors.
Volume 6 was translated by Leonid Heretz, professor of history at Bridgewater State University and a noted specialist of modern Ukrainian history. Dr. Frank E. Sysyn, director of the Jacyk Centre, edited the volume, assisted by Uliana M. Pasicznyk, managing editor. Consulting editor was Myron M. Kapral, director of the Lviv branch of the M. S. Hrushevsky Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and Source Studies and professor of history at the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv. Participating and advising in editorial matters were Professors Serhii Plokhy; Tomasz Wiślicz; Victor Ostapchuk, assisted by Maryna Kravets; Robert Romanchuk; Michael Moser; and David Frick. CIUS staff involved in editorial and publishing work included Myroslav Yurkevich, Dr. Marko R. Stech, Peter Matilainen, and Tania Plawuszczak-Stech.
Volume 9, book 2, part 2, in which Hrushevsky analyzes the last two years of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky’s rule, consists of the final chapters (10–13) of volume 9. Hrushevsky presents the most comprehensive discussion to date of Khmelnytsky’s foreign policy in the aftermath of the Treaty of Pereiaslav (1654), a topic closed to research in Soviet Ukraine from the 1930s to the 1980s. He also discusses Khmelnytsky’s renewed efforts to annex the western Ukrainian territories and to control the Belarusian lands conquered by the Cossacks. He concludes with an assessment of the hetman and his age that has long been controversial in Ukrainian historiography.
This tome shows how Ukraine’s relations with Muscovy were strained by the Muscovites’ failure to help fend off devastating Polish and Crimean attacks, which prompted Ukrainian leaders to seek support elsewhere. Tensions were exacerbated by the Ukrainian-Muscovite dispute over Belarusian territory. When Charles X of Sweden attacked the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1655, while Khmelnytsky sought to recover the western Ukrainian lands, a Swedish-Ukrainian alliance seemed to be in the making. A military convention was concluded, but Charles, under pressure from his allies among the Polish nobility, would not cede western Ukraine to the Cossacks. After the Vilnius accord between Muscovy and the Commonwealth (November 1656), Khmelnytsky endeavored to establish a Swedish-Transylvanian-Ukrainian league and supported the abortive effort by György Rákóczi II of Transylvania to gain the Polish throne. Hrushevsky’s exhaustive discussion of diplomatic affairs greatly advances understanding of the role of Ukraine and the countries of East Central Europe in the political crisis of the mid-seventeenth century.
The preparation of this volume for publication was funded by a generous donation from the prominent physician and philanthropist Dr. Maria Fischer-Slysh (Etobicoke, Ontario), in memory of her parents, Dr. Adolf and Olha Slyz.
Volume 9, book 2, part 2 of the History was translated by Marta Daria Olynyk, a Montreal-based translator, editor, and broadcaster. It was edited by the director of the Jacyk Centre, Dr. Frank E. Sysyn, and consulting editor Dr. Yaroslav Fedoruk, a senior scholar at the Mykhailo Hrushevsky Institute of Ukrainian Archaeography and Source Studies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Kyiv; they were assisted by CIUS Press senior editor Myroslav Yurkevich. Participating in various stages of editorial work and publishing were Uliana M. Pasicznyk, Marko R. Stech, Andrij Hornjatkevyč, Tania Plawuszczak-Stech, Dushan Bednarsky, and Olena Plokhy. Scholarly consultants included Victor Ostapchuk, Sándor Gebei, Eduard Baidaus, András Riedlmayer, Vasil Varonin, Pavlo Sodomora, Erika Banski, Vera Chentsova, and Bert Hall.
The pivotal event described in Volume 9, book 2, part 1 of the History is the Pereiaslav Agreement of 1654, which brought Cossack Ukraine under a Muscovite protectorate. Needing military assistance to continue the struggle with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, against which the Cossack Host and much of the Ukrainian populace had rebelled in 1648, Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky was prepared to make an agreement that brought Muscovy into the conflict on terms favorable to the Cossacks. Hrushevsky analyzes the diplomatic and military developments that led up to the agreement, and in chapter 7 he presents the most detailed and thoughtful treatment in modern historiography of the Pereiaslav Council of January 1654 and the subsequent understandings with Moscow. In his discussion Hrushevsky deals not only with previous historiography and the documentary record, which is incomplete, but also with the negotiations, taking account of the conflicting motivations of the two sides.
The subsequent chapters trace the difficult course of Cossack Ukraine’s relations with Muscovy in 1654–55: the joint military campaign against the Commonwealth, which almost led to disaster because of poor coordination; the Cossack leadership’s efforts to take control of the western Ukrainian and southern Belarusian lands; the ferocious battle of Dryzhypil; and the devastation of the Bratslav region by Polish and Tatar forces, against which Muscovy provided no effective protection. On the basis of the travel diary of Paul of Aleppo, a Syrian cleric, Hrushevsky gives an account of daily life in Ukraine at the time, with many details unavailable in other sources. Unparalleled in breadth of research, Hrushevsky’s work brings to life a turbulent and politically decisive period in the life of the Ukrainian people.
The preparation of volume 9, book 2, part 1 was supported by a generous donation to the Hrushevsky Translation Project from Mrs. Daria Mucak-Kowalsky of Etobicoke, Ontario, in memory of her husband, Mykhailo Kowalsky.
Volume 9, book 2, part 1 of the History was translated by Marta Daria Olynyk, a Montreal-based translator, editor and broadcaster. It was edited by the director of the Jacyk Centre, Frank E. Sysyn, with the assistance of CIUS Press senior editor Myroslav Yurkevich. The consulting editor of the volume, who also wrote the introduction, was Serhii Plokhy. Participating in various stages of editorial work and publishing were Uliana M. Pasicznyk, Marko R. Stech, Andrij Hornjatkevyč, Tania Plawuszczak-Stech, Dushan Bednarsky, and Olena Plokhy. Scholarly consultants included Maryna Kravets, Victor Ostapchuk, David Frick, Nicolae Pavliuc, Eduard Baidaus, Bert Hall, and Vera Chentsova.
Volume 9 of Mykhailo Hrushevsky’s History of Ukraine-Rus′ is the longest and most extensively documented of the history’s ten volumes. The two books of volume 9 contain the master historian’s study of the Khmelnytsky era from the height of Cossackdom’s political and military successes in early 1650 to the death of the founder of the Cossack Hetmanate, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, in 1657. The driving force of this era was, in Hrushevsky’s words, ‘the struggle for the liberation of the Ukrainian masses,’ dictated by socioeconomic conditions and led by the Cossack officer elite. The ‘great political upheaval’ that ensued effectively shifted the center of political gravity in eastern Europe from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to Muscovy.
Book 1 of volume 9 covers the period from early 1650 to late 1653. Topics examined here include the Cossack Hetmanate’s drive to overthrow the rule of the Commonwealth; Hetman Khmelnytsky’s efforts to secure Ottoman and Muscovite support; the disastrous defeat at Berestechko; Khmelnytsky’s rallying of his forces; the Bila Tserkva peace settlement; and the victorious Battle of Batih, which restored Cossack rule in Right-Bank Ukraine and parts of Podilia. Also examined are dramatic developments in Ukrainian-Moldavian relations, beginning with a victorious Cossack campaign in Moldavia and culminating in the marriage of Khmelnytsky’s son Tymish to the Moldavian hospodar’s daughter Roksanda. The book concludes with a discussion of the hetman’s political and dynastic plans, which came to an abrupt end with his son’s tragic death.
Hrushevsky’s extensive research allowed him to examine the Khmelnytsky era in great detail. His illumination of the Cossack state’s relations with the Commonwealth, Muscovy, the Ottoman Empire, and the Danubian principalities, in particular, remains unsurpassed in clarity and thoroughness. Publication of his study in English is of particular value to specialists and students of Ottoman, Crimean, Romanian, and Hungarian history.
The preparation of volume 9, book 1 was supported by a generous donation to the Hrushevsky Translation Project from Sofia Wojtyna of Hamilton, Ontario, in memory of Vasyl Bilash, Mykhailo Charkivsky, and Mykhailo Wojtyna. A grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities (Washington, D.C.) funded the translation.
Volume 9, book 1 of the History of Ukraine-Rus′ was translated by the late Dr. Bohdan Struminski (Struminsky), a noted linguist and translator of early modern Ukrainian texts. Frank E. Sysyn, director of the Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research, served as editor in chief. Serhii Plokhy, associate director of the Centre, served as consulting editor. Uliana M. Pasicznyk was managing editor of the volume. The editorial staff included Myroslav Yurkevich, Marta Horban-Carynnyk, Marko R. Stech, Dushan Bednarsky, and Andrij Hornjatkevyc. Scholarly consultants included Maryna Kravets, Victor Ostapchuk, David Frick, Maria Subtelny, Ihor Ševcenko, Nicolae Pavliuc, and Vera Chentsova.
In writing volume 8 of his History of Ukraine-Rus′, the second in the subseries The History of the Ukrainian Cossacks, Mykhailo Hrushevsky undertook to study the second quarter of the seventeenth century. Calling these years “a great and crucial epoch in the history of our nation,” he established a new periodization for the development of Ukrainian Cossackdom.
Originally published in three parts, volume 8, The Cossack Age, 1626–1650, sets forth the first complete account of the Ukrainian Cossacks from their defeat at Lake Kurukove, which shattered the plans and hopes they had formed in the first quarter of the century, to their resurgence at the end of the 1640s as the “elemental force” in Ukrainian history. Hrushevsky deals with the attempts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to reach an accommodation with the Orthodox Church, giving his own interpretation of the era of Metropolitan Petro Mohyla (1632–47). He goes on to examine the causes and outbreak of the Khmelnytsky Uprising, the personality of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and the uprising’s early phase and climactic years of 1648–49, when it represented the interests of the Cossack and peasant masses. Hrushevsky concludes the volume with the failure of the Zboriv Agreement and the Cossacks’ decision to make a complete break with the Commonwealth.
Based on a thorough examination of the sources and scholarly literature, volume 8 of Hrushevsky’s work is unsurpassed as a comprehensive account of this dramatic period in Ukrainian history. As many of Hrushevsky’s manuscript sources were destroyed in World War II, his citations and discussions often constitute the only testimony now extant about important events of the period. Hrushevsky’s own masterful analysis of the sources and the scholarly literature in his appended bibliographic Notes is supplemented by editorial additions noting the substantial body of scholarly literature that has appeared since the publication of volume 8. Hrushevsky’s work remains essential to anyone studying Ukraine in the Cossack period. The central role of Ukraine in the international politics of the time also makes the volume essential reading for specialists in East-Central European, Russian, and Ottoman history. It presents a broad context for the study of Jewish history in Ukraine and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Hrushevsky’s examination of the socio-political crisis of the Commonwealth, the factors underlying the Khmelnytsky Uprising, and the Cossacks’ aspirations to establish a Ukrainian state also provides important comparative material for the study of revolution and state-building in early modern Europe.
The “Cossack” volumes of Hrushevsky’s History remain the most complete and systematic study of early modern Ukrainian history. In the preface to volume 7, the first in his subseries on the Cossack period, Hrushevsky asserted its importance in the development of Ukrainian national identity: “For the first time in historical memory, the Ukrainian nation came forth actively as the architect of its own destiny and life, rising to a life-or-death struggle for the realization of its dreams and desires.”
The preparation of volume 8 was funded by a generous donation from Hanna Moroz-Mazurenko, in memory of her husband, Danylo Mazurenko (1903–1992). Mr. Mazurenko was born in the Zbarazh region of Ukraine and came to Canada in 1936. He was an educator, an enthusiast of history, literature, music, and theater, and a successful businessman in the Toronto area. Among the Ukrainian community projects that received his support were the Canada-Ukraine Parliamentary Program and a history of the Zbarazh region. Mrs. Moroz-Mazurenko also took part in cultural and theatrical events, worked as a translator, and was a civil servant with the government of Ontario. A long-standing member of the Ukrainian Women’s Organization of Canada, she is now a senior student of Ukrainian language and literature at the University of Toronto. The Hrushevsky Translation Project also received a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities (Washington, D.C.) that funded the translation of volume 8.
This volume was translated by Marta Daria Olynyk, a Montreal-based translator and editor. Ms. Olynyk carefully rendered Hrushevsky’s complicated Ukrainian prose into English and consulted with the noted historian Marko Antonovych in translating Polish and Latin passages. Frank E. Sysyn, editor in chief of the Hrushevsky Translation Project, served as consulting editor of this volume and wrote its introduction. Myroslav Yurkevich edited the text and bibliography and served as the volume’s managing editor. Uliana Pasicznyk and Marta Horban-Carynnyk also edited the text. Participating in various stages of editorial work and publishing were Serhii Plokhy, Marko Stech, Tania Plawuszczak-Stech, Andrij Hornjatkevyč, Dushan Bednarsky, Olena Plokhy, and Lada Bassa. Andrii Grechylo compiled the bibliography and Iaroslav Fedoruk coauthored the bibliographical notes. Scholarly consultants included Ihor Ševčenko, Maria Subtelny, Victor Ostapchuk, Jeffrey Wills, David Frick, Paulina Lewin, and Nicolae Pavliuc.
Volume seven of Mykhailo Hrushevsky’s History of Ukraine-Rus′ is the first installment of the History’s subseries on the Ukrainian Cossacks (volumes 7–10). It deals with the period from the late fifteenth century to the year 1625, including the origins of the Cossacks, their revolts against Polish rule under the leadership of Kryshtof Kosynsky and Severyn Nalyvaiko, and their participation in the Khotyn War (1621) under the command of Hetman Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny. The volume also analyzes conflicts with the Crimean Tatars and the Ottoman Turks and the role of the Cossacks in the Ukrainian cultural and religious revival of the 1620s.
The Ukrainian Cossacks extended their rule and diffused their political culture across the vast territories of Dnipro Ukraine, making Cossackdom one of the most important factors in the formation of the modern Ukrainian nation. In the seventeenth century, the Cossacks also took upon themselves the task of defending the Ukrainian religious and cultural tradition, eventually creating a polity of their own. Stories of the period inspired generations of Ukrainian patriots, who came to view the history of the Cossack uprisings and the ensuing Khmelnytsky uprising as the most heroic page in Ukrainian history.
The “Cossack” volumes of Hrushevsky’s History remain the most complete and systematic study of early modern Ukrainian history. Hrushevsky’s exhaustive analysis of the sources established an authoritative account of the early history of the Ukrainian Cossacks. In the preface to volume seven, Hrushevsky asserted the importance of the Cossack period in the development of Ukrainian national identity: “For the first time in historical memory, the Ukrainian nation came forth actively as the architect of its own destiny and life, rising to a life-or-death struggle for the realization of its dreams and desires.”
The preparation of volume seven of the History was funded by a generous donation from Olga Pawluk in memory of her husband, Stephen Pawluk (1910–1991). Mr. Pawluk, a veteran of World War II, founded Ukrainian Canadian Veterans’ Branch No. 360 of the Royal Canadian Legion and served as national president of the Ukrainian Canadian Veterans’ Association from 1953 to 1962. He also initiated the Ukrainian Canadian Collection at the University of Toronto Library and established the Ukrainian Canadian Research Foundation. Mrs. Pawluk shared her husband’s involvement in community work and interest in Ukrainian history. A grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities (Washington, D.C.) funded the translation of the volume, and the Canadian Foundation for Ukrainian Studies provided financial support to cover printing costs.
Volume seven was translated by Bohdan Strumiński (1930–98), author of more than one hundred articles and books on Ukrainian and Slavic literature and linguistics and translator of polemical works by Zakhariia Kopystensky and Lev Krevza for the Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature. In translating volume seven of Hrushevsky’s History Dr. Strumiński drew on his skills as a researcher and contributed many of the editorial notes appearing in the volume. Serhii Plokhy, a specialist in early modern Ukrainian history and associate director of the Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research, served as the volume’s consulting and bibliographic editor. Frank E. Sysyn, director of the Peter Jacyk Centre and editor in chief of the Hrushevsky Translation Project, co-edited the volume, assisted by Uliana M. Pasicznyk, managing editor. Myroslav Yurkevich, Marko Stech, Dushan Bednarsky, Tania Plawuszczak-Stech, and Andrij Hornjatkevyč participated in various stages of the editing process. Scholarly consultants included Ihor Ševčenko, Maria Subtelny, Nicolae Pavliuc, Victor Ostapchuk, Andrii Hrechylo, and Sławomir Szyller.
In volume one of the most important history of Ukraine written in modern times, the great historian Mykhailo Hrushevsky discusses the Ukrainian land and the people who inhabited it from prehistorical times to the formation of the Rus′ state and its Christianization. His discussion begins with the geographic setting and the archaeological past of Ukraine. Hrushevsky examines the emergence of the Rus′ civilization through the findings of archaelogy, anthropology, ethnography, and historical linguistics. He describes the beginnings of human life and society on Ukrainian territory, the earliest settlements of Slavs, relations with their neighbors, and the beginnings of political organization among Ukrainian tribes. His discusses the establishment of the Rus′ state centered in Kyiv and the reigns of its first princes. This earliest period culminated in the adoption of Christianity in Rus‘ toward the end of the tenth century, during the reign of the Kyivan prince Volodymyr. Hrushevsky depicts these events, providing a penetrating analysis of all the available historical sources. He pays special attention to the Primary Chronicle and the Normanist controversy surrounding the origins of the Rus’ state. Hrushevsky’s bibliography of over 1,700 items, included in the volume, testifies to the broad erudition of this extraordinary scholar. The scope and breadth of his work make it essential to the study of eastern European, Russian, Balkan, and Middle Eastern History.
The preparation of volume one was funded by a generous donation from Petro and Ivanna Stelmach of Mississauga, Ontario. The volume’s translator was Marta Skorupsky. Ms. Skorupsky took a challenging, complex text and rendered it in fluent English in a task that was as much a research project in archaeology, linguistics, anthropology, and the classics as a work of translation. The volume’s consulting editor, Andrzej Poppe, provided an introduction that places Hrushevsky’s work in the context of contemporary historical scholarship in the field, as well as editor’s additions (bibliographical updates) to Hrushevsky’s Notes and Excursuses. Professor Poppe edited the text with particular attention to the rendering of terms and the accuracy of the translation of source materials; he also identified all the sources and scholarly works mentioned in Hrushevsky’s scholarly apparatus. Frank E. Sysyn, editor in chief of the Hrushevsky Translation Project, supervised all aspects of the volume’s preparation and wrote the introduction to Hrushevsky’s full History that appears in this first volume. Paul Hollingsworth and Bohdan Strumiński read the translation, checking accuracy and helping to resolve problems with Church Slavonic, Old Rus′, Greek, and Latin texts, and to establish names of persons, places, peoples, and institutions. Uliana M. Pasicznyk edited the translation for accuracy and language usage and coordinated editorial revisions. Myroslav Yurkevich read the final text, edited the Bibliography, and translated Professor Poppe’s introduction and editor’s additions. Dushan Bednarsky provided editorial assistance, particularly in standardizing terms. Simon Franklin read the text and advised on the fluency of the translation and terminology. Bohdan Strumiński and Andrij Hornjatkevyč advised on linguistic terminology and transliteration. Barbara Voytek, Adrian Mandzy, and Volodymyr Mezentsev read the sections on anthropology and archaeology. Maria Subtelny read the text, provided translations of Arabic sources, and checked the accuracy of transliterations from Arabic, Turkic, and Persian. András Riedlmayer advised on Arabic, Turkic, Persian, and Hungarian names and terms. Ihor Ševčenko provided advice on Greek texts, Byzantine topics, and the source section of the Bibliography. Martin Dimnik read and commented on the translation of the volume’s last three chapters.
The bibliography of all works cited by Hrushevsky was compiled by Professor Poppe, with assistance from Andrzej Janeczek and Hieronim Grala. Serhii Plokhy assisted in editing the Notes and Bibliography. Dushan Bednarsky entered editorial corrections. Andrij Hornjatkevyč, Serhii Plokhy, and Marko R. Stech compiled the index. Inge Wilson expertly drew the maps, and Nancy Misener assisted in entering corrections.
Copies of these volumes are available from:
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