[Picture: Plowmen]
Medieval Dissent: Plowmen, Lollards, and Outlaws
A Bibliography
[Picture: Archers]

Compiled by Stephen R. Reimer

Picture credit: Both of these images are from the margins of the Luttrell Psalter (London, British Library, MS Addit. 42130); the plowmen appear on fol. 170r; the longbowmen shooting at butts on fol. 147v. For more information on, and reproductions of images from, this manuscript, see The Luttrell Psalter by Janet Backhouse.



email: Stephen.Reimer@UAlberta.Ca




Outline of the Bibliography:
Use CTRL-F to search for a keyword, or click on a topic in this list to jump to the corresponding section:

A. Reference Books
B. General Background: Language (Middle English)
C.i. General Background: Medieval History
C.ii. Law, Crime, Punishment, Outlawry
D.i. General Background: Ideological
D.ii. Medieval Political Theory
D.iii. Neighbours and Strangers: "Horizontal" Relationships / Communal Ideals
E.i. General Background: The Commons (the Third Estate)
E.ii. Cities and Towns: Urban Economies
E.iii. Vernacular Architecture / Domestic Space
E.iv. Love, Marriage, Sexuality
E.v. Family and Household: Domestic Economies
E.vi. Villages and Manors: Rural Economies
E.vii. Peasant and Labour History
E.viii. Forests and Forest Laws
E.ix. Village Customs; "Carnival" (Festive Misrule)
E.x. The "Green Man" and the "Wild Man of the Woods"
F.i. General Background: Women in the Middle Ages
F.ii. Women and Culture (Reading, Writing, Religion)
G.i. Medieval Religion / Religious Dissent
G.ii. Apocalypticism / Apocalyptic Movements
G.iii. Wyclif and the Lollards
H.i. Political Dissent (Medieval and Early Modern)
H.ii. The English Rising of 1381: Primary Sources
H.iii. The English Rising of 1381 ("Peasants' Revolt"): Secondary Sources
H.iv. Anti-Thatcher Protests of the 1980s and 90s
I.i. General Background: Literary
I.ii. Medieval Literary Theory
I.iii. The "Alliterative Revival" (or "Survival") of the Fourteenth Century
I.iv. Late Middle English Political Literature
I.v. The Three Estates and Estates Satire
I.vi. Anti-Mendicant Satire
I.vii. Outlaw Legends (other than Robin Hood)
I.viii. Visionary Literature and Dream Vision Poetry
J. Primary Texts
J.i. Geoffrey Chaucer
J.i.a. Chaucer, "The Cook's Tale" (with anonymous continuation)
J.i.b. Pseudo-Chaucer, "The Plowman's Tale"
J.ii. John Gower
J.iii. William Langland
J.iii.a. The Later "Piers" Tradition
J.iii.b. The Later "Piers" Tradition: "Pierce the Plowman's Creed"; "Richard the Redeless"; "Mum and the Sothsegger"
J.iv. "Winner and Waster"
J.v. Margery Kempe
J.vi. Thomas Hoccleve
J.vii. "The Land of Cockayne"
J.viii. Traditional Ballads: Editions
J.ix. Robin Hood Ballads and Plays: Editions
J.x. Traditional Ballad and Song: Secondary Literature
J.xi. Robin Hood: Secondary Literature

A. Reference Books

Briggs, Katharine Mary. A Dictionary of British Folk-Tales in the English Language, Incorporating the F. J. Norton Collection. 2 vols. in 4. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970-1971. [Part A, vols. 1 and 2: Folk Narratives; Part B, vols. 1 and 2: Folk Legends.]

Burnley, David, and Matsuji Tajima. The Language of Middle English Literature. Annotated Bibliographies of Old and Middle English Literature. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1994.

Colaianne, A. J. "Piers Plowman": An Annotated Bibliography of Editions and Criticism, 1550-1977. New York: Garland, 1978. [[William Langland]]

DiMarco, Vincent. Piers Plowman: A Reference Guide. A Reference Guide to Literature. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982. [[William Langland]]

Fisher, John H., R. Wayne Hamm, Peter G. Beidler, and Robert F. Yeager. "John Gower." Chap. 17 of A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050-1500. Ed. Jonathan Burke Severs, Albert E. Hartung, and Peter G. Beidler. 11 vols. to date. New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1967- [in progress]. 7: 2195-2210 (and bibliography: pp. 2399-2418).

Foley, John Miles. Oral-Formulaic Theory and Research: An Introduction and Annotated Bibliography. Garland Folklore Bibliographies 6. New York: Garland, 1986.

Fowler, David C. "Ballads." Chap. 15 of A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050-1500. Ed. Jonathan Burke Severs, Albert E. Hartung, and Peter G. Beidler. 11 vols. to date. New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1967- [in progress]. 6: 1753-1808 (and bibliography: pp. 2019-2070). ["As a companion to The Literary History of the Popular Ballad, this chapter provides a chronological examination of Child ballads that derive from the late medieval period. Fowler includes useful descriptions of the manuscripts, collections and printed editions in which these ballads appear, beginning with 'Judas' (which he suggests represents the earliest extant ballad) and ending with ballads collected in the nineteenth century. The article also includes a detailed bibliography" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Friedman, John B[lock], and Jessica M. Wegmann. Medieval Iconography: A Research Guide. Garland Medieval Bibliographies 20; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1870. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1998. [A bibliographical guide to symbolic objects and animals in medieval art and literature, originating in such questions as "what would a medieval audience understand by Pandarus bringing a pillow to Criseyde's bedside?"]

Gable, J. Harris. Bibliography of Robin Hood. University of Nebraska Studies in Language, Literature and Criticism 17. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1939.

Graves, Edgar B., ed. A Bibliography of English History to 1485. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.

Greentree, Rosemary. The Middle English Lyric and Short Poem. Annotated Bibliographies. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001. [Publisher's description: "The Middle English lyrics and short poems form a varied group that ranges over most aspects of life to include lyrics of religious and secular love, carols and songs, and mundane rhymes of everyday life. Thus there are expressions of devotion, ethereal or earthly, theological expositions, and knowledge needed for life. The poems are disparate and generally anonymous, and their survival owes much to chance. The bibliography assembles neutral annotation of collections and criticism of the works, arranged chronologically to show the course of criticism and the growing appreciation of these poems and all they can tell us. The introduction considers these matters, problems of definition of the genre, and the isolable lyrics, and seeks to reconcile some first impressions of the poems, as disparate and slight, with the rewards of close study."]

Hole, Christina. A Dictionary of British Folk Customs. London: Hutchinson, 1976.

Lindahl, Carl, John McNamara, John Lindow, eds. Medieval Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Myths, Legends, Tales, Beliefs, and Customs. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2000.

Matthew, Donald. Atlas of Medieval Europe. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1983.

Matthews, William. "Thomas Hoccleve." Chap. 8 of A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050-1500. Ed. Jonathan Burke Severs, Albert E. Hartung, and Peter G. Beidler. 11 vols. to date. New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1967- [in progress]. 3: 746-756 (and bibliography: pp. 903-908).

McCormick, Charlie T., and Kim Kennedy White, eds. Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Beliefs, Customs, Tales, Music, and Art. 2nd ed. 3 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2011. [Publisher's description: "Did you know that the tale of Cinderella is over 1,000 years old, and similar versions of this singular story exist in hundreds of cultures around the globe? Have you heard of 'deathlore,' a subgenre of folklore involving tombstones, coffins, cemeteries, and roadside memorial shrines? Did you realize that UFO sightings and cyber cultures constitute modern folklore? The broad field of folklore studies, developed over the past two centuries, provides significant insights into many aspects of human culture. While the term 'folklore' conjures images of ancient practices and beliefs or folk heroes and traditional stories, it also applies to today's ever-changing cultural landscape. Even certain aspects of modern Internet-based popular culture and contemporary rites of passage represent folklore. This encyclopedia covers all the major genres of both ancient and contemporary folklore. This second edition adds more than 100 entries that examine the folklore practices of major ethnic groups, folk heroes, creatures of myth and legend, and emerging areas of interest in folklore studies."]

McEvedy, Colin. The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1961.

McIntosh, Angus, et al. A Linguistic Atlas of Late Medieval English. 4 vols. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1986.

The Middle English Dictionary. Ed. Hans Kurath and Sherman M. Kuhn. 120 fasc. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1956-2001. [All but the final section is accessible online through the GATE > Databases > Middle English Compendium.]

Middleton, Anne. "Piers Plowman." Chap. 18 of A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050-1500. Ed. Jonathan Burke Severs, Albert E. Hartung, and Peter G. Beidler. 11 vols. to date. New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1967- [in progress]. 7: 2211-2234 (and bibliography: pp. 2419-2448). [[William Langland]]

Pearsall, Derek. An Annotated Critical Bibliography of Langland. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990. [Survey of all important editions and studies of Piers Plowman since 1900. [William Langland]]

Pitard, Derrick G. "Bibliography for Lollard Studies." Lollard Society website. URL: <http://lollardsociety.org/?page_id=6> (URL correct as of 1 Sept. 2011). [[John Wyclif (Wycliffe); Lollardy]]

Platt, Colin. The Atlas of Medieval Man. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979.

Richmond, W. Edson. Ballad Scholarship: An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 499; Garland Folklore Bibliographies 4. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1989.

Schaus, Margaret, ed. Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. The Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages 14. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Stratmann, Francis Henry. A Middle-English Dictionary. 2nd ed., revised by Henry Bradley. 1891; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Strayer, Joseph R., ed. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 13 vols. New York: Scribner's, 1982-1989.

Szarmach, Paul E., and M. Teresa Tavormina, Joel T. Rosenthal, eds. Medieval England: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1998.

Talbert, Ernest W., and S. Harrison Thomson. "Wyclif and his Followers." Chap. 3 of A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050-1500. Ed. Jonathan Burke Severs, Albert E. Hartung, and Peter G. Beidler. 11 vols. to date. New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1967- [in progress]. 2: 354-380 (and bibliography: pp. 517-533).

Utley, Francis Lee. The Crooked Rib: An Analytical Index to the Argument about Women in English and Scots Literature to the End of the Year 1568. Columbus: The Ohio State University, 1944.

Waltz, Robert B. ed. "The Traditional Ballad Index: An Annotated Bibliography of the Folk Songs of the English-Speaking World." URL: <http://www.csufresno.edu/folklore/BalladIndexTOC.html> (2007; URL correct as of 1 Sept. 2011). ["'The Traditional Ballad Index' is a collaborative effort designed to help people find reference information on ballads. It is not itself a source of song texts or of discussions of ballads, although it contains some summary information." "It is a searchable database and annotated bibliography of information on folk songs from the English-speaking world."]

Westwood, Jennifer. Albion: A Guide to Legendary Britain. London: Granada, 1985. [An attempt at a comprehensive collection of local legends, legendary stories attach to particular places in Britain, arranged by location. Includes the story of St. Edmund and Goldbrook Bridge in Hoxne, for instance; also Sir Gawain at Tarn Wadlin; the tale of Tam Lin; the tale of the Uffington White Horse, etc.]

Würzbach, Natascha, and Simone M. Salz. Motif Index of the Child Corpus: The English and Scottish Popular Ballad. Trans. Gayna Walls. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1995. ["A guide to the Child ballads, with summaries of them, though these are restricted to the versions that appear in Child. It is not, however, keyed to other motif indexes, and some of the motifs are defined in a very general way, which means that it works quite effectively as a subject index" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").
     "Distinguishing motifs from themes and other stock literary devices by virtue of the 'clearly recognizable deictic orientation of the motif,' Würzbach and Salz's index emphasizes the functional inter-relation between 'components of character, action, locality, object, and disposition' within the Child ballads. In their introduction, the compilers suggest that the index is concerned not with the interpretation of the ballads but rather with the 'potentiality' of the motif to 'signpost the paths through a multiform and varied landscape of texts.' To this end, the index includes cross-listings of subcategories (for example bridal quest as a subcategory of courtship) as well as summaries of each ballad accompanied by the relevant motifs" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Yeager, Robert F. John Gower Materials: A Bibliography through 1979. New York: Garland, 1981.

B. General Background: Language (Middle English)

Baugh, Albert C., and Thomas Cable. A History of the English Language. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1978.

Blake, Norman F. "From Chaucer to Shakespeare: The Non-Dramatic Tradition." In his Non-Standard Language in English Literature. The Language Library. London: André Deutsch, 1981. Pp. 39-62.

Blake, Norman F. The English Language in Medieval Literature. Everyman's University Library. London: J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1977.

Bowden, Betsy. Listeners' Guide to Medieval English: A Discography. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 912. New York: Garland, 1988.

Burnley, David. A Guide to Chaucer's Language. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1983.

Burnley, J. D. Chaucer's Language and the Philosopher's Tradition. Chaucer Studies 2. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1979.

Davidson, Mary Catherine. Medievalism, Multilingualism, and Chaucer. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. [Publisher's description: "In new readings of medieval language attitudes and identities, this book concludes that multilingualism informed masculinist discourses, which were aligned against the vernacular sentiment traditionally attributed to Langland and Chaucer."
     Contents: Medievalism and monolingualism -- Hengist's tongue: a medieval history of English -- Multilingual writing and William Langland -- Chaucer's "diversite."]

Elliott, Ralph W. V. Chaucer's English. The Language Library. London: André Deutsch Ltd., 1974.

Jones, Charles. An Introduction to Middle English. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972.

Kerkhof, J. Studies in the Language of Geoffrey Chaucer. 2nd ed. Leidse Germanistische en Anglistische Reeks van de Rijksuniversiteitte Leiden 5. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1982.

Knapp, Peggy A[nn]. Time-Bound Words: Semantic and Social Economics from Chaucer's England to Shakespeare's. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. [A selection of "keywords" of the period is studied for how these words reflect the history and debates of the time ("corage," "estat," "fre," "gloss," "kynde," "lewed," "providence," "queynte," "sely," "thrift," and "virtu").]

Kökeritz, Helge. A Guide to Chaucer's Pronunciation. Medieval Academy Reprints for Teaching 3. 1961; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1978.

McIntosh, Angus, M. L. Samuels, and Margaret Laing. Middle English Dialectology: Essays on Some Principles and Problems. Ed. Margaret Laing. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1989.

Mossé, Fernand. A Handbook of Middle English. Trans. James A. Walker. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1952.

Samuels, M. L., and J. J. Smith. The English of Chaucer and his Contemporaries. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1989.

Sandved, A. O. Introduction to Chaucerian English. Chaucer Studies 11. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1989.

Smith, J. J., ed. The English of Chaucer and his Contemporaries: Essays by M. L. Samuels and J. J. Smith. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1989.

Stephens, John, and Ruth Waterhouse. Literature, Language, and Change: From Chaucer to the Present. The Interface Series. London: Routledge, 1990.

Wright, Joseph, and Elizabeth Mary Wright. An Elementary Middle English Grammar. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1928.

C.i. General Background: Medieval History

Aers, David. "Rewriting the Middle Ages: Some Suggestions." Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 18 (1988): 221-240. [The model of the Middle Ages as a period in which the three estates lived harmoniously in mutual interdependence under Mother Church, everyone sharing the same beliefs, continues to thrive despite the work of many historians who have tried to demonstrate the diversity of the Middle Ages and the many types of conflict which existed in medieval society. One need only look at the records of Lollard trials (and the existence of heresy generally), or consider the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, to recognize that the people of the Middle Ages were not ideologically homogeneous: medieval Europe was not a world populated exclusively by "moral Gowers" (227). There is not, then, one "correct" medieval reading of any given medieval literary work: an Archbishop and a Peasant would not necessarily understand the Eucharist in the same way, nor would they be likely to understand the Corpus Christi plays in the same way. Social discontent and conflict are medieval realities, and the plurality of literary response would also have been a medieval reality.
     One aspect of late medieval literary culture which has been too often ignored is the centrality from the thirteenth century on of the marketplace and its values, and the conflict between the ideal of the three estates and the reality of market-based values is at the heart of works like Piers Plowman. "Value" is a central theme in the works of Langland, the stories of Chaucer the vintner's son (and his Wife of Bath, for whom "al is for to selle"), and the theological implications of market-based values is central to The Book of Margery Kempe: market-based valuation is not absolute but negotiable, and therefore unstable (and a threat to hierarchy). The changing economics, the position of women in the marketplace, etc., lead to a destabilization of traditional gender roles; many men react by attempting to re-impose patriarchal domination.]

Allmand, C[hristopher] T. Henry V. 2nd ed. English Monarchs. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Allmand, C[hristopher] T. The Hundred Years War: England and France at War, c.1300-c.1450. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Asch, Ronald G., and Adolf M. Birke, eds. Princes, Patronage, and the Nobility: The Court at the Beginning of the Modern Age, c.1450-1560. Studies of the German Historical Institute, London. Oxford: Oxford University Press, for the German Historical Institute, 1991.

Aston, T. H., ed. Landlords, Peasants and Politics in Medieval England. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Barron, Caroline M. London in the Late Middle Ages: Government and People, 1200-1500. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Barron, Caroline M. "The Reign of Richard II." In The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 6: c.1300-1415. Ed. Michael Jones. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Pp. 297-333.

Boffey, Julia, and Pamela King, eds. London and Europe in the Later Middle Ages. Westfield Publications in Medieval and Renaissance Studies 9. Turnhout: Brepols, 1996.

Bradbury, Jim. The Medieval Archer. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985.

Briggs, Charles F. The Body Broken: Medieval Europe, 1300-1520. Routledge History of the Middle Ages. London and New York: Routledge, 2011. [Contents: The demography of disaster -- Individuals, families and communities -- Trade, technology and exploration -- The theory and ideology of government -- The lineaments and limits of state power -- War, chivalry and crusading -- The Bride of Christ: the institutional church -- Devotion: Catholic and dissenting beliefs and practices -- Schools, schooling and intellectual developments -- Language, literacy and the arts -- Conclusion: a new Europe?]

Britannia.com. Timeline of British History [1066-1485]. 1999. URL: <http://www.britannia.com/history/time2.html> (URL correct as of 1 Sept. 2011).

Chadwick, D[orothy]. Social Life in the Days of "Piers Plowman." University of Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1922.

Cohn, Samuel K[line], Jr. The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe. London: Arnold; New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. [Includes material on the plague in the Middle Ages.]

Coss, Peter. The Knight in Medieval England. Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1993.

DeVries, Kelly. Medieval Military Technology. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 1992.

DuBoulay, F. R. H. The England of "Piers Plowman": William Langland and his Vision of the Fourteenth Century. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer, 1991.

Duggan, Anne J., ed. Nobles and Nobility in Medieval Europe: Concepts, Origins, Transformations. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2002. [Publisher's description: This is a collection of "articles on the origins and nature of 'nobility,' its relationship with the late Roman world, its acquisition and exercise of power, its association with military obligation, and its transformation into a more or less willing instrument of royal government. Embracing regions as diverse as England (before and after the Norman Conquest), Italy, the Iberian peninsula, France, Norway, Poland, Portugal, and the Romano-German empire, it ranges over the whole medieval period from the fifth to the early sixteenth century."]

Dyer, Christopher, Peter Coss, and Chris Wickham, eds. Rodney Hilton's Middle Ages: An Exploration of Historical Themes. Past and Present Supplements n.s. 2. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. [Proceedings of a conference held in Sept. 2003. Contents: Introduction: Rodney Hilton, medieval historian / Christopher Dyer -- Lordship and society. Lordship and community: northern Spain on the eve of the year 1000 / Wendy Davies; Hilton, lordship and the culture of the gentry / Peter Coss; Lordship and the peasant economy, c.1250-c.1400: Robert Kyng and the Abbot of Bury St. Edmunds / Phillipp R. Schofield; The ineffectiveness of lordship in England, 1200-1400 / Christopher Dyer -- Peasant society and peasant communities. Exploring difference within rural communities in the northern Iberian kingdoms, 1000-1300 / Isabel Alfonso; Peasant elites and village communities in the south of France, 1200-1350 / Monique Bourin; A divided class? Peasants and peasant communities in later medieval England / Miriam Miller -- Towns in feudal society. What if the sea were different? Urbanization in medieval Norway / Richard Holt; Church lords and English urban investment in the later Middle Ages / Richard Goddard; English and French towns in the sixteenth century / Penny Roberts -- Popular rebellions. Serfdom and freedom in medieval England: a reply to the revisionists / Zvi Razi; Popular insurrection and the Black Death: a comparative view / Samuel K. Cohn, Jr.; Religious dissent, social revolt and 'ideology' / Steven Justice; Changing patterns of urban conflict in late medieval Castile / Pablo Sánchez León; Peasant politics and class consciousness: the Norfolk rebellions of 1381 and 1549 compared / Jane Whittle -- The transition from feudalism to capitalism. Rodney Hilton, Marxism and the transition from feudalism to capitalism / S. R. Epstein; English towns and the transition c.1450-1550 / Spencer Dimmock; The transition in the Low Countries: wage labour as an indicator of the rise of capitalism in the countryside, 1300-1700 / Bas (B. J. P.) van Bavel -- Conclusions / Chris Wickham -- Appendix. Bibliography of works by Rodney Hilton / Jean Birrell.]

Gies, Frances. The Knight in History. New York: Harper and Row, 1984.

Gillmor, Carroll. "Practical Chivalry: The Training of Horses for Tournaments and Warfare." Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History ns 13 (1992): 5-29.

Given-Wilson, Chris. The Royal Household and the King's Affinity: Service, Politics, and Finance in England, 1360-1413. New Haven, and London: Yale University Press, 1986.

Goodman, Anthony. John of Gaunt: The Exercise of Princely Power in Fourteenth-Century Europe. London: Longman, 1992.

Gottfried, Robert S. Doctors and Medicine in Medieval England, 1340-1530. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Griffiths, Ralph A[lan], ed. Patronage: The Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England. Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1981.

Harrison, Dick. Social Militarisation and the Power of History: A Study of Scholarly Perspectives. Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 1999. [A consideration of four "perspectives" on history in four different parts of the world, including (Chap. 4) a view of the "Dark Ages" of Europe as a transition from a world of "peace" and "bureacratic" governance of the Roman world to a more Germanic world of war and warlords (cf. esp. 154 and 170), the world of Hrothgar and of Mynyddog in the Y Gododdin (154) succeeds the world of the Roman senator. This process includes the gradual "militarisation" of Christian doctrine, where the Church focuses upon God as a God of Judaic victories rather than God as a peace-loving Christ; St. Augustine is a significant moment in the process, for he provides a Christian rationale of the "just war" (175, 196), which leads by the eleventh century to the idea of "crusade" (197). Harrison points out that such scholarly perspectives are and are not true: while focusing upon one documentable feature to construct a particular history, other perspectives and other possible histories are ignored. "[T]he image is extremely one-sided. It only shows us Western Europe from the point of view of social militarisation. It does not show agrarian development, the growth of Christian culture (monasteries, convents, saints' vitae, etc.), changes in political behaviour, the shifting balance between towns and countryside, the evolution of new forms of social dependence (what some might refer to as feudalisation), the emergence of new territorial units (all the way from parishes to empires), etc., etc. What we see above is an image of European history from c. 400 to c. 1100 strictly observed through a filter of social militarisation" (197). The conclusion is that history is a construction, "manufactured to suit our present needs" (199), but such constructions are also, then, open to our criticism, historical judgement, and correction (197, 199).]

Hatcher, John. "England in the Aftermath of the Black Death." Past and Present no. 144 (Aug. 1994): 3-35.

Herlihy, David. The Black Death and the Transformation of the West. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Herlihy, David, ed. Medieval Culture and Society. 1968; Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2007. [An anthology of texts, documentary and literary, to illustrate the nature of European society in the early, central, and late Middle Ages.]

Hicks, Michael. "Idealism in Late Medieval English Politics." In his Richard III: Magnates and their Motives in the War of the Roses. London and Rio Grande, OH: Hambledon Press, 1991. Pp. 41-59. [Hicks argues that there are ideals, not just self-interest, which motivate aristocrats during the period of the War of the Roses. The wars of religion in the Reformation are sometimes cited as a change in English politics, for people were now fighting for principles for which they were willing to sacrifice their self-interest. By contrast, with respect to the late medieval period, recent historians have tended to see self-interest as the sole motive for political action, dismissing literary evidence of idealism as merely literary. In the absence of explicit statements about motive, historians construct motivations, focusing on questions especially of land-tenure and securing inheritance; or discovering in Chaucer's knight mercenary motives; or finding in the General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales that the professional religious are motivated by nothing but greed. [My addition: Chaucer's works have much to do with the theme of self-interest, of singular profit, which, Chaucer indicates repeatedly, ought to be sacrificed to "common profit": Chaucer's pilgrims generally are motivated by greed and self-interest, but they are judged against an ideal of altruism, of sacrificing singular profit to the common good, to social responsibility.] Hicks looks at some letters and documents regarding such things as challenges to duels in the period from Henry VI to Richard III to demonstrate that, even in this time of a general collapse of hierarchical social structures which commanded loyalty, there is evidence that (at least sometimes) people acted from motives other than purely self-interest; in particular, questions of honour and shame seem to have been strong motivators, causing men sometimes to risk their titles and land for the sake of honour. Unlike later dueling, which often stemmed from "silly or frivolous" quarrels, "[i]n the late middle ages the concept of honour was more than an unthinking propensity to violence. It provided both an additional motive for political action and a series of conventions channelling its expression" (54). Thus the literary evidence of idealism should not be so easily dismissed by historians of the period, and one should not be too quick to assume, in the absense of stated motive, that people were guided solely by self-interest or issues of land-tenure and inheritance.]

Hicks, Michael. Richard II: The Man Behind the Myth. London: Collins and Brown, 1991.

Hilton, R[odney] H[oward]. Class Conflict and the Crisis of Feudalism: Essays in Medieval Social History. 2nd ed. London and New York: Verso, 1990. [Includes reprints of his essays "Medieval Peasants: Any Lessons?"; "Peasant Movements in England before 1381"; "Popular Movements in England at the End of the Fourteenth Century"; "Social Concepts in the English Rising of 1381"; "Reasons for Inequality among English Peasants."]

Hilton, R[odney] H[oward], ed. Peasants, Knights, and Heretics: Studies in Medieval English Social History. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge [etc.]: Cambridge University Press, 1976. [Includes (pp. 221-272) a series of five essays on Robin Hood, reprinted from Past and Present nos. 14-20, in which the authors consider the "origins" and "audience" of the story: R. H. Hilton, "The Origins of Robin Hood"; J. C. Holt, "The Origins and Audience of the Ballads of Robin Hood"; Maurice Keen, "Robin Hood--Peasant or Gentleman?" (which here concludes with a note that he has been persuaded by Holt's arguments, and no longer holds the position expressed in his article); J. C. Holt, "Robin Hood: Some Comments"; T. H. Aston, "Robin Hood." Also includes Margaret Aston, "Lollardy and Sedition, 1381-1431."]

Holmes, George. The Estates of the Higher Nobility in Fourteenth-Century England. Cambridge Studies in Economic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1957.

Horrox, Rosemary, and W. Mark Ormrod, eds. A Social History of England, 1200-1500. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. [Contents: Introduction; social structure and economic change in late medieval England / S. H. Rigby; An age of deference / Peter Coss; The enterprise of war / Michael Prestwich; Order and law / Simon Walker; Social mobility / Philippa C. Maddern; Town life / Richard Britnell; The land / Bruce M. S. Campbell; A consumer economy / Maryanne Kowaleski; Moving around / Wendy R. Childs; Work and leisure / Mavis E. Mate; Religious belief / Eamon Duffy; A magic universe / Valerie I. J. Flint; Renunciation / Janet Burton; Ritual constructions of society / Charles Phythian-Adams; Identities / Miri Rubin; Life and death: the ages of man / P. J. P. Goldberg; The; wider world / Robin Frame; Writing and reading / Paul Strohm; Conclusion / Rosemary Horrox.]

Huizinga, Johan. The Autumn of the Middle Ages. Trans. Rodney J. Payton and Ulrich Mammitzsch. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Hunt, Alan. Governance of the Consuming Passions: A History of Sumptuary Law. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.

Jacob, E. F. The Fifteenth Century, 1399-1485. Oxford History of England 6. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961. [Includes a section on Oldcastle's Rebellion, pp. 129-133.]

Jamroziak, Emilia, and Janet Burton, eds. Religious and Laity in Western Europe, 1000-1400: Interaction, Negotiation, and Power. Europa sacra 2. Turnhout: Brepols, 2006. [Contents: Introduction / Emilia Jamroziak and Janet Burton -- The Changing Expectations of a Royal Benefactor: The Religious Patronage of Henry II / Marjorie Chibnall -- Fundator Noster: Roger de Mowbray as Founder and Patron of Monasteries / Janet Burton -- Fashion and Benefaction in Twelfth-Century Western France / Belle Stoddard Tuten -- How Rievaulx Abbey Remembered its Benefactors / Emilia Jamroziak -- Monastic Benefactors in England and Denmark: Their Social Background and Gender Distribution / Linda Rasmussen -- Religious Patronage and Family Consciousness: Soro Abbey and the 'Hvide Family', c. 1150-1250 / Kim Esmark -- Royal Patrons and Local Benefactors: The Experience of the Hospitals of St Mary at Ospringe and Dover in the Thirteenth Century / Sheila Sweetinburgh -- Bequests and Burials: Changing Attitudes of the Laity as Patrons of English and Welsh Monasteries / Karen Stober -- The Imperial Dynasty of Luxemburg, the Emperors, and the Mendicant Orders in the Fourteenth Century / Hans-Joachim Schmidt -- Garsinde v. Sainte Foy: Argument, Threat, and Vengeance in Eleventh-Century Monastic Litigation / Stephen D. White -- Sancto Dunstano Cooperante: Collaboration between King and Ecclesiastical Advisor in Aelred of Rievaulx's Genealogy of the Kings of the English / Marsha L. Dutton -- Cares Beyond the Walls: Cistercian Nuns and the Care of Lepers in Twelfth- and Thirteenth-Century Northern France / Anne E. Lester -- The Representation of Monastic-lay Relations in the Canonization Records for Louis IX / William Chester Jordan -- A Clash of Wills: Religious Patronage and the Vita Apostolica in Thirteenth-Century Flanders / Erin Jordan -- Distinguishing between the Humble Peasant Lay Brother and Sister, and the Converted Knight in Medieval Southern France / Constance H. Berman -- Looking for Common Ground: From Monastic Fraternitas to Lay Confraternity in the Southern Low Countries in the Tenth- to Twelfth- Centuries / Arnoud-Jan A. Bijsterveld -- Monastic Confraternity in Medieval England: The Evidence from the St Albans Abbey Liber Benefactorum / James G. Clark -- The Mendicant Orders in Urban Life and Society: The Case of London / Jens Rohrkasten -- Old Stories and New Themes: An Overview of the Historiography of Confraternities in the Low Countries from the Thirteenth to the Sixteenth Centuries / Bram van den Hoven van Genderen and Paul Trio.]

Kaminsky, Howard. "The Great Schism." In The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 6: c.1300-1415. Ed. Michael Jones. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Pp. 674-696. [[Pope; Popes; Anti-pope]]

Keen, M[aurice] H[ugh]. England in the Later Middle Ages: A Political History. London: Methuen, 1973.

Keen, M[aurice] H[ugh]. English Society in the Later Middle Ages, 1348-1500. The Penguin Social History of Britain. London: Allen Lane / Penguin Books, 1990.

Koldeweij, Jos. "The Wearing of Significative Badges, Religious and Secular: The Social Meaning of a Behavioural Pattern." Trans. Ruth Koenig. In Showing Status: Representation of Social Positions in the Middle Ages. Ed. Wim [Willem Pieter] Blockmans, and Antheun Janse. Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe 2. Turnhout: Brepols, 1999. Pp. 307-328. [Besides using jewellery as ornamentation to display one's prosperity, medieval people in many walks of life also wore "badges," religious or secular, to display one's membership in various forms of elite groups (including membership in the household of a royal or noble family, or membership among those who had visited a particular pilgrimage site). Koldeweij's article is intended to illustrate that there are also a great many surviving badges with literary and erotic motifs, which may have been sold at the end of public performances.
     [Chaucer's pilgrims include various "badge" wearers, most prominently the Pardoner with his Vernicle; but there are others, too, and the Prioress's "Amor vincit omnia" brooch might be a badge of a sort (Koldeweij describes and illustrates a whole range of badges in the shapes of alphabetic letters, some of which represent "Amours," and some of which may have been purchased at the ends of public dramatic performances or readings of romances [311-316]).]]

Krochalis, Jeanne, and Edward Peters, eds. The World of "Piers Plowman." The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1975.

Lavezzo, Kathy, ed. Imagining a Medieval English Nation. Medieval Cultures 37. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. [Contents: Pro patria mori / L. O. Aranye Fradenburg -- Latin England / Andrew Galloway -- "As Englishe is commoun langage to oure puple": The Lollards and their imagined "English" community / Jill C. Havens -- Chaucer imagines England (in English) / Peggy A. Knapp -- Hymeneal alogic: debating political community in The Parliament of fowls / Kathleen Davis -- King, commons, and kind wit: Langland's national vision and the rising of 1381 / Larry Scanlon -- Piers Plowman and the national noetic of Edward III / D. Vance Smith -- Translating "communitas" / Lynn Staley -- The captivity of Henry Chrystede: Froissart's Chroniques, Ireland, and fourteenth-century nationalism / Claire Sponsler -- Afterword: The Brutus prologue to Sir Gawain and the Green Knight / Thorlac Turville-Petre.]

Little, Lester K., and Barbara H. Rosenwein, eds. Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 1998. ["This book brings together some of the most original and influential recent work in the field of medieval history. It provides a stimulating overview of current medieval historiography, demonstrating that history is not a collection of static facts, but rather a dynamic process of interpretation.
     "The book is structured thematically under four key areas of scholarly discussion. Chapter 1, 'The Fate of Rome's Western Provinces' explores current thinking about the age that used to be called the 'decline of Rome.' Chapter 2, 'Feudalism and Its Alternatives,' examines the debate on the very term 'feudalism,' which some historians would like to jettison altogether. The discussion in Chapter 3, 'Gender,' turns to the rich array of studies about women (and men as defined as a gender category) that have been written in the last 20 years. In the final chapter, 'Religion and Society,' the book highlights new ways in which medieval historians are connecting religious phenomena as diverse as formal doctrine, belief in miracles, and liturgical proliferations to transformations and preoccupations within secular society.
     "Each section comprises an introduction by the editors, discussing the significance of the topic and the history of its interpretation. There follows, for each, five to six readings from books or articles that reflect some of the most important current scholarship in the field. Several pieces are here translated into English for the first time." [Many of the items are extracts from longer articles or books.]
     Contents: Pt. I, The Fate of Rome's Western Provinces: Walter Pohl, "Conceptions of Ethnicity in Early Medieval Studies," 15-24; Walter Goffart, "The Barbarians in Late Antiquity and How They were Accommodated in the West," 25-44; Chris Wickham, "The Fall of Rome Will Not Take Place," 45-57; Richard Hodges and David Whitehouse, "The Decline of the Western Empire," 58-72; Ian N. Wood, "Gregory of Tours and Clovis," 73-91; Alexander Murray, "Missionaries and Magic in Dark-Age Europe," 92-104. Pt. II, Feudalism and its Alternatives: Pierre Bonnassie, "The Banal Seigneury and the 'Reconditioning' of the Free Peasantry," 114-133; Dominique Barthélemy, "The Year 1000 Without Abrupt or Radical Transformation," 134-147; Elizabeth A. R. Brown, "The Tyranny of a Construct: Feudalism and Historians of Medieval Europe," 148-169; Fredric L. Cheyette, "Giving Each His Due," 170-179 [on law and justice, including a few remarks on shame and honour]; Monique Bourin and Robert Durand, "Strangers and Neighbors," 180-190 [village life]; Gerd Althoff, "Amicitiae [Friendships] as Relationships Between States and People," 191-210. Pt. III, Gender: Janet Nelson, "Queens as Jezebels: The Careers of Brunhild and Balthild in Merovingian History," 219-253; Pauline Stafford, "Women and the Norman Conquest," 254-263; Christiane Klapisch-Zuber, "The 'Cruel Mother': Maternity, Widowhood, and Dowry in Florence in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries," 264-276; Caroline Walker Bynum, "Men's Use of Female Symbols," 277-289; Susan Mosher Stuard, "Burdens of Matrimony: Husbanding and Gender in Medieval Italy," 290-298. Pt. IV, Religion and Society: Marie-Dominique Chenu, "The Evangelical Awakening," 310-329 [Fourth Lateran Council, mendicant orders, apostolic poverty, and thirteenth-century attempts to define "gospel" Christianity]; Sofia Boesch Gajano, "The Use and Abuse of Miracles in Early Medieval Culture," 330-339; Dominique Iogna-Prat, "The Dead in the Celestial Bookkeeping of the Cluniac Monks around the Year 1000," 340-362; R. I. Moore, "Literacy and the Making of Heresy, c.1000-c.1150," 363-375; Jean-Claude Schmitt, "Religion, Folklore, and Society in the Medieval West," 376-387.]

Mathew, Gervase. The Court of Richard II. London: John Murray, 1968.

McFarlane, K[enneth] B[ruce]. England in the Fifteenth Century: Collected Essays. Ronceverte, WV: Hambledon Press, 1982.

McFarlane, K[enneth] B[ruce]. The Nobility of Later Medieval England: The Ford Lectures for 1953 and Related Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973.

McKisak, May. The Fourteenth Century, 1307-1399. Oxford History of England 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959.

McNamer, Sarah. Affective Meditation and the Invention of Medieval Compassion. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. [Contents: Introduction: Intimate Scripts in the History of Emotion. Part I, The Origins of an Affective Mode: Compassion and the Making of a True Sponsa Christi; The Genealogy of a Genre; Franciscan Meditation Reconsidered. Part II, Performing Compassion in Late Medieval England: Feeling Like a Woman; Marian Lament and the Rise of a Vernacular Ethics; Kyndenesse and Resistance in the Middle English Passion Lyric.]

Mitchell, Sydney Knox. Taxation in Medieval England. Ed. Sydney Painter. Yale Historical Publications: Studies 15. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1951.

Mott, Roger. "Richard II and the Crisis of 1397." In Church and Chronicle in the Middle Ages: Essays Presented to John Taylor. Ed. Ian Wood and G. A. Loud. London and Rio Grande, OH: Hambledon Press, 1991. Pp. 165-177.

Myers, A. R. England in the Late Middle Ages. 8th ed. Pelican History of England 4. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1971.

Ormrod, W. Mark. "England: Edward II and Edward III." In The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 6: c.1300-1415. Ed. Michael Jones. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Pp. 273-296.

Ormrod, W. Mark. The Reign of Edward III: Crown and Political Society in England, 1327-1377. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.

Pfaffenbichler, Matthias. Armourers. Medieval Craftsmen. London: The British Museum, 1992.

Phillpotts, B[ertha] S[urtees]. Kindred and Clan in the Middle Ages and After: A Study in the Sociology of the Teutonic Races. Cambridge Archaeological and Ethnological Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1913.

Pollard, A. J. Late Medieval England, 1399-1509. Longman History of Medieval England. Harlow, Essex, and New York: Longman, 2000.

Powell, Edward. "Lancastrian England." In The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 7: c.1415-c.1500. Ed. Christopher Allmand. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Pp. 437-476.

Power, Eileen. Medieval People. 10th ed. London: Methuen, 1963.

Richmond, Colin. The Paston Family in the Fifteenth Century: The First Phase. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Rigby, S. H. English Society in the Later Middle Ages: Class, Status and Gender. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. [A good, well-researched and well-balanced consideration of the crucial questions; Chap. 7 on women's roles is excellent in detailing precisely what women could and could not do at the various levels of the social hierarchy (generally, there were few things which men of a certain class could do which women could not, except that women of every class were not permitted to act independently in matters of politics). Does not, like too many others, make the error of trying to consider issues of gender independently of issues of social class and status.]

Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986.

Rodes, R. E. Ecclesiastical Administration in Medieval England. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1977.

Ross, Charles, ed. Patronage, Pedigree, and Power in Later Medieval England. Ed. Charles Ross. Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1979.

Runciman, Steven (Sir). A History of the Crusades. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951-1954.

Seward, Desmond. The Hundred Years War: The English in France, 1337-1453. New York: Atheneum, 1978.

Simonsohn, Shlomo. The Apostolic See and the Jews. 8 vols. Studies and Texts 94, 95, 99, 104-106, 109, 110. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1988-1991. [[papacy; popes; pope; antisemitism]]

Southern, Richard W. (Sir). The Making of the Middle Ages. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.

Southern, Richard W. (Sir). Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages. The Pelican History of the Church 2. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1970.

Strohm, Paul. England's Empty Throne: Usurpation and the Language of Legitimation, 1399-1422. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Sumption, Jonathan. The Hundred Years War. 2 vols. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Taylor, John. English Historical Literature in the Fourteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. ["A patient and valuable exposition of the chronicles and their sources, with a good bibliography. See also chapter 12, 'Political Poems and Ballads,' and Appendix V, 'Chronicle Accounts of the Peasants' Revolt'" (annotation in Literature of Richard II's Reign and the Peasants' Revolt, ed. James M. Dean [1996]).]

Taylor, John, and Wendy Childs, eds. Politics and Crisis in Fourteenth-Century England. Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1990.

Thomson, John A. F. The Transformation of Medieval England, 1370-1529. London: Longman, 1983. ["A helpful introduction to England in the later Middle Ages. The aids for students include a 'Framework of Events' before major sections, a 'Compendium of Information,' maps, and a bibliography" (annotation in Literature of Richard II's Reign and the Peasants' Revolt, ed. James M. Dean [1996]).]

Thornton, Tim, ed. Social Attitudes and Political Structures in the Fifteenth Century. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 2000.

Trevelyan, G[eorge] M[acaulay]. England in the Age of Wycliffe. 3rd ed. London: Longmans, Green, 1909. [Chaps. 4 and 5 are on medieval religion, with the last section of Chap. 5 entitled "Wycliffe and his New Religion" (pp. 169-182). Chap. 6 is "The Peasants' Revolt of 1381" (pp. 183-255), including a consideration of the causes and background, a narrative of the events, and a summary of the lasting results. Chap. 8: "The Early History of the Lollards, 1382-1399" (pp. 291-332). Chap. 9: "The Later History of the Lollards, 1400-1520" (pp. 333-352); Sir John Oldcastle's rebellion is described and discussed (pp. 335-339). [Wyclif]]

Van Uytven, Raymond. "Showing Off One's Rank in the Middle Ages." In Showing Status: Representation of Social Positions in the Middle Ages. Ed. Wim [Willem Pieter] Blockmans, and Antheun Janse. Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe 2. Turnhout: Brepols, 1999. Pp. 19-34. [On the "semiotic systems" of using clothing and food to display social status in medieval cultures.]

Walker, Simon. The Lancastrian Affinity, 1361-1399. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. [On John of Gaunt, his household and retainers.]

Waugh, Scott L. England in the Reign of Edward III. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Williman, Daniel, ed. The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-Century Plague. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 13. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1982.

Winstead, Karen A. John Capgrave's Fifteenth Century. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006. [Publisher's description: "Britain of the fifteenth century was rife with social change, religious dissent, and political upheaval. Amid this ferment lived John Capgrave--Austin friar, doctor of theology, leading figure in East Anglian society, and noted author. Nowhere are the tensions and anxieties of this critical period, spanning the close of the medieval and the dawn of early modern eras, more eloquently conveyed than in Capgrave's works.
     "John Capgrave's Fifteenth Century is the first book to explore the major themes of Capgrave's writings and to relate those themes to fifteenth-century political and cultural debates. Focusing on Capgrave's later works, especially those in English and addressed to lay audiences, it teases out thematic threads that are closely interwoven in Capgrave's Middle English oeuvre: piety, intellectualism, gender, and social responsibility. It refutes the still-prevalent view of Capgrave as a religious and political reactionary and shows, rather, that he used traditional genres to promote his own independent viewpoint on some of the most pressing controversies of his day, including debates over vernacular theology, orthodoxy and dissent, lay (and particularly female) spirituality, and the state of the kingdom under Henry VI.
     "The book situates Capgrave as a figure both in the vibrant literary culture of East Anglia and in European intellectual history. John Capgrave's Fifteenth Century offers a fresh view of orthodoxy and dissent in late medieval England and will interest students of hagiography, religious and cultural history, and Lancastrian politics and society."]

Wylie, James Hamilton. History of England under Henry the Fourth. 4 vols. London: Longmans, Green, 1884-1898. [Includes a brief "life" of Sir John Oldcastle (3: 291-299).]

Wylie, James Hamilton. The Reign of Henry the Fifth. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1914-1929. [Vols. 2 and 3 were published posthumously; for Vol. 3, Wylie's notes were edited and prepared for publication by W. T. Waugh. Includes substantial sections on Sir John Oldcastle and his Rebellion in 1414: Chap. 16, "Oldcastle's Trial" (1: 236-257); Chap. 17, "The Lollard Rising" (1: 258-292); Chap. 54, "The Fate of Oldcastle" (3: 85-96).]

Ziegler, Philip. The Black Death. New York: Harper and Row, 1969.

Zutshi, P. N. R. "The Avignon Papacy." In The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 6: c.1300-1415. Ed. Michael Jones. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Pp. 653-673. [[Pope; Popes; "Babylonian Captivity"]]

C.ii. Law, Crime, Punishment, Outlawry

Appleby, John C., and Paul Dalton, eds. Outlaws in Medieval and Early Modern England: Crime, Government and Society, c.1066-c.1600. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009. [Publisher's description: "With some notable exceptions, the subject of outlawry in medieval and early-modern English history has attracted relatively little scholarly attention. This volume helps to address this significant gap in scholarship, and encourage further study of the subject, by presenting a series of new studies, based on original research, that address significant features of outlawry and criminality over an extensive period of time. The volume casts important light on, and raises provocative questions about, the definition, ambiguity, variety, causes, function, adaptability, impact and representation of outlawry during this period. It also helps to illuminate social and governmental attitudes and responses to outlawry and criminality, which involved the interests of both church and state. From different perspectives, the contributions to the volume address the complex relationships between outlaws, the societies in which they lived, the law and secular and ecclesiastical authorities, and, in doing so, reveal much about the strengths and limitations of the developing state in England. In terms of its breadth and the compelling interest of its subject matter, the volume will appeal to a wide audience of social, legal, political and cultural historians."
     Contents: Introduction / John C. Appleby and Paul Dalton -- The outlaw Hereward "the Wake": his companions and enemies / Paul Dalton -- Outlawry as an instrument of justice in the thirteenth century / Susan Stewart -- Justice and injustice?: England's local officials in the later Middle Ages / Richard Gorski -- Sacred outlaws: outlawry and the medieval church -- Candace Gregory-Abbott -- 'Sons of iniquity': the problem of unlawfulness and criminality amongst professional soldiers in the Middle Ages / Neil Jamieson -- Political ideology in the early stories of Robin Hood -- A. J. Pollard -- Poachers and gamekeepers: four fifteenth-century West Country criminals / Hannes Kleineke -- Pirates and communities: scenes from Elizabethan England and Wales / John C. Appleby.]

Bartlett, Robert. Trial by Fire and Water: The Medieval Judicial Ordeal. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

Bellamy, John [G.]. Crime and Public Order in England in the Later Middle Ages. Studies in Social History. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973. [Contents: "Crime and Medieval Society" (1-36); "Misdeeds and Misdoers" (37-68); "The Criminal Bands" (69-88); "Enforcing the Law" (89-120); "Accusation and Trial" (121-161); "Prison, Punishment, and Pardon" (162-198); "Problems and Promise" (199-204). [Including outlaws (outlawry).]]

Green, Thomas A. "Societal Concepts of Criminal Liability for Homicide in Medieval England." Speculum 47 (1972): 669-694. [Includes some consideration of monetary compensation and vendetta as non-judicial responses to acts of homicide.]

Gurr, T. R. "Historical Trends in Violent Crime: A Critical Review of the Evidence." Crime and Justice 3 (1981): 295-353. [Includes some account of homicide in medieval England. As summarized by Lawrence Stone ("Interpersonal Violence," p. 25): "It looks as if the homicide rates in thirteenth-century England were about twice as high as those in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and that those of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were some five to ten times higher than those today. Gurr concludes that 'these early estimates of homicide rates . . . sketch a portrait of a society in which men [but rarely women] were easily provoked to violent anger, and were unrestrained in the brutality with which they attacked their opponents. Interpersonal violence was a recurring fact of rural and urban life' [p. 307]."]

Hammer, Carl I., Jr. "Patterns of Homicide in a Medieval University Town: Fourteenth-Century Oxford." Past and Present no. 78 (Feb. 1978): 3-23.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. Crime and Conflict in English Communities, 1300-1348. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Violent Death in Fourteenth- and Early Fifteenth-Century England." Comparative Studies in Society and History 18 (1976): 297-320.

Hudson, John. "Violence, Theft, and the Making of the English Common Law." In Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages: Papers Presented at the Tenth Annual Medieval Workshop, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 8 February 1997. Ed. Timothy S. Haskett. Victoria, BC: Humanities Centre, University of Victoria, 1998. Pp. 19-35. [Offers interesting observations on crime and punishment in the Middle Ages, on the use of ordeals, etc.; Hudson makes the point that incarceration was not common (seeking some form of resolution and restitution was the norm); indeed, for many types of crime the punishment was mutilation or execution, and in early periods it was sometimes the case that the public mutilation was carried out by the victim as a form of obtaining satisfaction (31).]

Karras, Ruth Mazo, Joel Kaye, and E. Ann Matter, eds. Law and the Illicit in Medieval Europe. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. [Contents: The reordering of law and the illicit in eleventh and twelfth-century Europe / Edward M. Peters -- A fresh look at medieval sanctuary / William Chester Jordan -- Heresy as politics and the politics of heresy, 1022-1180 / R. I. Moore -- Legal ethics: a medieval ghost story / James A. Brundage -- The ties that bind: legal status and imperial power / James Muldoon -- Licit and illicit in the Yarnall collection at the University of Pennsylvania: pages from the decretals of Pope Gregory IX / Robert Somerville -- Judicial violence and torture in the Carolingian empire / Patrick Geary -- The ambiguity of treason in Anglo-Norman-French law, c.1150-c.1250 / Stephen D. White -- Illicit religion: the case of Friar Matthew Grabow, OP. / John Van Engen -- Marriage, concubinage, and the law / Ruth Mazo Karras -- Crusaders' rights revisited: the use and abuse of crusader privileges in early thirteenth-century France / Jessalynn Bird -- Learned opinion and royal justice: the role of Paris masters of theology during the reign of Philip the Fair / William J. Courtenay -- Coin and punishment in medieval Venice / Alan M. Stahl -- Licit and illicit in the rhetoric of the investiture conflict / Alex Novikoff -- Satisfying the laws: the legenda of Maria of Venice / Susan Mosher Stuard -- Canon law and Chaucer on licit and illicit magic / Henry Ansgar Kelly -- Law and science: constructing a border between licit and illicit knowledge in the writings of Nicole Oresme / Joel Kaye.]

Kelly, A. Keith. "The Outlaw Versus the Lawyer: The Role of the Medieval Outlaw Hero as Champion of Justice in the Face of Rising Legal Literacy." Ph.D. diss., Saint Louis University, 2006. [DAI 68 (2007-2008): 565A. Abstract: "This work addresses the role of the English outlaw hero as a champion of justice against the backdrop of a medieval legal system that was often viewed as corrupt. The word 'outlaw' suggests that such a person is at odds with concepts of justice, and therefore should be an opponent of society, yet in the literary traditions of medieval England we find that the contrary is often the case, and outlaw figures find themselves among England's most celebrated heroes. This notion, that the outlaw can be someone who serves as a proponent of justice, and why it occurs with such regularity in the literary tradition of medieval England, is at the heart of this study. I discuss in particular the way in which the outlaw hero serves as a champion of traditional justice in a medieval England that is rapidly changing and becoming more bureaucratic in its definition and its administration of law. It is my assertion that with the written codification of law--and the subsequent creation of the legal bureaucrat, or lawyer--a system that allowed for the corruption of justice under the guise of legalism was created. Members of England's population, particularly those of the peasant, yeoman and provincial gentry stations often found themselves the victims of real or perceived injustices that ignored the spirit of the law while perhaps holding to its letter. This work conducts a careful study of the outlaw hero, and demonstrates how the outlaw participates in the legal and cultural situation of medieval England. Alongside the literary research is an investigation of the patterns of legal culture in medieval England, paying close attention to the rise of literacy and the creation of a legal bureaucracy. It should become apparent that the outlaw is widely celebrated as a hero and a proponent of true justice, and is in fact a marker for a sense of cultural identity in medieval England, while the lawyer, as a corruptor of justice through the manipulation of the letter of the law rather than its spirit, has been villainized."]

Kermode, Jenny, and Garthine Walker, eds. Women, Crime, and the Courts in Early Modern England. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1994. [A "collection of seven original essays" which "explores the relationship between the law and women's lives, and demonstrates that women were far from passive victims in a male-dominated legal system."]

Kerr, Margaret H. "R. v. Hawisa, R. v. Alan the Miller, and William Son of John v. Walter Son of Ralf Hose: Three Murder Trials in England c. 1200." In Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages: Papers Presented at the Tenth Annual Medieval Workshop, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 8 February 1997. Ed. Timothy S. Haskett. Victoria, BC: Humanities Centre, University of Victoria, 1998. Pp. 87-111. [She begins with a proviso: technically, these are homicide trials, not murder trials, since there was no law of "murder" (in the sense as distinguishing a premeditated act from an accidental one) in thirteenth-century England. Most of the essay is a description of various types of ordeal and the rituals and regulations surrounding them, leading to a somewhat paradoxical conclusion that there was a very real kind of justice available in the medieval system, and that "a person may have been safer while on trial for a crime than at most other times in his or her life" (111).
     The judicial ordeal and trial by combat were not common practices throughout the Middle Ages as is often thought, but had a relatively short lifespan, being a regular part of the English judicial system only in the late Anglo-Saxon and early Norman periods. Further, of the many cases which Kerr has studied, very few actually went so far as to complete the ordeal: some sort of resolution was found, or a pardon was issued, before the case ever got to the point of the ordeal. In many of the cases where ordeals were endured, we do not know the results, but for those cases where the results are known, there is a remarkable level (ca. 75%) of people acquitted by the ordeal: was God intervening to protect the innocent? or are the results skewed by some more human agency? Kerr's argument is that the priests (who administered the ordeals, to seek out the judgment of God upon the accused) "rigged" the ordeals in the favour of the accused (allowing hot irons to cool before being touched etc.), primarily in order to save people from execution: like the church-sanctioned practice of sanctuary, or the church's "benefit of clergy," the priests were attempting to avoid being involved in execution (100). From the point of view of the church, the proper response to a criminal act involved confession, restitution and penance, leading to absolution and reconciliation, not execution (106). And, in 1215 (at the Fourth Lateran Council), the Church outlawed the use of judicial ordeals, insisting that cases should be tried on the evidence, not by "tempting" God: all of the ordeals except trial by combat ceased in England almost immediately thereafter; trial by combat survived the proscription (in part because it was not administered by priests but by secular authorities, and because it was consonant with aristocratic ideals), and continued to be an option in English law down to 1819 (109) (though Kerr also notes that the judicial battle was not with real weapons and not to the death; it was conducted with wooden sticks and leather shields [110]). Again, of the various relevant cases which Kerr has studied (some 1,832), only two actually got to the point where the battle was fought: in most cases, some other resolution of the dispute was found early, or the accusers dropped their accusations when faced with the necessity of "proving" the charge in battle, or, failing which, he faced being himself mutilated or executed (110-111).]

Maddern, Philippa C. Violence and Social Order: East Anglia, 1422-1442. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.

Martin, Randall. Women, Murder, and Equity in Early Modern England. Routledge Studies in Renaissance Literature and Culture 10. London and New York: Routledge, 2008. [Contents: Introduction -- Equity and self-defense in female homicide news -- Confession, conversion, and tactical resistance -- Women and poison -- Changing representations of infanticide and child murder -- Conclusion.]

Meyerson, Mark D., Daniel Thiery, and Oren Falk, eds. "A Great Effusion of Blood": Interpreting Medieval Violence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

Musson, Anthony. Boundaries of the Law: Geography, Gender and Jurisdiction in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005. [Publisher's description: "Exploring the boundaries of the law as they existed in medieval and early modern times and as they have been perceived by historians, this volume offers a wide ranging insight into a key aspect of European society. Alongside, and inexorably linked with, the ecclesiastical establishment, the law was one of the main social bonds that shaped and directed the interactions of day-to-day life.
     "Posing fascinating conceptual and methodological questions that challenge existing perceptions of the parameters of the law, the essays in this book look especially at the gender divide and conflicts of jurisdiction within an historical context. In addition to seeking to understand the discrete categories into which types of law and legal rules are sometimes placed, consideration is given to the traversing of boundaries, to the overlaps between jurisdictions, and between custom(s) and law(s). In so doing it shows how law has been artificially compartmentalised by historians and lawyers alike, and how existing perceptions have been conditioned by particular approaches to the sources. It also reveals in certain case studies how the sources themselves (and attitudes towards them) have determined the limitations of historical enterprise.
     "Adopting an interdisciplinary approach to the subject, the contributors demonstrate the fruitfulness of examining the interfaces of apparently diverse disciplines. Making fresh connections across subject areas, they examine, for example, the role of geography in determining litigation strategies, how the law interacted with social and theological issues and how fact and fiction could intertwine to promote notions of justice and public order.
     "The main focus of the volume is upon England, but includes useful comparative papers concerning France, Flanders and Sweden. The contributors are a mixture of young and established scholars from Europe and North America offering a new and revisionist perspective on the operation of law in the medieval and early modern periods."
     Contents: Law in the landscape: criminality, outlawry and regional identity in late medieval England, W. M. Ormrod; The geographical and practical legal impact of the Peace of God in 11th century Aquitaine, Thomas Gergen; Sanctuary and penitential rebirth in the central Middle Ages, Trisha Olson; Between theology and popular practice: medieval canonists on magic and impotence, Catherine Rider; Maintenance agreements and male responsibility in late medieval England, Sara M. Butler; Crossing boundaries: attitudes to rape in late medieval England, Anthony Musson; Rethinking incest and heinous sexual crime: changing boundaries of secular and ecclesiastical jurisdiction in late medieval Sweden, Mia Korpiola; Rules for solving conflicts of law in the Middle Ages: part of the solution, part of the problem, Dirk Heirbaut; The geographical, jurisdictional and jurisprudential boundaries of English litigation in the early 17th century, Louis A. Knafla; Jurisdictional competition and the evolution of the common law: an hypothesis, Daniel Klerman; English legal history and interdisciplinary legal studies, Jonathan Rose.]

Rexroth, Frank. Deviance and Power in Late Medieval London. Trans. Pamela E. Selwyn. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. [Originally presented in German as the author's thesis (Habilitationsschrift), Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 1997. Subsequently published in German as Milieu der Nacht (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1999).
     Publisher's description: "During the late Middle Ages the London ruling elite was increasingly influenced by the idea that a secret counter-society was operating in the city. Its members were suspected to be active mainly at night, to roam the city aimlessly and to be identifiable by three main characteristics: their latent, unmotivated and habitual penchant for violence, their sexual license and their disinclination to work. The rumours about this real and imagined milieu of the night strongly influenced Londoners' perceptions of social relations within urban society. In wards, parishes, guilds and companies, people adapted their behaviour and gradually defined their own respectability in negative terms, in opposition to the new urban underworld. The book sheds considerable new light on everyday life in late medieval London and its case study opens up wider debates about the relationship between morality and politics in Europe's cities in this period."
     Contents: 1. Introduction; Part I. Changing Patterns of Thought in the Fourteenth Century: 2. The beginning of the Hundred Years War and the struggle against the nocturnal underworld; 3. Speaking of sturdy beggars: the Great Plague, labour law and changing patterns of thought; 4. John of Northampton's morality campaign: stigmatisation, marginalisation and the legitimation crisis of the urban oligarchy; Part II. Institutions on the Frontiers of the Fifteenth-Century Underworld: 5. Localising the underworld: the wardmotes as status degradation ceremonies; 6. Rewarding the shamefaced poor: charity in the almshouse; 7. Preventing the expansion of the underworld: proclamations and punishments; 8. Conclusion.]

Shoemaker, Karl Blaine, et al. Law and Justice in Early Europe, 500 to 1500. 5 videocassettes [VHS]. Institute of Humanities Lecture Series, Fall, 2006. University Heights, OH: John Carroll University, 2006. [Lectures given 10/30/06; 11/6/06; 11/13/06; 11/20/06; 11/27/06 at John Carroll University.
     Publisher's description: "In the centuries prior to 1500, the shaping of European political cultures can be traced through evolving practices of law. In earliest times, codes were based on tribal or clan interests with contests settled by blood feud or ordeal. As feudal regimes became defined and church influence grew, practices gave way to more open proceedings, often before bodies of peers. In most of Europe (but not English-held lands), Roman Law gradually supplanted customary law. This further modified inhumane practices . . . but also gave new meanings to royal and state authority--with new charges of treason and rationales for torture--as Europe entered the early modern era."
     Contents: Tape 1: Trial by ordeal in early medieval Europe / Karl Blaine Shoemaker; Tape 2: Visions of justice: punishment and reward in medieval art / Gerald B. Guest; Tape 3: Wife or concubine?: Alternatives to marriage in medieval Europe / Ruth Mazo Karras; Tape 4: Medieval law: the king, knights, and the outlaw fox / Richard W. Kaeuper; Tape 5: Lex, rex, and imperium: Roman law and the early modern state / Kenneth F. Ledford.]

Smail, Daniel Lord, and Kelly Gibson, eds. Vengeance in Medieval Europe: A Reader. Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009. [Publisher's description: "How did medieval society deal with private justice, with grudges, and with violent emotions? Vengeance in Medieval Europe collects for the first time a number of unpublished or difficult-to-find texts that address violence and emotion in the Middle Ages. The sources illustrate the power and reach of the language of vengeance in medieval European society. They span the early, high, and later middle ages, and capture a range of perspectives, including legal sources, learned commentaries, narratives, and documents of practice. Though social elites necessarily figure prominently in all medieval sources, sources concerning relatively low-status individuals and sources pertaining to women are included. Many of the sources are translated here for the first time. Vengeance in Medieval Europe is essential reading for anyone interested in gaining insight into the history of violence and the potential of peacemaking."]

Stone, Lawrence. "Interpersonal Violence in English Society, 1300-1980." Past and Present 101 (Nov. 1983): 22-33. [Builds upon the work of T. R. Gurr, studying the incidence of interpersonal violence in earlier periods of the history of England. Includes comments on the relatively high levels of violence in later medieval England.]

Westman, B. H. "The Peasant Family and Crime in Fourteenth-Century England." Journal of British Studies 13 (1973-1974): 1-18.

Wicker, Helen. "The Politics of Vernacular Speech: Cases of Treasonable Language, c. 1440-1453." In Vernacularity in England and Wales, c. 1300-1550. Ed. Elisabeth Salter and Helen Wicker. Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy 17. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011. Pp. 171-198.

D.i. General Background: Ideological

Ackerman, Robert W[illiam]. "The World View of the Middle Ages." Chap 5 of his Backgrounds to Medieval English Literature. Random House Studies in Language and Literature (SLL) 7. New York: Random House, 1966. Pp. 103-126.

Althoff, Gerd, Johannes Fried, and Patrick J. Geary, eds. Medieval Concepts of the Past: Ritual, Memory, Historiography. Publications of the German Historical Institute, Washington, DC. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, in association with the German Historical Institute, 2002.

Applebaum, Herbert A. The Concept of Work: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. SUNY Series in the Anthropology of Work. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1992. [Contents: Part 1: The concept of work in ancient Greece and ancient Rome -- Work in Homeric society -- Work in Archaic and Classical Greece -- The Hellenistic world and the concept of work -- Work and the concept of work in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire -- Work in the ancient world -- Part 2: The concept of work in the Middle Ages -- The attitudes toward work among the Jews and among the Christians -- Work and the Monastic movement -- Work in Medieval Europe: fifth to tenth centuries -- Work in medieval Europe: eleventh to fifteenth centuries -- Agricultural work and its perspectives during the late Middle Ages -- Medieval guilds, masonry, and apprenticeship -- Women and work in the Medieval Ages -- Work and the concept of work in the Middle Ages -- Part 3: Work in the modern world-1500-1990 -- Luther, Calvin, and the Protestant concept of work -- The English enlightenment: middle sixteenth century to seventeenth century -- Work and the enlightenment in France, Scotland, and America -- Nineteenth century: capitalism, socialism and the work ethic -- Twentieth century: capitalism, socialism and the work ethic -- Twentieth century: selected philosophies and perspectives on work -- Modern technology and work -- The work ethic, consumerism, and leisure -- Work and the concept of work in modern society -- Summary: work-past, present, and future.]

Artz, Frederick B. The Mind of the Middle Ages, A.D. 200-1500: An Historical Survey. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Barron, Caroline M. "The Expansion of Education in Fifteenth-Century London." In The Cloister and the World: Essays in Medieval History in Honour of Barbara Harvey. Ed. John Blair and Brian Golding. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996. Pp. 219-245. [On the expanding educational opportunities for boys and girls in fifteenth-century London; there was an increasing demand by lay people for elementary education in vernacular and in grammar-school Latin (220). Literacy skills were needed even among the craft and merchant classes, and "[i]n the city of London it was becoming increasingly possible to acquire them and pursue them to different levels of attainment" (221). The Black Death brought a rise in per capita wealth, and meant that people lower on the social scale could now afford education. In the Peasants' Revolt, the insurgent peasants circulated letters and documents (John Ball's letters: see R. F. Green), suggesting that at least some of the peasants were able to read English. The Lollards spread their message through bills posted through London and elsewhere; the mayor's office posted bills for Londoners to read, lists of those who had broken city ordinances were posted at the Guildhall, etc., suggesting that there was a relatively high level of (vernacular) literacy among the citizens of London (222-223). She cites G. Rosser, Medieval Westminster, 1200-1540 (Oxford, 1989), pp. 207-209, and Barbara Harvey's Living and Dying, on the schools at Westminster Abbey: a song school and a grammar school which, by the fifteenth century, were not run by the monks but by hired (and married!) schoolmaster. By the end of the fifteenth century, grammar masters (and mistresses: there are references to schoolmistresses in wills, etc.) and informal schools (any educated person--like the parish priest--teaching young people for a fee, often with no official sanction, and with no records kept) were ubiquitous. Schooling in English reading and writing was becoming a common part of apprenticeship training (223-224); guardians of "orphans" (fatherless, not necessarily motherless) were usually expected to spend money on education (for girls as well as boys) (224). P. 244: "Many of these educational opportunities were also available to girls and women, the ability of women to read and to write [in English] is frequently assumed and is not considered remarkable."]

Binski, Paul. Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation. London: British Museum Press, 1996.

Biow, Douglas. Mirabile dictu: Representations of the Marvelous in Medieval and Renaissance Epic. Stylus: Studies in Medieval Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996.

Bloomfield, Morton W. The Seven Deadly Sins: An Introduction to the History of a Religious Concept, with Special Reference to Medieval English Literature. East Lansing: Michigan State College Press, 1952.

Boase, T. S. R. Death in the Middle Ages: Mortality, Judgment and Remembrance. Library of Medieval Civilization. London: Thames and Hudson, 1972.

"The Book of Physiognomy." In The World of Piers Plowman. Ed. and trans. Jeanne Krochalis and Edward Peters. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1975. Pp. 218-228. [On how character as revealed through physical features, especially how to read character in the features of the face. Especially useful for the "General Prologue" to the Canterbury Tales of Geoffrey Chaucer.]

Bornstein, Diane. Mirrors of Courtesy. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1975. [On the nature of medieval "courtesy," breeding and manners, as taught in various handbooks.]

Borst, Arno. Medieval Worlds: Barbarians, Heretics, and Artists in the Middle Ages. Trans. Eric Hansen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Bourke, Vernon J. Will in Western Thought: An Historico-Critical Survey. New York: Sheed and Ward, 1964.

Brown, Peter. The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity. Lectures on the History of Religions ns 13. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Bullock-Davies, Constance. Menestrellorum Multitudo: Minstrels at a Royal Feast. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1978.

Burrow, J. A. The Ages of Man: A Study in Medieval Writing and Thought. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

Camille, Michael. Image on the Edge: The Margins of Medieval Art. Essays in Art and Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. [Literally on the margins of books or on the corners of cathedrals, one finds gargoyles and monsters: "it is here at the edge that medieval artists found room for experimentation, for questioning cultural authority without ever undermining it."]

Carey, Hilary M. Courting Disaster: Astrology at the English Court and University in the Later Middle Ages. London: Macmillan, 1992.

Carruthers, Mary J. The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 10. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Chickering, Howell, and Thomas H. Seiler, eds. The Study of Chivalry: Resources and Approaches. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, for the Consortium for the Teaching of the Middle Ages, 1988.

Clough, Cecil, ed. Profession, Vocation and Culture in Later Medieval England. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1982.

Cobban, Alan B. Medieval Universities: Their Development and Organization. London: Methuen, 1975.

Coleman, Janet. Ancient and Medieval Memories: Studies in the Reconstruction of the Past. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Colish, M. L. The Mirror of Language: A Study of the Medieval Theory of Knowledge. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1968.

Cook, William R., and Ronald B. Herzman. The Medieval World View: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Cummins, John. The Hound and the Hawk: The Art of Medieval Hunting. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988.

Curry, Walter C. Chaucer and the Mediaeval Sciences. 2nd ed. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1960.

Curry, Walter C. The Middle English Ideal of Personal Beauty as Found in the Metrical Romances, Chronicles, and Legends of the XIII, XIV and XV Centuries. Baltimore: J. H. Furst, 1916.

De Hamel, Christopher. Scribes and Illuminators. Medieval Craftsmen. London: The British Museum, 1992.

Dietler, Michael, and Brian Hayden, eds. Feasts: Archaeological and Ethnographic Perspectives on Food, Politics, and Power. Smithsonian Series in Archaeological Inquiry. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001.

Elliott, Dyan. Fallen Bodies: Pollution, Sexuality, and Demonology in the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.

Evans, G[illian] R[osemary]. Getting it Wrong: The Medieval Epistemology of Error. Studien und Text zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters 63. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1998. ["Getting it Wrong deals with the dark side of the medieval theory of knowledge, the ways in which perceptions can err, curiosity get out of hand, and knowledge damage the knower. The first and second parts explore the organs, powers and faculties of the soul and the ways in which teaching and learning occur. The third part of the book examines medieval ideas of 'common knowledge' and the ways in which individuals can share or fail to share the knowledge human beings ought to have. The fourth part considers wisdom and folly, security and incompleteness of knowledge, truth and lies." [Publisher's description]]

Felsenstein, Frank. "Jews and Devils: Anti-Semitic Stereotypes of Late Medieval and Renaissance England." Literature and Theology 4 (1990): 15-28.

Ferguson, Arthur B. The Indian Summer of English Chivalry: Studies in the Decline and Transformation of Chivalric Idealism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1960.

Friedman, John Block. The Monstrous Races in Medieval Art and Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Furnivall, Frederick J[ames], ed. Early English Meals and Manners: John Russell's Boke of Nurture, Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of Keruynge, The Boke of Curtasye, R. Weste's Booke of Demeanor, Seager's Schoole of Vertue, The Babees Book, Aristotle's A B C, Urbanitatis, Stans puer ad mensam, The Lytille Childrenes Lytil Boke, For to Serve a Lord, Old Symon, The Birched School-Boy, &c. &c., with some Forewords on Education in Early England Early English Text Society OS 32. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., for the Early English Text Society, 1904. [An anthology of works for the instruction of children in "courtesy," breeding and manners.]

Ganz, Peter F., ed. The Role of the Book in Medieval Culture. Bibliogia 3. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 1986.

Getz, Faye Marie. Medicine in the English Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Gracia, Jorge J. E., and Timothy B. Noone, eds. A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages. Blackwell Companions to Philosophy 24. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.

Grant, Edward. Planets, Stars, and Orbs: The Medieval Cosmos, 1200-1687. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Gregg, Joan Young. Devils, Women, and Jews: Reflections on the Other in Medieval Sermon Stories. Albany: State University of New York, 1997.

Gurevich, Aron. Medieval Popular Culture: Problems of Belief and Perception. Trans. János M. Bak and Paul A. Hollingsworth. Cambridge Studies in Oral and Literate Culture 14. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Paris: Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1988. [On "popular" religion and "folk" culture; reconstructing the "beliefs" of medieval commoners. Includes an excellent chapter on the cults of saints and beliefs in miracles: "Peasants and Saints" (Chap. 2; pp. 39-77).]

Hadley, D[awn] M. Death in Medieval England: An Archaeology. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus, 2001.

Hammond, P. W. Food and Feast in Medieval England. London: Alan Sutton, 1993. ["Based on archaeological and written evidence, this book deals with everything we know about Medieval food, from hunting and harvesting to food hygiene and the organization of a large household kitchen. Evaluates the nutritional value of Medieval Food, the customs associated with its serving and eating, and the organization of feasts."]

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Narratives of a Nurturing Culture: Parents and Neighbors in Medieval England." Essays in Medieval Studies 12 (1996): 1-21.

Haren, Michael. Medieval Thought: The Western Intellectual Tradition from Antiquity to the Thirteenth Century. 2nd ed. London: Macmillan, 1993.

Harrison, Dick. Medieval Space: The Extent of Microspatial Knowledge in Western Europe During the Middle Ages. Lund Studies in International History 34. Lund: Lund University Press, 1996. [Challenges Marc Bloch and others who assert that medieval people rarely left their own villages: uses data from Somerset and from locations in Sweden to show that "non-permanent mobility" was quite common (just as other studies have shown that "permanent migrations" were common among the lower classes), that marriage partners often came from quite distant places, and the "microspatial knowledge" of a medieval peasant--the extent of the world around him which he knew with some familiarity--was probably as much as 60 miles or more. "[T]he typical Western European of the high Middle Ages was not an isolated village-dweller" (abstract on verso of title page).
     While the bulk of the book is taken up with presenting and discussing empirical data from three regions, the introduction and conclusion are more broadly theoretical, introducing ideas of "macrospace" and "microspace" (the latter is the world one actually knows; the former is the mental construct of the rest of the world: a portolan map or the chart of Canterbury Cathedral and it precincts is "microspatial," while a mappemundi is "macrospatial," having more to do with myth and received wisdom than with observation). Harrison has some discussion in his introduction of maps in these terms, as well as of pilgrimage and pilgrimage guidebooks (and the strata of local, regional, and international cults of saints: few saints had more than local significance), and Mandeville's Travels; he discusses the fact that Viking travels to Greenland and North America, and real journeys to China, had no large-scale significance in changing the received ideas about the world. (He also notes that Chinese accounts of contacts with Europeans, and oriental knowledge of the occident, was as sketchy and misinformed as European ideas about the east.)]

Hartley, Dorothy. Mediaeval Costume and Life. London: Batsford, 1931.

Harvey, Barbara. Living and Dying in England, 1100-1540: The Monastic Experience: The Ford Lectures Delivered in the University of Oxford in Hilary Term 1989. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Haskins, Charles Homer. Studies in Mediaeval Culture. 1929; New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1965.

Hen, Yitzhak, and Matthew Innes, eds. The Uses of the Past in Early Medieval Europe. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Henisch, Bridget Ann. Fast and Feast: Food in Medieval Society. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976.

Hopper, Vincent F. Medieval Number Symbolism: Its Source, Meaning, and Influence on Thought and Expression. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938.

Horrox, Rosemary, ed. Fifteenth-Century Attitudes: Perceptions of Society in Late Medieval England. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. [Publisher's description: "This collection of essays takes a fresh and invigorating look at late medieval English society by focusing not on how people lived but on how they saw the world and their place in it. Alongside contributions on how different social groups saw themselves and were seen by others are more general discussions of key aspects of fifteenth-century life: attitudes to the rule of law, to the power of the ruler, to education, to honour and service and finally to death. These essays, which include a selection of attractive and often unusual illustrations, create a unique introduction to a troubled and controversial century, which in the past has been seen variously as 'the waning of the Middle Ages' and the forcing ground of modern society" [note in library catalogue entry].
     Contents: Introduction, by Rosemary Horrox; "The King and His Subjects," by G. L. Harriss; "Law and Justice," by Edward Powell; "Aristocracy," by Kate Mertes; "Service," by Rosemary Horrox; "Education and Advancement," by Michael J. Bennett; "Information and Science," by Peter Murray Jones; "Women," by P. J. P. Goldberg; "Urban Society," by D. M. Palliser; "Rural Society," by Mark Bailey; "The Poor," by Miri Rubin; "Religion," by Colin Richmond; "Death," by Margaret Aston.]

Horrox, Rosemary, and Sarah Rees Jones, eds. Pragmatic Utopias: Ideals and Communities, 1200-1630. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. [Contents: "'If heaven be on this earth, it is in cloister or in school': The Monastic Ideal in Later Medieval English Literature," by Derek Pearsall; "Chariot of Aminadab and the Yorkshire Priory of Swine," by Janet Burton; "Godliness and Good Learning: Ideals and Imagination in Medieval University and College Foundations," by R. N. Swanson; "Hugh of Balsham, Bishop of Ely 1256/7-1286," by Roger Lovatt; "Cruel Necessity? Christ's and St John's, Two Cambridge Refoundations," by Malcolm G. Underwood; "Coventry's Lollard Programme of 1492 and the Making of Utopia," by P. J. P. Goldberg; "Thomas More's Utopia and Medieval London," by Sarah Rees Jones; "Social Exclusivity or Justice for All? Access to Justice in Fourteenth-Century England," by Anthony Musson; "Idealising Criminality: Robin Hood in the Fifteenth Century," by A. J. Pollard; "Fat Christian and Old Peter: Ideals and Compromises among the Medieval Waldensians," by Peter Biller; "Imageless Devotion: What Kind of an Ideal?," by Margaret Aston; "English Anchorite: The Making, Unmaking and Remaking of Christine Carpenter," by Miri Rubin; "Victorian Values in Fifteenth-Century England: The Ewelme Almshouse Statutes," by Colin Richmond; "Puritanism and the Poor," by Patrick Collinson; "Realising a Utopian Dream: The Transformation of the Clergy in the Diocese of York, 1500-1630," by Claire Cross.]

Hughes, Anselm. Early Medieval Music up to 1300. The New Oxford History of Music 2. Rev. ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1955.

Humphrey, Chris, and W. M. Ormrod, eds. Time in the Medieval World. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001. [Publisher's description: "By exploring some of the more important senses of time which were in circulation in the medieval world, scholars from a wide range of disciplines trace competing definitions and modes of temporality in the middle ages, explaining their influence upon life and culture. The issues explored include anachronism as a feature in earlier senses of time, perceptions of death and of the Last Judgement, time in literary narratives and in music, constructions of time as used in the professions, and original work on the particular systems and technologies which were used for the keeping of time, such as clocks and calendars."]

Husband, Timothy, and Jane Hayward, eds. The Secular Spirit: Life and Art at the End of the Middle Ages. New York: E. P. Dutton, in association with the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975.

Hussey, Maurice. Chaucer's World: A Pictorial Companion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.

Jaeger, C. Stephen. The Origins of Courtliness: Civilizing Trends and the Formation of Courtly Ideals 939-1210. The Middle Ages. Philidelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985.

Jusserand, Jean A. A. J. English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Trans. Lucy Toulmin Smith. 4th ed. London: E. Benn, 1950.

Kaeuper, Richard W. Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Kieckhefer, Richard. Magic in the Middle Ages. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. ["Covering the years 500 to 1500, this book examines natural and demonic magic and its position in medieval culture. Kieckhefer argues that magic should not be treated as a fringe subject, but rather as an area vital for the understanding of medieval life."]

Kitzinger, Ernst. Early Medieval Art. 1940; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1964.

Knowles, David. The Evolution of Medieval Thought. London: Longmans, 1962.

Kruger, Steven F. Dreaming in the Middle Ages. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 14. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Le Goff, Jacques. "The Marvelous in the Medieval West." In The Medieval Imagination. By Jacques Le Goff. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Pp. 27-44.

Le Goff, Jacques, ed. Medieval Callings. Trans. Lydia G. Cochrane. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. [". . . these essays by eleven renowned medievalists present nuanced profiles of the major social and professional groups--the callings--of the Middle Ages."]

Le Goff, Jacques. "Merchant's Time and Church's Time in the Middle Ages." In his Time, Work and Culture in the Middle Ages. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980. Pp. 29-42. [Church's Time is time as a borrowing from eternity; it is not measurable, and is not available for earthly profit. Merchant's Time is desacralized time, disenchanted time; it is the secularized basis of productive effort and commerce.]

Le Goff, Jacques. "The Wilderness in the Medieval West." In The Medieval Imagination. By Jacques Le Goff. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Pp. 47-59. [On the sacredness of the wilderness (the desert, the forest, etc.) as illustrated in Biblical and medieval literary traditions, as well as in legends of hermits. The "desert place" played an important social and cultural role because it "usually represented values opposed to those of the city" (47).]

Leff, Gordon. The Dissolution of the Medieval Outlook: An Essay on the Intellectual and Spiritual Change in the Fourteenth Century. New York: Harper and Row, 1976.

Lewis, C. S. The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964.

Loomis, Roger Sherman. A Mirror of Chaucer's World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965.

Lowe, Ben. Imagining Peace: A History of Early English Pacifist Ideas, 1340-1560. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997. [Publisher's description: "Traces the development of peace discourse and its place in English culture during the late medieval and early modern periods, drawing on writing by critics of political culture of the time. Presents the historical contexts for developing peace ideas, and shows the relationship between English peace ideas and developments on the Continent, with chapters on early just-war ideology and its critics, antiwar discourse during the Hundred Years War, and early Protestant negotiations of war and peace."]

Lull, Ramon. The Book of the Ordre of Chyualry; Translated and Printed by William Caxton from a French Version of Ramón Lull's "Le libre del orde de cauayleria," Together with Adam Loutfut's Scottish Transcript (Harleian MS. 6149). Ed. Alfred T. P. Byles. Early English Text Society OS 168. London: Oxford University Press, for the Early English Text Society, 1926.

Martindale, Andrew. The Rise of the Artist in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. London: Thames and Hudson, 1972.

Matheson, Lister M., ed. Popular and Practical Science of Medieval England. East Lansing, MI: Colleagues Press, 1992. [Twelve Middle English texts dealing with astrology, fortune telling, medicine, horticulture, and marine navigation.]

Mathew, Gervase. "Ideals of Friendship." In Patterns of Love and Courtesy: Essays in Memory of C. S. Lewis. Ed. John Lawlor. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1966. Pp. 45-53.

Mauss, Marcel. The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies. Trans. Ian Cunnison. The Norton Library N378. New York: W. W. Norton, 1967. [Trans. of Essai sur le don.]

McCall, Andrew. The Medieval Underworld. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1979.

Oelschlager, Max. The Idea of Wilderness. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

Olsen, K. E., and L. A. J. R. Houwen, eds. Monsters and the Monstrous in Medieval Northwest Europe. Mediaevalia Groningana ns 3. Leuven, Belgium, and Sterling, VA: Peeters, 2001.

Onians, Richard Broxton. The Origins of European Thought about the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time, and Fate. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954.

Orme, Nicholas. "Medieval Hunting: Fact and Fancy." In Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Ed. Barbara Hanawalt. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. Pp. 133-153.

Page, Christopher. Summa Musice: A Thirteenth-Century Manual for Singers. Cambridge Musical Texts and Monographs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Pieper, Josef. The Four Cardinal Virtues. Trans. Richard Winston, et al. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1965.

Purdon, Liam O., and Cindy L. Vitto, eds. The Rusted Hauberk: Feudal Ideals of Order and their Decline. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994.

Ranft, Patricia. The Theology of Work: Peter Damian and the Medieval Religious Renewal Movement. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. [Publisher's description: "Historians have long noted the intense debates nineteenth- and twentieth-century scholars had over the concept of work, but few are aware of the medieval debates that set the stage for modern discussions. Indeed, medieval society established the framework within which modern Western ideas about work have grown. It is essential, therefore, that we learn what medieval thinkers had to say on the subject. This study addresses this need by examining the thought of Peter Damian and numerous other religious leaders and groups of the High Middle Ages for evidence of their contributions. The result is a deepening of our historical understanding of the concept of work as well as widening our appreciation of the modern world's debt to medieval society."
     Contents: Early Christian attitudes toward work -- The eleventh-century world of Peter Damian -- Damian's social theology -- Damian's apostolate: theology of work in action -- The regular canons -- The Cistercians -- Carthusians, women, and marginal groups -- The mendicants -- Epilogue.]

Rashdall, Hastings. The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. 2nd ed. Ed. F. M. Powicke and A. B. Emden. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1936.

Razi, Zvi. Life, Marriage, and Death in a Medieval Parish: Economy, Society, and Demography in Halesowen, 1270-1400. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge [etc.]: Cambridge University Press, 1980. [A case study of social patterns in a specific medieval village.]

Rickert, Edith, ed. Chaucer's World. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962.

Ridyard, Susan J., ed. Chivalry, Knighthood, and War in the Middle Ages. Sewanee Mediaeval Studies 9. Sewanee, TN: University of the South Press, 1999.

Ridyard, Susan J., ed. Death, Sickness and Health in Medieval Society and Culture. Sewanee Mediaeval Studies 10. Sewanee, TN: University of the South Press, 2000.

Rooney, Anne. Hunting in Middle English Literature. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1993.

Rubin, Miri. "The Body, Whole and Vulnerable, in Fifteenth-Century England." In Bodies and Disciplines: Intersections of Literature and History in Fifteenth-Century England. Ed. Barbara A. Hanawalt and David Wallace. Medieval Cultures 9. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Pp. 19-28.

Scaglione, Aldo. Knights at Court: Courtliness, Chivalry, and Courtesy from Ottonian Germany to the Italian Renaissance. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991.

Sheehan, Michael M., ed. Aging and the Aged in Medieval Europe. Papers in Mediaeval Studies 11. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1990.

Sheridan, Ronald, and Anne Ross. Grotesques and Gargoyles: Paganism in the Medieval Church. Devon: David and Charles, 1975.

Sherwood, Terry G[rey]. The Self in Early Modern Literature: For the Common Good. Medieval and Renaissance Literary Studies. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "Responding to the debate stimulated by cultural materialist and new historicist claims that the early modern self was fragmented by forces in Elizabethan England, Sherwood argues that the self was capable of unified subjectivity, demonstrating that the intersection of Protestant vocation and Christian civic humanism was a stabilizing factor in the early modern construction of self."
     Contents: Introduction: obeying time -- Spenser: persons serving Gloriana -- Shakespeare's Henriad: calling the heir apparent -- "Ego videbo": Donne and the vocational self -- Jonson: the truth of envy -- Milton: self-defense and the drama of blame -- A postscript: the Bacon family.]

Simson, Otto Georg von. The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order. 2nd ed. Bollingen Series 48. New York: Pantheon Books, 1962.

Sinnreich-Levi, Deborah M., and Gale Sigal, eds. Voices in Translation: The Authority of "Olde Bookes" in Medieval Literature; Essays in Honor of Helaine Newstead. Pref. Harold M. Proshansky. Foreward Allen Mandelbaum. Intro. Frederick Goldin. AMS Studies in the Middle Ages 17. New York: AMS, 1992.

Spicer, Andrew, and Sarah Hamilton, eds. Defining the Holy: Sacred Space in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Aldershot, Hants., and Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 2006. [Publisher's description: "Holy sites, both public--churches, monasteries, shrines--and more private--domestic chapels, oratories--populated the landscape of medieval and early modern Europe, providing contemporaries with access to the divine. These sacred spaces thus defined religious experience, and were fundamental to both the geography and social history of Europe over the course of 1,000 years. But how were these sacred spaces, both public and private, defined? How were they created, used, recognised and transformed? And to what extent did these definitions change over the course of time, and in particular as a result of the changes wrought in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Taking a strongly interdisciplinary approach, this volume tackles these questions from the point of view of archaeology, architectural and art history, liturgy, and history to consider the fundamental interaction between the sacred and the profane. Exploring the establishment of sacred space within both the public and domestic spheres, as well as the role of the secular within the sacred sphere, each chapter provides fascinating insights into how these concepts helped shape, and were shaped by, wider society. By highlighting these issues on a European basis from the medieval period through the age of the reformations, these essays demonstrate the significance of continuity as much as change in definitions of sacred space, and thus identify long term trends which have hitherto been absent in more limited studies. As such this volume provides essential reading for anyone with an interest in the ecclesiastical development of western Europe from the thirteenth to the eighteenth centuries.
     Contents: Defining the holy: the delineation of sacred space - Sarah Hamilton and Andrew Spicer. Part I: Domestic space and devotion in the Middle Ages - Diana Webb; The domesticity of sacred space in the 15th-century Netherlands - Jeanne Nuechterlein; Private rooms in the monastic architecture of Habsburg Spain - Lisa A. Banner; Forbidden sacred spaces in Reformation England - Richard L. Williams; Designing for Protestant worship: the private chapels of the Cecil family - Annabel Ricketts with Claire Gapper and Caroline Knight. Part II: A northern Jerusalem: transforming the spatial geography of the convent of Wienhausen - June L. Mecham; Using material culture to define holy space: the Bromholm project - Tim Pestell; The liturgical use of space in 13th-century Flanders - Stijn Bossuyt; 'God will have a house': sacred space and rites of consecration in early 17th-century England - Andrew Spicer; 'Pure and white': reformed space for worship in early 17th-century Hungary - Graeme Murdock; Rubens's Raising of the Cross in context: the 'early Christian' past and the evocation of the sacred in post-tridentine Antwerp - Cynthia Lawrence; The consecration of the civic realm - Judi Loach; The priest, the Quakers and the Second Conventicle Act: the battle for Gracechurch Street Meeting House, 1670 - Simon Dixon; La Ville Sonnant: the politics of sacred space in Avignon on the eve of the French Revolution - Eric Johnson.]

Swanson, R[obert] N[orman], ed. The Use and Abuse of Time in Christian History: Papers Read at the 1999 Summer Meeting and the 2000 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society. Studies in Church History 37. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press / Boydell and Brewer, for the Ecclesiastical History Society, 2002. [Publisher's description: "For the Christian Church and its members, time is always pressing, both for this life and for the anticipated afterlife. In this life it is precious, to be valued and used; but in reality also misused and abused. The twenty-seven essays in this volume reflect Christian attitudes to time from the period of the early church through to the twentieth century, considering differing views on labour, the role and importance of recreation, the use of time for devotional purposes and preparation for the afterlife, and reactions to its wasting or sinful exploitation."]

Taylor, Henry D. The Medieval Mind: A History of the Development of Thought and Emotion in the Middle Ages. 4th ed. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962.

Thomas, Keith Vivian. Religion and the Decline of Magic. New York: Scribner, 1971. [This is an important study of medieval "superstitions" and their suppression in the time of the Reformation.]

Trachtenberg, Joshua. The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and its Relation to Modern Antisemitism. Harper Torchbooks 822. 1943; New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1966.

Turnbull, Stephen R. The Book of the Medieval Knight. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1985.

Von Martels, Z. R. W. M., ed. Alchemy Revisited: Proceedings of the International Conference on the History of Alchemy at the University of Groningen. Collection de Travaux de l'Académie Internationale d'Histoires des Sciences 33. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1990.

Waddell, Helen. The Wandering Scholars. London, Constable, 1927.

Wagner, David L., ed. The Seven Liberal Arts in the Middle Ages. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.

Ward, Benedicta. Miracles and the Medieval Mind. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987.

White, Hayden. "The Forms of Wildness: Archaeology of an Idea." In The Wild Man Within: An Image in Western Thought from the Renaissance to Romanticism. Ed. Edward Dudley and Maximillian E. Novak. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1972. Pp. 3-38. [Rpt. in his Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978. Pp. 150-182.]

White, Lynn, Jr. Medieval Religion and Technology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

Williams, David. Deformed Discourse: The Function of the Monster in Medieval Thought and Literature. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press; Exeter: Exeter University Press, 1996.

Woolgar, C. M. The Senses in Late Medieval England. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 2006. [Contents: Ideas about the senses -- Touch, virtues and holiness -- Sound and hearing -- The senses of the mouth: speech -- The senses of the mouth: taste -- Smell -- Vision -- Sensory environments and episcopal households of the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries -- Households of late medieval queens of England -- The great household at the end of the Middle Ages -- Changing perceptions.]

D.ii. Medieval Political Theory

Aquinas, Thomas (St.). On Kingship, to the King of Cyprus, Done into English. Trans. Gerald B. Phelan. Rev. with introd. and notes by I. Th. Eschmann. Westport, CN: Hyperion Press, 1979. [Trans. of De regimine principum. Reprint of the 1949 ed. (under the title On the Governance of Rulers) published by the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto, Canada.
     Aquinas argues that a monarchy is the best form of government for the common good, but that there must be safeguards to prevent the king from becoming a tyrant. One such safeguard is the potential for the king to be deposed. Another is that the king should be under the authority of the pope (as the soul is greater than the body, so the priesthood is greater than the temporal governors, and the pope--as chief priest--should have temporal authority over the king).]

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. The City of God (De civitate Dei). Trans. John Healey. Ed. R. V. G. Tasker. Intro. Sir Ernest Barker. 2 vols. Everyman's Library 983. London: J. M. Dent and Sons; New York: E. P. Dutton, 1945. [Occasioned by the sack of Rome in 410, and extrapolating upon ideas in Plato's Republic as well as the idea of the "kingdom of God" from the New Testament, Augustine delineates an ideal of a new universal Christian world order, which would mirror the perfections of God's kingdom in heaven. Augustine's work is not so much a treatise with a strong logical argument, but is more like a series of meditations on themes related to his central idea; his immediate subjects, then, range broadly from a description of the Roman empire and its faults, on the nature of "true" peace and order as opposed to false; on heaven and earth and hell; on sin and redemption; on Adam and Eve and prelapsarian perfection; on the kings and kingdoms of the Biblical narrative. Overall, two "cities" are juxtaposed: the "earthly city" is the opposite of the "heavenly city." The earthly city is a place of unrighteousness, disorder, and strife, the negation of the virtues of heaven, as the devil is the negation of God. This earthly city is a spiritual (or "Platonic"), not a physical, reality; the actual world, "the State," hovers between the two spiritual cities, and will tend to slide towards the "earthly" unless deliberately and consciously struggling to achieve the "heavenly" ideals of righteousness, order, and peace (this can never be perfectly achieved, and there can never be a heaven on earth, but a relative righteousness, order, and peace can be achieved which would mirror and imitate the absolute heavenly righteousness, order, and peace). Augustine's argument was commonly misread in the Middle Ages as a justification for papal claims to temporal sovereignty; in fact, his comments upon the Church construct it as a separate and essentially quietist society of "pilgrims" whose eyes are fixed on the heavenly and enduring as best they can the imperfections of this world (Augustine, read "correctly," would appear to be in favour of the complete separation of Church and State). With respect to rulers, Augustine notes that God, in the Garden of Eden before the sin of Adam, gave humans dominion over the beasts but not over fellow humans (Gen. 1: 26-31); social hierarchy, inequality, domination, and (specifically) slavery, are a product of sin, and have been made necessary because of sin. It is natural and necessary, in a sinful world, that the few would rule over the many--not to satisfy a desire to dominate, but so that the few can aid the many in the pursuit of virtue. Without sin and the Fall, there would be no need for social inequality, for rulers to oversee the ruled; but social hierarchy is necessary in a sinful world in order to control sinfulness. The ruler is not to be seen as privileged, but as carrying a heavy responsibility to encourage virtue and to punish vice, to give aid and counsel in the name and spirit of love. Mastership over slaves (and, by extension, monarchical rule over subjects) is a responsibility of the ruler for the ruled, and it is limited to this world of sin: in heaven, the masters will be freed from their responsibilities, and slaves will be freed from their servitude. Masters and slaves, kings and subjects, will be equal in the next world, and should behave in this world with awareness of their underlying, fundamental, spiritual equality.]

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. De civitate Dei, libri xxii. 2 vols. [St. Augustine's] Opera, sect. 5, pars 1-2. Ed. Emanuel Hoffmann. Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum 40. Vienna: F. Tempsky, 1899-1900. [Rpt: New York, 1962.]

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. De civitate Dei, libri xxii. 2 vols. Ed. B. Dombart. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1905-1908.

Bertelli, Sergio. The King's Body: The Sacred Rituals of Power in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. 2nd ed. Trans. R. Burr Litchfield. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001. [On the sacred nature of medieval kingship; something of a challenge and correction to Kantorowicz, The King's Two Bodies.]

Black, Antony. "The Individual and Society." In The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought, c.350-c.1450. Ed. J. H. Burns. Cambridge, New York, [etc.]: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Pp. 588-606. [On the attempts in the later Middle Ages to achieve a balance between individuality and social responsibility. Includes (pp. 595-597) a discussion of late medieval ideas about the concept of the "common good."]

Bloch, Marc. The Royal Touch: Sacred Monarchy and Scrofula in France and England. Trans. J. E. Anderson. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973.

Blum, Jerome. The End of the Old Order in Rural Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978. [A naive monarchism is a characteristic of various peasant uprisings (335).]

Bumke, Joachim. The Concept of Knighthood in the Middle Ages. Trans. W. T. H. Jackson and Erika Jackson. New York: AMS Press, 1982.

Burns, J[ames] H[enderson]. Lordship, Kingship and Empire: The Idea of Monarchy, 1400-1525. The Carlyle Lectures 1988. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992. [Burns provides a good introduction to fifteenth century history, as well as considering the "idea of monarchy."]

Canning, Joseph. A History of Medieval Political Thought, 300-1450. London and New York: Routledge, 1996. [Contents: Chap. 1: "The Origins of Medieval Political Ideas, c.300-c.750"; Chap. 2: "The Growth of Specifically Medieval Political Ideas, c.750-c.1050"; Chap. 3: "Political Ideas in the High Middle Ages, c.1050-c.1290"; Chap. 4: "Political Ideas in the Late Middle Ages, c.1290-c.1450."
     Publisher's description: "Joseph Canning's survey of medieval political thought is grounded in a wide range of primary source material. He has also brought together the latest research, much of which is now made available in English for the first time. The result is a comprehensive yet accessible one-volume account of medieval political thought from around 300 to 1450. The book covers four periods, each with a different focus. From 300 to 750 Canning examines Christian ideas of rulership. The often neglected centuries from 750 to 1050, the Carolingian period and its aftermath, are given special attention. From 1050 to 1290 the conflict between temporal and spiritual power and the revived legacy of antiquity comes to the fore. Finally, in the period from 1290 to 1450, Canning focuses on the confrontation with political reality in ideas of church and state, and in juristic thought" (notes in library catalogue entry).]

Dante Alighieri. Monarchia. Ed. and trans. Prue Shaw. Cambridge Medieval Classics 4. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. [Latin text with English translation on opposite pages. Publisher's description: "The Monarchia, Dante's treatise on political theory, addresses the fundamental question of what form of political organization best suits human nature; it embodies a political vision of startling originality and power, and illuminates the intellectual interests and achievements of one of the world's great poets. The whole text is here presented in a new English translation, the first for forty years, based on a more up-to-date and scholarly version of the Latin original than has previously been available. The translation, together with accompanying introduction and notes, has been prepared by Dante scholar Prue Shaw. In this new accessible form, the Monarchia will interest not only Dante specialists, but also students of literary studies, political history and philosophy." Dante's treatise (in three parts) argues that a Christian world ruler is the best form of government; the first part of the treatise explores the nature of governments and how the common good is best served. This world government would be based on the model of the Roman emperor, but Christian (a description of the virtues and limitations of the Roman empire forms part 2 of the treatise); though a Christian empire, it must be independent of the papacy, since the temporal and the spiritual powers must be kept separate (this part of the argument forms part 3 of the treatise).]

Duby, Georges. The Chivalrous Society. Trans. Cynthia Postan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.

Forhan, Kate Langdon. The Political Theory of Christine de Pizan. Women and Gender in the Early Modern World. Aldershot, Hants.: Ashgate Publishing, 2002.

Genet, Jean-Philippe. "Political Theory and Local Communities in Later Medieval France and England." In The Crown and Local Communities in England and France in the Fifteenth Century. Ed. J. R. L. Highfield and Robin Jeffs. Stoud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1981. Pp. 19-32. ["Local community" is not a concept easily traced in medieval political theory, in part because the vocabulary of medieval treatises relies upon the classical concepts of the "polis" and "civis," and even "estates theory" is more concerned with very large rather than small groupings. Nevertheless, certain ideas about smaller units are implicit in these theoretical works, and these are explored here.
     Genet discusses works in the twelfth- and thirteenth-century "Mirror for Princes" tradition, based upon newly rediscovered works of Aristotle, but still not mere idealism: the "mirror" tradition was politically quite astute, and these works reflect the political realities of a feudal (and bastard feudal) world. The insistance in these works on the limitations of the king, on the need for the king to seek good counsel and to have the consent of his people, were usually taken quite seriously in the Middle Ages: there was a general consensus that "natural law" placed severe restrictions on royal absolutism, that tyranny was unacceptable, and that the king's role was to serve the people, not to be served by them.]

Genet, Jean-Philippe. "Politics: Theory and Practice." In The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 7: c.1415-c.1500. Ed. Christopher Allmand. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Pp. 3-28.

Graus, F. "Social Utopias in the Middle Ages." Past and Present no. 38 (Dec. 1967): 4-19. [Graus considers the magical and mythological elements in peasant views of the monarchy (16-17).]

Gregory VII (Pope). The Correspondence of Pope Gregory VII: Selected Letters from the Registrum. Trans. Ephraim Emerton. Records of Civilization, Sources and Studies 14. New York: Columbia University Press, 1932. [Gregory VII (pope from 1073-1085) was a vocal proponent of the rights of popes over kings, even to the point of deposition. See esp. his two letters to Hermann of Metz on the issue of Gregory's excommunication of the Emperor, Henry IV (pp. 102-105 and 166-175). In a somewhat extreme statement, he declares that royal and demonic power are closely allied (p. 169): "Who does not know that kings and princes derive their origin from men ignorant of God who raised themselves above their fellows by pride, plunder, treachery, murder--in short, by every kind of crime--at the instigation of the Devil, the prince of this world, men blind with greed and intolerable in their audacity? If, then, they strive to bend the priests of God to their will, to whom may they more properly be compared than to him who is chief over all the sons of pride?"]

John of Paris. On Royal and Papal Power: A Translation with Introduction of the "De potestate regia et papali" of John of Paris. Trans. Arthur P. Monahan. Records of Civilization, Sources and Studies 90. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974. [Though (probably) a student of Thomas Aquinas, John of Paris differs significantly from Aquinas on the relationship of kings and popes, denying that the popes have temporal power over kings. He also argues that a world-empire is undesirable.]

John of Salisbury. Policraticus: Of the Frivolities of Courtiers and the Footprints of Philosophers. Ed. and trans. Cary J. Nederman. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Jones, Richard H[utton]. "Absolutism and the Common Good." Chap. 11 of The Royal Policy of Richard II: Absolutism in the Later Middle Ages. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1968. Pp. 147-163.

Jones, Richard H[utton]. The Royal Policy of Richard II: Absolutism in the Later Middle Ages. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1968.

Jussen, Bernhard, et al. Ordering Medieval Society: Perspectives on Intellectual and Practical Modes of Shaping Social Relations. Trans. Pamela Selwyn. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. [Contents: Counting piety in the early and high Middle Ages / Arnold Angenendt [et al.] -- Counting piety in the later Middle Ages / Thomas Lentes -- Perceiving social reality in the early and high Middle Ages / Otto Gerhard Oexle -- Liturgy and legitimation, or, How the Gallo-Romans ended the Roman Empire / Bernhard Jussen -- Inventing a social category / Joseph Morsel -- (Royal) favor: a central concept in the early medieval hierarchical relations / Gerd Althoff -- Satisfaction: peculiarities of the amicable settlement of conflicts in the Middle Ages / Gerd Althoff -- Peace through conspiracy / Otto Gerhard Oexle.]

Kantorowicz, Ernst H[artwig]. The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957.

Kilcullen, John. Website, including notes and teaching materials in medieval philosophy (URL: <http://www.humanities.mq.edu.au/Ockham/medph.html>) and political theory (URL: <http://www.humanities.mq.edu.au/Ockham/MedPolTh.html>). (URLs correct as of 1 Sept. 2011).

Langholm, Odd [Inge]. Economics in the Medieval Schools: Wealth, Exchange, Value, Money, and Usury According to the Paris Theological Tradition, 1200-1350. Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters Bd. 29. Leiden and New York: E. J. Brill, 1992.

Langholm, Odd [Inge]. The Legacy of Scholasticism in Economic Thought: Antecedents of Choice and Power. Historical Perspectives in Modern Economics. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Marsilius of Padua. The "Defensor pacis." Trans. Alan Gewirth. Records of Civilization, Sources and Studies 46.2. New York: Columbia University Press, 1956. [Rpt.: Mediaeval Academy Reprints for Teaching (MART) 6. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, for the Mediaeval Academy of America, 1980. In the controversy over the temporal power of the papacy, Marsilius takes an extreme stand (and was condemned for it by Pope John XXII): Marsilius argues not only that the popes do not have power over kings, but further that the pope has no legitimate coercive power even over the priesthood and the Church. On the secular side, the "Defender of the peace," the supreme ruler, should be an elective monarch (not hereditary), ruling in the name of and on behalf of the people.]

McGrade, Arthur Stephen, John Kilcullen, and Matthew Kempshall, eds. Cambridge Translations of Medieval Philosophical Texts, Vol. 2: Ethics and Political Philosophy. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. [A collection of texts from medieval authors. Contents: "Questions on Book X of the Ethics," by Albert the Great; "Conscience and synderesis," by Bonaventure; "On the rule of princes (selections)," by Giles of Rome; "Commentary and questions on Book III of Aristotle's Politics (selections)," by Peter of Auvergne; "Is it rational for someone without hope of a future life to choose to die for the commonwealth?," by Henry of Ghent; "Does a human being following the dictates of natural reason have to judge that he ought to love God more than himself?," by Godfrey of Fontaines; "Does a human being have a greater natural love for God than for himself, or vice versa?," by James of Viterbo; "Reply to James of Viterbo on love of God and self," by Godfrey of Fontaines; "Is a subject bound to obey a statute when it is not evident that it promotes the common utility?," by Henry of Ghent; "Are subjects bound to pay a tax when the need for it is not evident?," by Godfrey of Fontaines; "Is it better to be ruled by the best man than by the best laws?," by James of Viterbo; "Should a Christian king use unbelievers to defend his kingdom?," by John of Naples; "Using and enjoying," by William of Ockham; "Summa on ecclesiastical power (selections)," by Augustine of Ancona; "Is an errant individual bound to recant at the rebuke of a superior?," by William of Ockham; "Questions on Book X of the Ethics," by Jean Buridan; "On civil lordship (selections)," by John Wyclif.]

Mitteis, Heinrich. The State in the Middle Ages: A Comparative Constitutional History of Feudal Europe. Trans. H. F. Orton. North-Holland Medieval Translations 1. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co., 1975. [Trans. of Der Staat des hohen Mittelalters.]

Nederman, Cary J., and Kate Langdon Forhan, eds. Medieval Political Theory: A Reader; The Quest for the Body Politic, 1100-1400. London and New York: Routledge, 1993. ["Translations of . . . texts from the latinized regions of Western Europe, including England, France, Germany, and Italy" (p. [i]).]

Rigaudière. Albert. "The Theory and Practice of Government in Western Europe in the Fourteenth Century." In The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 6: c.1300-1415. Ed. Michael Jones. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Pp. 17-41.

Strohm, Paul. Politique: Languages of Statecraft between Chaucer and Shakespeare. Conway Lectures in Medieval Studies. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005. [Contents: Politique perjury in the Arrivall of Edward IV -- Appendix. The historie of the arrivall of King Edward IV -- Lydgate and the rise of Pollecie in the Mirror tradition -- Fortescue and Pecock: two Parcyalle men -- Waiting for Richard: Yorkist verse, 1460-1461 -- Appendix 1. Balat set upponne the yates of Caunterbury -- Appendix 2. The Holkham verses -- 'Royal christology' and York's paper crown -- Postscript: Tudor Faction.]

D.iii. Neighbours and Strangers: "Horizontal" Relationships / Communal Ideals

Bourin, Monique, and Robert Durand. "Strangers and Neighbors." [Excerpt from their book Vivre au village au moyen âge, translated into English.] In Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings. Ed. Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 1998. Pp. 180-190. [On village life in the Middle Ages (especially France), especially with respect to the treatment of neighbours and the practice of neighbourliness and village solidarity, and the extent to which strangers would be welcomed temporarily or permanently.]

Caine, Barbara. Friendship: A History. Critical Histories of Subjectivity and Culture. London and Oakville, CT: Equinox Publishing, 2009. [Publisher's description: "The meaning and importance of friendship have become questions of increasing interest in recent years, as declining rates of marriage and parenthood have made the family less central and friends more so in the lives of many people, particularly in the western world. Yet the history of friendship, and the ways in which it has changed its form and its meaning over time has only just begun to be discussed. Both historically and in the contemporary world, the language of friendship has not been confined to personal relationships. It is significant also in discussions or descriptions of a range of different ethical systems, social institutions and political alliances. . . . This volume aims to combine an analysis of the major classical philosophical texts of friendship and their continuing importance over many centuries with a broader discussion of the changing ways in which friendship was understood and experienced in Europe from the Hellenic period to the present. It is the result of a collaborative research project that has involved philosophers and historians with special research interests in Classical Greek philosophy and in the history of medieval and renaissance, 18th century 19th and 20th century Europe."
     Contents: The classical ideals of friendship / Dirk Baltzly and Nick Eliopoulos -- Cicero on friendship / Constant J. Mews -- The Latin West / Constant J. Mews and Neville Chiavaroli -- Renaissance friendships: traditional truths, new and dissenting voices / Carolyn James and Bill Kent -- From Christian friendship to secular sentimentality: enlightenment re-evaluations / David Garrioch -- Taking up the pen: women and the writing of friendship / Barbara Caine -- Class, sex, and friendship: the long nineteenth century / Marc Brodie and Barbara Caine -- New worlds of friendship: the early 20th century / Mark Peel -- The importance of friends: the most recent past / Mark Peel, with Liz Reed and James Walter.]

Hammill, Graham. "The Religious Turn: Exegesis Against the Theological Imaginary." English Language Notes 44.1 (Spring, 2006): 157-162. [Abstract: "This article focuses on political theology. The persistent problem of the arcana imperii is political theology. That the sovereign's capacity to produce compliance through intimidation relies on a theological imaginary at the heart of the collective life. Theological imaginary is especially a problem for democracy. Democracy is no solution to political theology. It is just another and stronger form of it."
     An argument related to The Neighbor: Three Inquiries in Political Theology by Slavoj Žižek, Eric L. Santner, and Kenneth Reinhard (Chicago, 2005).]

Reinhard, Kenneth. "Toward a Political Theology of the Neighbor." In The Neighbor: Three Inquiries in Political Theology. By Slavoj Žižek, Eric L. Santner, and Kenneth Reinhard. Religion and Postmodernism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. Pp. 11-75. [Reinhard draws on threads in Lacan and Badiou to develop some considerations on how a political theology of the neighbour could "decomplete" the political theology of the sovereign as outlined by Carl Schmitt (Political Theology). The political theology of the sovereign posits the idea of a sovereign exception, a transgressive ability of the sovereign to declare an emergency, a need to suspend the operation of law; it is this god-like superiority even to law (the ability to cause miracles) that makes the sovereign supreme. (Jesus invokes the sovereign exception ["you have heard it said . . . but I say unto you"] in the process of redefining the law of love of neighbour, declaring that not only is the neighbour to be loved--in which he echoes Lev. 19:18, where the love of neighbour is commanded in a context of outlawing vengeance against "sons of your own people" [i.e., the neighbour is a fellow tribesman]--but in declaring that one's "enemy" is a neighbour, too [18-19].) The first of Reinhard's six "theses concerning the political theology of the neighbor" proposes that "The political theology of the neighbor is supplementary to the political theology of the sovereign. As such, it is not merely an addition to the theory of sovereignty, but decompletes it by subtracting something from the field of the political and naming it the neighbor" (74). In Badiou's formulation of four types of truth (politics, science, art, love), love's response to the political "three" is to focus on the amourous "two" ("decompleting" by subtracting from the political). Reinhard's thoughts towards a political theology of the neighbour draws upon Lacan's formulation of the "not-all" of the feminine coupled with Badiou's ideas of proximity and a "neighbourhood" which is "infinite in its openness, its lack of boundaries, and its lack of obsession with the otherness of the other" (70).]

Summerfield, Thea, and Keith Busby, eds. People and Texts: Relationships in Medieval Literature: Studies Presented to Erik Kooper. Costerus n.s. 166. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2007. [Contents: The human condition, friendship and love: the Epic of Gilgamesh and medieval Arthurian romance / Bart Besamusca -- Kin: Hector and Lancelot in Part 3 of the prose Lancelot / Frank Brandsma -- The Gesta Herewardi: transforming an Anglo-Saxon into an Englishman / Rolf H. Bremmer, Jr. -- Erec, le Fiz Lac (British Libary, Harley 4971) / Keith Busby -- Textual and familial relationships: the place of the Michigan fragment in the evolution of Sir Eglamour / D. J. Curnow and Ad Putter -- Robert de Sorbon on men, women and marriage: The testimony of his De matrimonio and other works / Frans N. M. Diekstra -- Caroline Spurgeon and her relationship to Chaucer: The text of her Viva presentation at the Sorbonne / Juliette Dor -- Wynnere and Wastoure 407-414 and Le Roman de la rose 8813-8854 / Karen Hodder and John Scattergood -- The twenty-five ploughs of Sir John: The tale of Gamelyn and the implications of acreage / Geert van Iersel -- The Trojans in the writings of Wace and Benoît de Sainte-Maure / Douglas Kelly -- Gawain's family and friends: Sir Gawain and the green knight and its allusions to French prose romances / Edward Donald Kennedy -- A Lancashire lease / Jane Roberts -- All human life is here: relationships in Het Spel van Sinnen van Lazarus Doot / Elsa Strietman -- Teaching a young king about history. William Stewart's metrical Chronicle and King James V of Scotland / Thea Summerfield.]

Žižek, Slavoj, Eric L. Santner, and Kenneth Reinhard. The Neighbor: Three Inquiries in Political Theology. Religion and Postmodernism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. [Publisher's description: "In Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud made abundantly clear what he thought about the biblical injunction, first articulated in Leviticus 19:18 and then elaborated in Christian teachings, to love one's neighbor as oneself. 'Let us adopt a naive attitude towards it,' he proposed, 'as though we were hearing it for the first time; we shall be unable then to suppress a feeling of surprise and bewilderment.' In The Neighbor, three of the most significant intellectuals working in psychoanalysis and critical theory collaborate to show how this problem of neighbor-love opens questions that are fundamental to ethical inquiry and that suggest a new theological configuration of political theory."
     CHOICE review: "The Neighbor takes as its foil Freud's critique of the Jewish and Christian obligation to love the neighbor, particularly the universalizing impulse behind the command, which would make every stranger a neighbor. (Freud famously suggested that the neighbor elicited not love, but hostility.) The book brings together three separate essays, which grew out of sustained conversations over time, but nevertheless remain discrete essays. The subtitle's claim that this is a collection concerned with 'political theology' seems a tad stretched. It is properly a collection of essays on Lacanian psychoanalysis with a view to social and political themes. (Knowledge of Lacan seems a prerequisite for reading the book.) But the book makes no reference to--and no contribution to--a wide and growing literature on 'neighbor love' and its sociopolitical implications (particularly in the Catholic theological tradition, drawing on Augustine and Aquinas). Instead, Zizek (Univ. of Ljubljana) offers an idiosyncratic collection with a few gems of insight, including a critique of Levinasian and Derridean accounts of ethical obligation. This will be of interest for those working in psychoanalysis, or those waiting for the next thing from Zizek's pen, but merely optional for others" (J. K. A. Smith).
     Contents: Introduction -- Toward a political theology of the neighbor / Kenneth Reinhard -- Miracles happen: Benjamin, Rosenzweig, Freud, and the matter of the neighbor / Eric L. Santner -- Neighbors and other monsters: a plea for ethical violence / Slavoj Žižek.]

E.i. General Background: The Commons (the Third Estate)

Fossier, Robert. The Axe and the Oath: Ordinary Life in the Middle Ages. Trans. Lydia G. Cochrane. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010. [Trans. of Ces gens du moyen âge. Publisher's description: "Examines what daily life was like for ordinary citizens during the Middle Ages, describing how men and women approached agriculture, animals, the weather, the woodlands, the ocean, their medical knowledge, burial rites, and other social, cultural, and intellectual aspects of life."
     Contents: Part 1, Man and the world -- Naked man -- The ages of life -- Nature -- And the animals? -- Part 2, Man in himself -- Knowledge -- And the soul.]

Moberly, Brent Addison. "'Wayke been the oxen': Plowing, Presumption, and the Third-Estate Ideal in Late Medieval England." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 2007. [DAI 69 (2008-2009): 608A. Abstract: "By examining the ways in which late medieval English commentators engage with the larger medieval tradition of the ideal plowman, this dissertation seeks to contribute to our understanding of labor as a potent site of identity, authority, and conflict in late-fourteenth and early to mid fifteenth-century England. The legacy of the ideal plowman would become increasingly elusive in late fourteenth-century England, as Chaucer, Langland, and other commentators of the period found it more and more difficult to reconcile the realities of post-plague labor practice with the unstinting ideals embodied by the mythical plowman. Increasingly appropriated by dissident interests as an explicit critique of mainstream authority, the trope of the archetypical plowman would endure as a site of controversy well into the following century, but Lancastrian commentators nevertheless adopted it both as precedent for their own labor and as an antidote to what they perceived as a wider problem of presumption in the period. The recovery of exemplary labor by Hoccleve and Lydgate and other official fifteenth-century English commentators thus attests to a wider Lancastrian nostalgia for the evident verticality of lordly privilege. To reprise Chaucer's 'cherles tale' or even to explore, as does Bishop Reginald Pecock, such contemporary horizontal labor relations such as 'service' and 'craft' as alternative models of social order constituted a significant challenge to official efforts to promote the traditional (though increasingly obsolete) dominance of the seigniorial lord over his bonded charges as a central metaphor for royal authority."]

Parker, Charles H., and Jerry H. Bentley, eds. Between the Middle Ages and Modernity: Individual and Community in the Early Modern World. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007. [Contents: Individual and community in the early modern world / Charles H. Parker -- Early modern Europe and the early modern world / Jerry Bentley -- German burghers and peasants in the Reformation and the peasants' war: partners or competitors? / Thomas A. Brady, Jr. -- A tale of two brothers: corporate identity and the revolt in the towns of Holland / Henk van Nierop -- Family and community in the Spanish world / Carla Rahn Phillips -- Individual and community among the medieval travelers to Asia / William D. Phillips Jr. -- Settle or return: migrant communities in Northern Europe, ca. 1600-1800 / Douglas Catterall -- Forcing the doors of heathendom: ethnography, violence and the Dutch East India Company / Sanjay Subrahmanyam -- Creating a littoral community: Muslim reformers in the early modern Indian Ocean world / Michael N. Pearson -- Custom, community, and the crown: lawyers and the reordering of French customary law / Marie Seong-Hak Kim -- The individual on trial in the sixteenth-century Netherlands: between tradition and modernity / Hugo de Schepper, translated by Elizabeth Bradbury Pollnow -- 'They have highly offended the community of God': rituals of ecclesiastical discipline and pastoral membership in the community in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century German parishes / Susan C. Karant-Nunn -- Embodying the Middle Ages, advancing modernity: religious women in sixteenth-and seventeenth-century Europe and beyond / Ulrike Strasser -- The transitional role of Jacques Coeur in the fifteenth century / Kathryn L. Reyerson -- The individual merchant and the trading nation in sixteenth-century Antwerp / Donald J. Harreld -- Between profit and power: the Dutch East India Company and institutional early modernities in the "age of mercantilism" / Markus P. M. Vink.]

Schmitt, Jean Claude. Ghosts in the Middle Ages: The Living and the Dead in Medieval Society. Trans. Teresa Lavender Fagan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. [Trans. of Les Revenants.]

E.ii. Cities and Towns: Urban Economies

Alfonso, I., ed. The Rural History of Medieval European Societies: Trends and Perspectives. The Medieval Countryside 1. Turnhout: Brepols, 2007. [Publisher's description: "This collection gathers a number of scholars to reflect on recent developments in medieval rural history in their respective countries. Each individual contribution surveys recent areas of research, significant results, as well as perspectives for the future. This is meant not only to provide a deeper insight into how medieval rural studies relate to current debates in the social sciences, but also to help understand the connections between specific national historiographic traditions and present-day research issues in their historical context. By comparing different European regions one can see more clearly the similarities and the differences and this is a truer means of constructing syntheses and for identifying fruitful future lines of research."]

Bird, Ruth. The Turbulent London of Richard II. London and New York: Longmans, Green, 1949.

Blair, W. John, and Nigel Ramsay, eds. English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products. London: Hambledon Press, 1991.

Bolton, J. L. The Medieval English Economy, 1150-1500. London: J. M. Dent; Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1980.

Bridbury, A. R. Economic Growth: England in the Later Middle Ages. London: Allen and Unwin, 1962.

Butcher, A. F. "English Urban Society and the Revolt of 1381." In The English Rising of 1381. Ed. R[odney] H[oward] Hilton, and T[revor] H[enry] Aston. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge [etc.]: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Pp. 84-111.

Classen, Albrecht, ed. Urban Space in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Age. Fundamentals of Medieval and Early Modern Culture 4. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2009. [Contents: Urban space in the middle ages and the early modern age: historical, mental, cultural, and social-economic investigations / Albrecht Classen -- The dead and the living: some medieval descriptions of the ruins and relics of Rome known to the English / C. David Benson -- Defining the medieval city through death: a case study / Kisha G. Tracy -- The demographics of urban space in Crusade-period Jerusalem (1099-1187) / Alan V. Murray -- Hereditary laws and city topography: on the development of the Italian notarial archives in the late middle ages / Andreas Meyer -- "A reuer--brighter þen boþe the sunne and mone": the use of water in the medieval consideration of urban space / Britt C.L. Rothauser -- Jews and the city: parameters of Jewish urban life in late medieval Austria / Birgit Wiedl -- Next-door neighbors: aspects of Judeo-Christian cohabitation in medieval France / Rosa Alvarez Perez -- Universal salvation in the earthly city: de civitate dei and the significance of the hazelnut in Julian of Norwich's Showings / Jeanette S. Zissell -- "With teeth clenched and an angry face": vengeance, visitors and judicial power in fourteenth-century France / Patricia Turning -- Urban and liminal space in Chaucer's Knight's tale: perilous or protective? / Jean E. Jost -- Imagining urban life and its discontents: Chaucer's Cook's tale and masculine identity / Daniel F. Pigg -- Women, men, and markets: the gendering of market space in late medieval Ghent / Shennan Hutton -- Anger and the city: who was in charge of the Paris cabochien revolt of 1413? / Lia B. Ross -- "The merchants of my Florence": a socio-political complaint from 1457 / Fabian Alfie -- Urban space divided? The encounter of civic and courtly spheres in late-medieval towns / Jan Hirschbiegel and Gabriel Zeilinger -- Urban literary entertainment in the middle ages and the early modern age: the example of Tyrol / Klaus Amann and Max Siller -- Urban spaces in the Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea / Connie Scarborough -- Hans Sachs and his encomia songs on German cities: zooming into and out of urban space from a poetic perspective: with a consideration of Hartmann Schedel's Liber chronicarum (1493) / Albrecht Classen -- Urban space as social conscience in Isabella Whitney's "Wyll and testament" / Marilyn Sandidge -- Waqf and its influence on the built environment in the medina of the Islamic middle eastern city / Michael E. Bonine -- The role of imperial mosque complexes (1543-1583) in the urbanization of Usküdar / Pýnar Kayaalp -- Early modern Dutch women in the city: the imaging of economic agency and power / Martha Moffitt Peacock -- Sewers, cesspools, and privies: waste as reality and metaphor in pre-modern European cities / Allison P. Coudert.]

Davies, Matthew. "Artisans, Guilds and Government in London." In Daily Life in the Late Middle Ages. Ed. Richard Britnell. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 1998. Pp. 125-150, 214-217.

Dyer, Christopher. Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain, 850-1520. The New Economic History of Britain. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 2002.

Geremek, Bronislaw. The Margins of Society in Late Medieval Paris. Trans. Jean Birrell. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press; Paris: Editions de la maison des sciences de l'homme, 1987. [On the class structures of urban life and those living on the "margins" (criminals, prostitutes, etc.).
     Orig. pub. in Polish as Ludzie marginesu w sredniowiecznym Paryzu, XIV-XV wiek; originally presented as the author's thesis, Warsaw, 1973. The English version is, however, translated from a French version: Les Marginaux parisiens aux XIVe et XVe siècles. Trans. Daniel Beauvois. Révoltes et protestations: Collection l'histoire vivante. Paris: Flammarion, 1976.]

Hicks, Michael, ed. Profit, Piety, and the Professions in Later Medieval England. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1990. [Note: "These papers are the proceedings of the conference on Recent Research in Fifteenth-Century English History . . . at King Alfred's College, Winchester on 10-12 July 1987" (Introduction).]

Hindess, Barry, and Paul Q. Hirst. Mode of Production and Social Formation: An Auto-Critique of "Pre-Capitalist Modes of Production." London: Macmillan, 1977.

Hindess, Barry, and Paul Q. Hirst. Pre-Capitalist Modes of Production. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975.

Kermode, Jenny. Medieval Merchants: York, Beverley, and Hull in the Later Middle Ages. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought 4th ser. 38. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Le Goff, Jacques. Time, Work and Culture in the Middle Ages. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980. [Contents: The several Middle Ages of Jules Michelet -- Merchant's time and church's time in the Middle Ages -- Labor time in the "crisis" of the fourteenth century: from medieval time to modern time -- A note on tripartite society, monarchical ideology, and economic renewal in ninth- to twelfth-century Christendom -- Licit and illicit trades in the medieval west -- Labor, techniques, and craftsmen in the value systems of the early Middle Ages (fifth to tenth centuries) -- Peasants and the rural world in the literature of the early Middle Ages (fifth and and sixth centuries) -- Academic expenses at Padua in the fiftheenth century -- Trades and professions as represented in the medieval confessors' manuals --How did the medieval university conceive of itself -- The universities and the public authorities in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance -- Clerical culture and folklore traditions in Merovingian civilization -- Ecclesiastical culture and folklore in the Middle Ages: Saint Marcellus of Paris and the dragon -- The medieval west and the Indian Ocean: an oneiric horizon -- Dreams in the culture and collective psychology of the medieval west -- Melusina: mother and pioneer -- The historian and the ordinary man -- The symbolic ritual of vassalage. [labour]]

Lis, Catharina, and Hugo Soly. "'An irresistable phalanx': Journeymen Associations in Western Europe, 1300-1800." International Review of Social History 39 Suppl. 2 (1994): 11-52.

Little, Lester K. Religious Poverty and the Profit Economy in Medieval Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1978. [On various medieval ideas of the "apostolic" life.]

McKisak, May. "Trade, Industry, and Towns." Chap. 12 of her The Fourteenth Century, 1307-1399. Oxford History of England 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959. Pp. 349-383.

Miller, Edward, and John Hatcher. Medieval England: Towns, Commerce, and Crafts, 1086-1348. Social and Economic History of England. London and New York: Longman, 1995. [Intended to complement their Medieval England: Rural Society and Economic Change, 1086-1348.]

Moore, Ellen W[edemeyer]. The Fairs of Medieval England: An Introductory Study. Studies and Texts 72. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1985.

Palliser, D. M., ed. The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, Vol. 1: 600-1540. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Palliser, D. M. "Urban Society." In Fifteenth-Century Attitudes: Perceptions of Society in Late Medieval England. Ed. Rosemary Horrox. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Pp. 132-149.

Phythian-Adams, Charles. Desolation of a City: Coventry and the Urban Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Robertson, D. W., Jr. Chaucer's London. New York: Wiley, 1968.

Rörig, Fritz. The Medieval Town. Trans. D. Bryant. London: B. T. Batsford, 1967.

Rosser, Gervase. "Workers' Associations in English Medieval Towns." In Les métiers au Moyen Age: Aspects économiques et sociaux; Actes du Colloque international de Louvain-la-Neuve 7-9 octobre 1993. Ed. Pascale Lambrechts and Jean-Pierre Sosson. Louvain-la-Neuve: Institut d'études médiévales de l'Université Catholique de Louvain, 1994. Pp. 283-305. ["Studies the guilds in the broader context of the social environment in which work was being continuously negotiated, and of the various forms of collective action available to urban workers" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Salzman, L[ouis] F[rancis]. English Industries of the Middle Ages, being an Introduction to the Industrial History of Medieval England. London: Constable, 1913.

Scattergood, [Vincent] John. "Chaucer in the Suburbs." In Medieval Literature and Antiquities: Studies in Honour of Basil Cottle. Ed. Myra Stokes, and T. L. Burton. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1987. Pp. 145-162. [On London: the walled city, the countryside, the suburb.
     Rpt. in his Reading the Past: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 1996. Pp. 128-145.]

Schofield, John. The Building of London, From the Norman Conquest to the Great Fire. 2nd ed. London: British Museum Publications, in association with the Museum of London, 1993.

Smith, [Joshua] Toulmin, ed. English Gilds: The Original Ordinances of More Than One Hundred Early English Gilds Together with "Ye olde usages of ye city of Wynchestre," "The Ordinances of Woccester," "The office of the Mayor of Bristol" and "Customary of the manor of Tettenhall-Regis" from Manuscripts of the 14th and 15th Centuries. Early English Text Society, Original Series 40. London: Oxford University Press, for the Early English Text Society, 1963.

Swanson, Heather Crichton. "Craftsmen and Industry in Late Medieval York." Ph.D. thesis, University of York, 1980.

Thomson, John A. F., ed. Towns and Townspeople in the Fifteenth Century. Stroud, Gloucestershire, and Wolfeboro Falls, NH: Alan Sutton, 1988.

Thrupp, Sylvia L. The Merchant Class of Medieval London, 1300-1500. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948.

Unwin, George. The Gilds and Companies of London. 4th ed. Introd. William F. Kahl. London: Frank Cass, 1963.

Vitullo, Juliann M., and Diane Wolfthal, eds. Money, Morality, and Culture in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2010. [Publisher's description: "Exploring the intersection of economics, morality, and culture, this collection analyzes the role of the developing monetary economy in Western Europe from the 12th to the 17th century. It shows how money infiltrated every aspect of everyday life, modified notions of social identity, and encouraged debates about ethical uses of wealth."
     Contents: "Nerehand nothyng to pay or to take": poverty, labor, and money in four Towneley plays / Robert S. Sturges -- The incivility of Judas: "manifest" usury as a metaphor for the "infamy of fact" (infamia facti) / Giacomo Todeschini -- The devil's evangelists?: Moneychangers in Flemish urban society / James M. Murray -- Whores as shopkeepers: money and sexuality in Aretino's Ragionamenti / Ian Frederick Moulton -- The sound of money in late medieval music / Michael Long -- Anxieties of currency exchange in Middleton and Rowley's The changeling / Bradley D. Ryner -- "To honor God and enrich Florence in things spiritual and temporal": piety, commerce, and art in the Humiliati order / Julia I. Miller and Laurie Taylor-Mitchell -- Trading values: negotiating masculinity in late medieval and early modern Europe / Juliann Vitullo and Diane Wolfthal -- Abigail Mathieu's civic charity: social reform and the search for personal immortality / Kathleen Ashley.]

E.iii. Vernacular Architecture / Domestic Space

Barley, Maurice [Willmore]. The English Farmhouse and Cottage. 1961; London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976.

Barley, Maurice [Willmore]. Houses and History. London: Faber and Faber, 1986. [A history of houses in England to ca. 1900, including medieval castles, hall houses, etc. Chap. 8: "Peasant Houses in the Middle Ages."]

Barnwell, P. S., and A. T. Adams. The House Within: Interpreting Medieval Houses of Kent. London: HMSO, for the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, 1994.

Brody, Saul N. "Making a Play for Criseyde: The Staging of Pandarus's House in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde." Speculum 73 (1998): 115-140. [Brody reconsiders some of the issues about the domestic setting of Troilus of Criseyde, especially Pandarus's house, which were raised in Smyser, "The Domestic Background to Troilus and Criseyde"; Brody fills out some of the hints about the architectural nature of Pandarus's house (which he sees as being of an "upper hall" type), Troilus's entry to the bedroom from the "stew," etc., and argues for a kind of dramatic scene setting in Chaucer's text (with the trap door in the floor reminiscent of mystery play sets in which demons appear rising from hell).]

Brown, Peter. "The Containment of Symkyn: The Function of Space in the Reeve's Tale." Chaucer Review 14 (1979-1980): 225-236.

Brunskill, R. W. Vernacular Architecture: An Illustrated Handbook. 4th ed. London: Faber and Faber, 2000. [Previous editions published under the title Illustrated Handbook of Vernacular Architecture (1987). An encyclopedic guide to the basic types of houses in English history.]

Grenville, Jane. Medieval Housing. The Archaeology of Medieval Britain. London and Washington: Leicester University Press, 1997.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Medieval English Women in Rural and Urban Domestic Space." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 52 (1998): 19-26.

Johnson, Matthew. Housing Culture: Traditional Architecture in an English Landscape. London: UCL Press; Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. [Includes a discussion of the structure and layout of medieval houses and fields (including social uses of interior space).]

Kingsford, C[harles] L[ethbridge]. "Historical Notes on Mediaeval London Houses." London Topographical Record 10 (1916): 44-144; 11 (1917): 28-81; 12 (1920): 1-66.

McKinney, Carole Lynn. "Women's Domestic Space in Selected Works of Medieval Literature." M.A. thesis, North Carolina State University, 1999.

Pearson, Sarah. The Medieval Houses of Kent: An Historical Analysis. London: HMSO, for the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, 1994.

Pearson, Sarah, P. S. Barnwell, and A. T. Adams. A Gazetteer of Medieval Houses of Kent. London: HMSO, for the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, 1994.

Samson, Ross, ed. The Social Archaeology of Houses. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990.

Schofield, John. Medieval London Houses. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, 1994.

Schofield, John. "Social Perception of Space in Medieval and Tudor London Houses." In Meaningful Architecture: Social Interpretations of Buildings. Ed. Martin Locock. Worldwide Archaeology Series 9. Aldershot, Hampshire, and Brookfield, VT: Avebury, 1994. Pp. 188-206.

Smith, J. T., P[atrick] A[rthur] Faulkner, and Anthony Emery. Studies in Medieval Domestic Architecture. Ed. M. J. Swanton. Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland: Monographs. London: Royal Archaeological Institute, 1975. [Contents: "Timber-Framed Building in England," by J. T. Smith (1-26 and Pls. I-VIII); "Medieval Aisled Halls and Their Derivatives," by J. T. Smith (27-44 and Pls. IX-X); "Medieval Roofs: A Classification," by J. T. Smith (45-83 and Pls. XI-XVI); "Domestic Planning from the Twelfth to the Fourteenth Centuries," by P. A. Faulkner (84-117); "Medieval Undercrofts and Town Houses," by P. A. Faulkner (118-133); "Dartington Hall, Devonshire," by Anthony Emery (134-152 and Pls. XVII-XX).]

Smith, Peter. Houses of the Welsh Countryside: A Study in Historical Geography. Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales. London: HMSO, 1975. [A thorough catalogue of house styles from the Middle Ages and modern periods; wonderfully illustrated with photographs, floor plans, and "cutaway" drawings (allowing a view of the interior and exterior in a single drawing).]

Smyser, H. M. "The Domestic Background of Troilus and Criseyde." Speculum 31 (1956): 297-315. [An attempt to imagine the houses of Troilus and Criseyde, especially Criseyde's house, as an aid to better understanding the poem.]

Sykes, Christopher. Ancient English Houses, 1240-1612. London: Chatto and Windus, 1990.

Thompson, Michael [Welman]. The Medieval Hall: The Basis of Secular Domestic Life, 600-1600 AD. Aldershot: Scolar Press; Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1995. [A history of the Great Hall in medieval Britain and Europe. Publisher's description: "This is the first general account of the history of the great hall in Britain and continental Europe from Anglo-Saxon times to the late middle ages. Using a wide range of literary and archaeological sources in combination with close examination of standing halls and remains, Michael Thompson describes and interprets the development of one of the dominant architectural features of medieval life. He also examines the social functions of the hall--the 'hall-culture,' a way of life turning on the great room at the social and physical centre of secular and religious communities. This broad, well-illustrated and ambitious review will be of great interest to architectural historians, of course, but its social-cultural approach makes it equally valuable to students of medieval history and literature. It informs and is informed by studies of literary sources as diverse as Beowulf and Gawain, monastic rules and Arthurian poetry." Contents: Introduction; "Halls before the Norman Conquest"; "France and Germany"; "The Monastic Refectory"; "The Hall in the Castle"; "The Triumph of the Native Style"; "The Downward Spread"; "The Hall in the Later Middle Ages"; "The Decline of the Hall"; Conclusion.]

Wood, Margaret. The English Mediaeval House. London: Phoenix House, 1965.

Woods, William F. "Private and Public Space in the Miller's Tale." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 166-178.

E.iv. Love, Marriage, Sexuality

Allen, Peter L. "Ars Amandi, Ars Legendi: Love Poetry and Literary Theory in Ovid, Andreas Capellanus, and Jean de Meun." Exemplaria 1 (1989): 181-205.

Andreas Capellanus. The Art of Courtly Love. Trans. John Jay Parry. 1941; New York: W. W. Norton, 1969.

Benson, Larry D. "Courtly Love and Chivalry in the Later Middle Ages." In Fifteenth-Century Studies: Recent Essays. Ed. Robert F. Yeager. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1984. Pp. 237-257.

Benton, John F. "The Evidence for Andreas Capellanus Re-Examined Again." Studies in Philology 59 (1962): 471-478.

Bloch, R. Howard. Medieval Misogyny and the Invention of Western Romantic Love. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Boase, Roger. The Origin and Meaning of Courtly Love: A Critical Study of European Scholarship. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1977.

Brook, Leslie C., ed. Two Late Medieval Love Treatises: Heloises's Art d'Amour and a Collection of Demandes d'Amour. Medium Ævum Monographs ns 16. Oxford: Society for the Study of Mediæval Languages and Literature, 1993.

Brooke, Christopher. The Medieval Idea of Marriage. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.

Bullough, Vern L., and James A. Brundage, eds. Handbook of Medieval Sexuality. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1696. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996. [Includes essays on canon law and church teaching, on medical teachings about sex and procreation, on medieval gender, on medieval marriage, on homosexuality, cross dressing, prostitution, contraception, and castration.]

Bullough, Vern L., and James Brundage, eds. Sexual Practices and the Medieval Church. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1982.

Burnley, J. D. "Fine Amor: Its Meaning and Context." Review of English Studies ns 31 (1980): 139-148.

Camille, Michael. The Medieval Art of Love: Objects and Subjects of Desire. London: Laurence King; New York: Abrams, 1998. [The symbolism of love in European art (paintings, illuminations, tapestries, jewellry) of the Middle Ages.]

Cartlidge, Neil. Medieval Marriage: Literary Approaches, 1100-1300. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1997.

Cherchi, Paolo. Andreas and the Ambiguity of Courtly Love. Toronto Italian Studies. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

Clark, Anna. Desire: A History of European Sexuality. New York and London: Routledge, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Desire: A History of European Sexuality is a sweeping survey of sexuality in Europe from the Greeks to the present day. It traces two concepts of sexual desire that have competed in European history: desire as dangerous, polluting, and disorderly; and desire as creative, transcendent, even revolutionary. This book follows these changing attitudes toward sexuality through the major turning points of European history. The book ends by demonstrating that western European sexual culture is quite distinct from many other cultures, as the Christian hostility to sexual desire has lost influence. At the same time, the vision of sexual desire as revolutionary seems to have faded. Written in a lively and engaging style the book contains many fascinating anecdotes drawing on a rich array of sources including poetry, novels, pornography and film as well as court records, autobiographies and personal letters. While Anna Clark builds on the work of dozens of historians, she also takes a fresh approach and introduces the concepts of twilight moments and sexual economies. Desire integrates the history of heterosexuality with same-sex desire, and focuses on the emotions of love as well as the passions of lust, the politics of sex as well as the personal experiences."
     Contents: Introduction: Sexuality and the problem of Western civilization -- Sex and the city: Greece and Rome -- Divine desire in Judaism and early Christianity -- Medieval fantasies of desire, sacred and profane -- From twilight moments to moral panics: the regulation of sex from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century -- Age of exploration: sexual contact and culture clash in Spain and colonial Mesoamerica -- Enlightening desire: new attitudes toward sexuality in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries -- In the Victorian twilight: sex out-of-wedlock, sexual commerce, and same-sex desire, 1750-1870 -- Boundaries of the nation, boundaries of the self: 1860-1914 -- Managing desire or consuming sex in interwar culture -- Sex and the state in the 1930s: Sweden, the Soviet Union, and Nazi Germany -- Reconstruction of desire and sexual consumerism in postwar Europe.]

Coghill, N[eville] K. "Love and 'Foul Delight': Some Contrasted Attitudes." In Patterns of Love and Courtesy: Essays in Memory of C. S. Lewis. Ed. John Lawlor. London: Edward Arnold, 1966. Pp. 141-156.

Cooney, Helen, ed. Writings on Love in the English Middle Ages. Studies in Arthurian and Courtly Cultures. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. [Contents: "The Tenacity of Courtly Love," Bernard O'Donoghue; "Love before Troilus," Helen Cooper; "Love and Loyalty in Middle English Romances," Corinne Saunders; "'The Unequal Scales of Love': Love and Social Class in Andreas Capellanus' De Amore and Some Other Texts," John Scattergood; "'Swich a so my wit kan nat diffyne': Defining Loves in Troilus and Criseyde," Barry Windeatt; "Passion, Interiority, and Philosophical Debate in Troilus," Helen Phillips; "'To see and Not To Be Seen': The Flower and the Leafe and Social and Aesthetic Crisis in the Fifteenth Century," Helen Cooney; "The Wisdom of Old Women: Alisoun of Bath as Auctrice," Alastair Minnis; "'Nat that I chalange any thing of right': Love, Loyalty, and Legality in the Franklin's Tale," Neil Cartlidge; "Romancing the Rose: The Readings of Chaucer and Christine," Martha Driver; "Entrapment or Empowement?: Women and Discourses of Love and Marriage in the Fifteenth Century," Carol M. Meale; "Writing about Love in Late Medieval Scotland," Priscilla Bawcutt.]

Crosland, Jessie. "Ovid's Contribution to the Conception of Love known as 'L'Amour courtois.'" Modern Language Review 42 (1947): 199-206.

Davis, Isabel, Miriam Mtiller, and Sarah Rees Jones, eds. Love, Marriage and Family Ties in the Middle Ages. International Medieval Research. Turnhout: Brepols, 2003. [Publisher's description: "This volume addresses the current fashion for research on the family and domesticity in the past. It draws together work from various disciplines--historical, art-historical and literary--with their very different source materials and from a broad geographical area, including some countries--such as Croatia and Poland--which are not usually considered in standard text books on the medieval family. This volume considers the various affective relationships within and around the family and the manner in which those relationships were regulated and ritualized in more public arenas. Despite their disparate approaches and geographical spread, these essays share many thematic concerns; the ideologies which structured gender roles, inheritance rights, incest law and the ethics of domestic violence, for example, are all considered here. This collection originates from the Leeds IMC in 2001 when the special strand was entitled 'Domus and Familia' and attracted huge participation. This book aims to reflect that richness and variety whilst contributing to an expanding area of historical enquiry."]

Denomy, A. J. "The De amore of Andreas Capellanus and the Condemnation of 1277." Mediaeval Studies 8 (1946): 107-149.

Denomy, A. J. The Heresy of Courtly Love. New York: D. X. McMullen, 1947.

Donaldson, E. Talbot. "The Myth of Courtly Love." Ventures 5.2 (1965): 16-23.

Duby, Georges. The Knight, the Lady, and the Priest: The Making of Modern Marriage in Medieval France. Trans. Barbara Bray. New York: Pantheon Books, 1983. [Trans. of Le chevalier, la femme et le prètre.]

Duby, Georges. Medieval Marriage: Two Models from Twelfth-Century France. Trans. Elborg Forster. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.

Edwards, Robert R., and Stephen Spector, eds. The Olde Daunce: Love, Friendship, Sex and Marriage in the Medieval World. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1991.

Elliott, Dyan. Spiritual Marriage: Sexual Abstinence in Medieval Wedlock. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Ferrand, Jacques. A Treatise on Lovesickness. Trans. Donald A. Beecher and Massimo Ciavolella. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1990.

Ferrante, Joan M. "Cortes' Amor in Medieval Texts." Speculum 55 (1980): 686-695.

Ferrante, Joan M., and George D. Economou, eds. In Pursuit of Perfection: Courtly Love in Medieval Literature. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1975.

Gies, Frances, and Joseph Gies. Marriage and the Family in the Middle Ages. New York: Harper and Row, 1987.

Haskell, Ann S. "The Paston Women on Marriage in Fifteenth-Century England." Viator 4 (1973): 459-471.

Jackson, W. T. H. "The De amore of Andreas Capellanus and the Practice of Love at Court." Romanic Review 49 (1958): 243-251.

Jaeger, C. Stephen. Ennobling Love: In Search of a Lost Sensibility. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. [Publisher's description: "Stephen Jaeger contends that love and sex in the Middle Ages related to each other very differently than in the post-medieval period. Love was not only a mode of feeling and desiring, or an exclusively private sentiment, but a way of behaving and a social ideal. It was a form of aristocratic self-representation, its social function to show forth virtue in lovers, to raise their inner worth, to increase their honor and enhance their reputation."]

Kahn-Blumstein, Andrée. Misogyny and Idealization in the Courtly Romance. Studien zur Germanistik, Anglistik und Komparatistik 41. Bonn: Bouvier, 1977.

Karras, Ruth Mazo. Sexuality in Medieval Europe: Doing Unto Others. London and New York: Routledge, 2005. [Publisher's description: "Combining research with original interpretations, and quoting sources from medieval Christian Europe, Jewish medieval culture and the Islamic world, this highly readable study provides an overview of medieval culture and how it developed sexual identities that were quite different from the identities we think of today. Using a wide collection of evidence from the late antique period up until the fifteenth century, this informative and intriguing volume illustrates how sex in medieval times was understood, and how, consequently, gender roles and identities were seen very differently from the ways in which our society defines them. Challenging the way the Middle Ages have been treated in general histories of sexuality, the author examines how views at the time were conflicted and complicated. Focusing on 'normal' sexual activity as well as what was seen as transgressive, the chapters cover topics such as chastity, sex within marriage, the role of the church, and non-reproductive activity."
     Contents: 1. Sex and the Middle Ages 2. The Sexuality of Chastity 3. Sex and Marriage 4. Women Outside of Marriage 5. Men Outside of Marriage. Afterword: Medieval and Modern Sexuality.]

Kelly, Douglas. Medieval Imagination: Rhetoric and the Poetry of Courtly Love. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978.

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Love and Marriage in the Age of Chaucer. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1975.

Lampe, David. "Sex Roles and the Role of Sex in Medieval English Literature." In Handbook of Medieval Sexuality. Ed. Vern L. Bullough and James A. Brundage. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1696. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996. Pp. 401-426. [On "bedroom scenes" from Beowulf to Malory, with significant sections on Gawain and the Green Knight, Gower, Langland, and (especially) Chaucer.]

Lazar, Moshé. Amour courtois et "fin'amors" dans la littérature du XIIe siècle. Paris: C. Klincksieck, 1964.

Lazar, Moshé. "Cupid, the Lady, and the Poet: Modes of Love at Eleanor of Aquitaine's Court." In Eleanor of Aquitaine: Patron and Politician. Ed. William W. Kibler, Ernest R. Haden and James F. M. Stephens. Symposia in the Arts and Humanities 3. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976. Pp. 35-59.

Lipton, Emma. Affections of the Mind: The Politics of Sacramental Marriage in Late Medieval English Literature. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "Affections of the Mind argues that a politicised negotiation of issues of authority in the institution of marriage can be found in late medieval England, where an emergent middle class used a sacramental model of marriage to exploit contradictions within medieval theology and social hierachy."
     Contents: Introduction: the politics of sacramental marriage in late medieval culture -- Married friendship: an ideology for the franklin -- Public voice, private life: marriage and masculinity in John Gower's Traité -- Performing reform: marriage, lay piety, and sacramental theater in the N-town Mary plays -- The marriage of love and sex: Margery Kempe and bourgeois lay identity.]

MacFarlane, Alan. Marriage and Love in England, 1300-1840. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.

Mackin, Theodore. The Marital Sacrament. Marriage in the Catholic Church. New York: Paulist Press, 1989.

Mahoney, John F. "The Evidence for Andreas Capellanus in Re-Examination." Studies in Philology 55 (1958): 1-6.

Mathew, Gervase. "Marriage and Amour Courtois in Late Fourteenth-Century England." In Essays Presented to Charles Williams. Ed. C. S. Lewis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1947. Pp. 128-135.

McCarthy, Conor, ed. Love, Sex and Marriage in the Middle Ages: A Sourcebook. London and New York: Routledge, 2003. [Publisher's description: "Including many texts available for the first time in modern English translation, Conor McCarthy brings together a wide array of writings as well as informative introductions and explanations, to give a vivid impression of how love, sex and marriage were dealt with as central issues of medieval life. With extracts from literary and theological works, medical and legal writings, conduct books, chronicles and love letters, the writings range from well known texts such as the Letters of Abelard and Heloise, Beowulf and The Canterbury Tales to less familiar sources such as church legislation or court case proceedings. An indispensable sourcebook for all students and teachers of medieval history, literature and culture, Love, Sex and Marriage in the Middle Ages contains a wide breadth of material showing the diverse and sometimes disparate approaches to love, sex and marriage in medieval culture, brilliantly illustrating contemporary attitudes and ideologies."
     Contents: 1. Ecclesiastical Sources: The Church Fathers; Anglo-Saxon England; Theology and Canon Law; Canon Law and Actual Practice. 2. Legal Sources: Anglo-Saxon Law; Norman Law. 3. Biographies, Letters, Chronicles, Conduct Books: Saints' Lives and Female Religious Writings; Letters; Chronicles; Conduct Books. 4. Literary Sources: Old English Literature; Latin Literature; Old French Literature; Middle English Literature. 5. Medical Writings: Medical Writings on Women's Health; Medical Writings on Love.]

McSheffrey, Shannon. Marriage, Sex, and Civic Culture in Late Medieval London. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. [Publisher's description: "How were marital and sexual relationships woven into the fabric of late medieval society, and what form did these relationships take? Using extensive documentary evidence from both the ecclesiastical court system and the records of city and royal government, as well as advice manuals, chronicles, moral tales, and liturgical texts, Shannon McSheffrey focuses her study on England's largest city in the second half of the fifteenth century.
     "Marriage was a religious union--one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church and imbued with deep spiritual significance--but the marital unit of husband and wife was also the fundamental domestic, social, political, and economic unit of medieval society. As such, marriage created political alliances at all levels, from the arena of international politics to local neighborhoods. Sexual relationships outside marriage were even more complicated. McSheffrey notes that medieval Londoners saw them as variously attributable to female seduction or to male lustfulness, as irrelevant or deeply damaging to society and to the body politic, as economically productive or wasteful of resources. Yet, like marriage, sexual relationships were also subject to control and influence from parents, relatives, neighbors, civic officials, parish priests, and ecclesiastical judges.
     "Although by medieval canon law a marriage was irrevocable from the moment a man and a woman exchanged vows of consent before two witnesses, in practice marriage was usually a socially complicated process involving many people. McSheffrey looks more broadly at sex, governance, and civic morality to show how medieval patriarchy extended a far wider reach than a father's governance over his biological offspring. By focusing on a particular time and place, she not only elucidates the culture of England's metropolitan center but also contributes generally to our understanding of the social mechanisms through which premodern European people negotiated their lives."]

Miller, Robert P. "The Wounded Heart: Courtly Love and the Medieval Antifeminist Tradition." Women's Studies 2 (1977): 335-350.

Moi, Toril. "Desire in Language: Andreas Capellanus and the Controversy of Courtly Love." In Medieval Literature: Criticism, Ideology and History. Ed. David Aers. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986. Pp. 11-33.

Monson, Don A. "Andreas Capellanus and the Problem of Irony." Speculum 63 (1988): 539-572.

Newman, Francis X., ed. The Meaning of Courtly Love. Albany: State University of New York, 1968.

O'Donoghue, Bernard. The Courtly Love Tradition. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1982.

Payer, Pierre J. The Bridling of Desire: Ideas of Sex in the Later Middle Ages. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993. [Publisher's description: "The later Middle Ages saw the emergence of an integral theory of human sexuality, a systematic account of its origins, role, and significance in the divine plan. Instead of simply dismissing medieval views of sex as misogynist and guilt-ridden, Pierre Payer urges a re-examination of medieval writers' understanding of sexuality within the context of their cosmological perspective." Cf. Beryl Rowland's comment in her review of this book and his Sex and the Penitentials (reviewed together), in Florilegium 14 (1995-1996): 205-211; p. 211: "Taking issue with the popular, present-day view that the sexual codes were devised by neurotic misogynists, obsessed by sex and an overwhelming sense of personal guilt, Payer skillfully argues the contrary view that the writers were for the most part learned, dispassionate philosophers and that the nature, intention, and morality of sex as conceived by them was positive and reasonable."]

Payer, Pierre J. Sex and the New Medieval Literature of Confession, 1150-1300. Studies and Texts 163. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2009. [Publisher's description: "This volume rounds out an important trilogy of studies by Pierre Payer on the topic of sex in the ecclesiastical thought and writings of the Middle Ages."]

Reiss, Edmund. "Fin'Amors: Its History and Meaning in Medieval Literature." Medieval and Renaissance Studies [8]. Ed. Dale B. J. Randall. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1979. Pp. 74-99.

Reynolds, Philip Lyndon, and John Witte, eds. To Have and to Hold: Marrying and its Documentation in Western Christendom, 400-1600. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. [Contents: Marrying and its documentation in pre-modern Europe: consent, celebration, and property / Philiip L. Reynolds -- Marrying and its documentation in later Roman law / Judith Evans-Grubbs -- Marrying and the tabulae nuptiales in Roman North Africa from Tertullian to Augustine / David G. Hunter -- Dotal charters in the Frankish tradition / Philip L. Reynolds -- Marriage and diplomatics: five dower charters from the regions of Laon and Soisson, 1163-1181 / Laurent Morelle -- Marriage agreements from twelfth century Southern France / Cynthia Johnson -- Marriage contracts in medieval England / R. H. Helmholz -- Marriage contracts and the church courts of fourteenth century England / Frederik Pedersen -- Marrying and marriage litigation in medieval Ireland / Art Cosgrove -- Marriage contracts in medieval Iceland / Agnes S. Arnórsdóttir -- Contracting marriage in Renaissance Florence / Thomas Kuehm -- Marital property law as socio-cultural text: the case of late-medieval Douai / Martha C. Howell -- Marriage contracts, liturgies, and properties in Reformation Geneva / John Witte, Jr.]

Rider, Catherine. Magic and Impotence in the Middle Ages. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. [Contents: 'My lady knows impious things': impotence magic in the ancient world -- 'What adulterous women do': the early middle ages, c.800-c.1100 -- Impotence magic enters the academic world, 1100-1190 -- How to bind a man or woman: impotence in the magical texts -- 'Everywhere on earth, certain idolatries reign': pastoral literature, 1200-1400 -- Annulment procedures and frivolous cures: canon law, 1200-1400 -- Necromancers, confessions, and the power of demons: theology, 1220-1400 -- Herbs and magic: medicine, 1240-1400 -- Impotence magic and the rise of witchcraft.]

Robertson, D. W., Jr. "The Concept of Courtly Love as an Impediment to the Understanding of Medieval Texts." In his Essays in Medieval Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980. Pp. 265-272.

Salisbury, Eve, ed. The Trials and Joys of Marriage. Middle English Texts. Kalamazoo, MI: Published for TEAMS (The Consortium for the Teaching of the Middle Ages), by Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 2002. [Publisher's description: "The disparate texts in this anthology, produced in England between the late thirteenth and the early sixteenth centuries, challenge, and in some cases parody and satirize, the institution of marriage. 'In so doing,' according to the Introduction, 'they allow us to interrogate the traditional assumptions that shape the idea of the medieval household. The trials of marriage seem to outweigh its joys at times and, as some of these texts suggest, maintaining a sense of humor in the face of what must have been great difficulty could have been no easy task.'
     "The texts bridge generic categories. Some are obscure, written by anonymous authors; others are familiar, written by the likes of John Lydgate, John Wyclif, and William Dunbar. Taken together they suggest that, despite the fact that marriage had become a sacrament in the twelfth century and was increasingly recognized by ecclesiastical and secular authorities as a valuable social institution, it was not always a stabilizing and orderly social force."]

Scaglione, Aldo. Nature and Love in the Late Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.

Schnell, Rüdiger. "The Discourse on Marriage in the Middle Ages." Trans. Andrew Shields. Speculum 73 (1998): 771-786. [Challenges the assumption that medieval discourse on marriage was antifeminist, and that antifeminist attitudes were to be expected among medieval priests; Schnell studies marriage sermons and finds that they generally encourage mutuality, and that they were more likely to blame men than to blame women for marital failures.]

Schultz, James A[lfred]. Courtly Love, the Love of Courtliness, and the History of Sexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. [Contents: Courtly sexuality and the history of love -- Causa materialis: what sort of bodies are involved? -- Parzival's penis: a brief history -- The sexual identity of courtly lovers -- The aphrodisiac body on display -- Causa efficiens: what gets them going? -- The danger of heterosexuality -- Love without desire -- Aristophilia -- Causa formalis: how do they manage it? -- Single singers: suffering alone in public -- Chivalric couples: knights, ladies, and marriage -- Secret lovers: Tristan, Isold, and the watchman at dawn -- Causa finalis: what do they get out of it? -- Four degrees of intimacy -- Taking courtly love at its word -- Masculine anxiety and the consolations of fiction.]

Steadman, J. M. "'Courtly Love' as a Problem of Style." In Chaucer und seine Zeit, ed. Arno Esch. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1968. Pp. 1-33.

Turville-Petre, Thorlac. "Love and Marriage." Chap. 6 of his Reading Middle English Literature. Blackwell Introductions to Literature 15. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Pp. 160-194. [Seems to be a good and careful introduction to the subject; acknowledges that the Church had very positive things to say about marriage (alongside a strong ascetic tradition).]

Utley, Francis Lee. "Must We Abandon the Concept of Courtly Love?" Medievalia et Humanistica ns 3 (1972): 299-324.

Wack, Mary F. Lovesickness in the Middle Ages: The Viaticum and its Commentaries. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.

Weigand, Hermann J. Three Chapters on Courtly Love in Arthurian France and Germany. New York: AMS Press, 1966.

Wells, Marion A. The Secret Wound: Love-Melancholy and Early Modern Romance. Figurae. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007. [Contents: Introduction: Love-melancholy and early modern romance -- From Amor hereos to love-melancholy: a medico-literary history -- "Vulnus caecum": the secret wound of love-melancholy -- "Solvite me": epic, romance, and the poetics of melancholy in Orlando Furioso --"Il primo error": love-melancholy in Gerusalemme Liberata -- Rewriting romance: Arthur's "secret wound" and the "lamentable lay" of elegy -- "The love-sicke hart": female love-melancholy and the romance quest -- Conclusion: La Belle Dame Sans Merci: romance and the dream of "language strange."]

Witte, John, Jr. From Sacrament to Contract: Marriage, Religion, and Law in the Western Tradition. The Family, Religion, and Culture Series. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1997. [Chap. 1 is on marriage in the Middle Ages.]

E.v. Family and Household: Domestic Economies

Beattie, C., A. Maslakovic, and S. Rees Jones. The Medieval Household in Christian Europe c.850-c.1550. York Studies in the Urban Household. Turnhout: Brepols, 2004. [Publisher's description: "What was the role of the Christian household in medieval Europe? Contributors to this volume of collected essays write from a number of disciplinary perspectives, examine socially diverse households, from different regions, in different periods. The volume both includes areas not often covered in English-language publications, such as Portugal and Croatia, and offers new approaches to more familiar material. It is divided into thematic sections. The first three explore how power, wealth, and the body were managed within the household and, in turn, helped to define the household's role in society and politics, with contributors using a range of legal, literary, and devotional texts. The fourth section locates the household in a wider economy of possessions by examining how material culture helped define spaces and relationships within households."]

Ellickson, Robert C. The Household: Informal Order Around the Hearth. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Some people dwell alone, many in family-based households, and an adventuresome few in communes. The Household is the first book to systematically lay bare the internal dynamics of these and other home arrangements. Legal underpinnings, social considerations, and economic constraints all influence how household participants select their homemates and govern their interactions around the hearth. Robert Ellickson applies transaction cost economics, sociological theory, and legal analysis to explore issues such as the sharing of household output, the control of domestic misconduct, and the ownership of dwelling units. Drawing on a broad range of historical and statistical sources, Ellickson contrasts family-based households with the more complex arrangements in medieval English castles, Israeli kibbutzim, and contemporary cohousing communities. He shows that most individuals, when structuring their home relationships, pursue a strategy of consorting with intimates. This, he asserts, facilitates informal coordination and tends ultimately to enhance the quality of domestic interactions. He challenges utopian critics who seek to enlarge the scale of the household and legal advocates who urge household members to rely more on written contracts and lawsuits. Ellickson argues that these commentators fail to appreciate the great advantages in the home setting of informally associating with a handful of trusted intimates."
     Contents: How households differ from families -- Household formation and dissolution in a liberal society -- The predominant strategy: consorting with intimates -- A historical overview of household forms -- Are the household forms that endure necessarily best? -- Choosing which of a household's participants should serve as its owners -- The mixed blessings of joining with others -- Order without law in an ongoing household -- The challenge of unpacking the household.]

Herlihy, David. Medieval Households. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.

Houlbrooke, Ralph A. The English Family, 1450-1700. Themes in British Social History. London and New York: Longman, 1984.

Itnyre, Cathy Jorgensen, ed. Medieval Family Roles: A Book of Essays. Garland Medieval Casebooks 15; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1727. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1996.

Kowaleski, Maryanne and P. J. P. Goldberg, ed. Medieval Domesticity: Home, Housing and Household in Medieval England. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. [Publisher's description: "This volume explores the concept of domesticity and addresses its many cultural, material and ideological dimensions. It sheds light on the diverse representations and multiple meanings of domesticity in texts, images, objects, and architecture."
     Contents: Introduction; Medieval domesticity: home, housing and household / P. J. P. Goldberg and Maryanne Kowaleski -- "Burgeis" domesticity in late-medieval England / Felicity Riddy; Buttery and pantry and their antecedents: idea and architecture in the English medieval house / Mark Gardiner; Building domesticity in the city: English urban housing before the Black Death / Sarah Rees Jones; Urban and rural houses and households in the late Middle Ages: a case study from Yorkshire / Jane Grenville; The fashioning of bourgeois domesticity in later medieval England: a material culture perspective / P. J. P. Goldberg; Nuns at home: the domesticity of sacred space / Marilyn Oliva; "Which may be said to be her own": widows and goods in late-medieval England / Janet S. Loengard; Weeping for the virtuous wife: laymen, affective piety, and Chaucer's "Clerk's tale" / Nicole Nolan Sidhu; On the sadness of not being a bird: late-medieval marriage ideologies and the figure of Abraham in William Langland's Piers Plowman / Isabel Davis; Fragments of (Have your) desire: Brome women at play / Nicola McDonald; Home visits: Mary, Elizabeth, Margery Kempe and the feast of the Visitation / Mary C. Erler.]

Maddern, Philippa C., Andrew Lynch, and Anne M. Scott, eds. "Houses, Households and Families in Medieval and Early Modern Europe." A Special Issue of Parergon 24.2 (2007).

McNamara, Jo Ann Kay, and Suzanne Wemple. "The Power of Women Through the Family in Medieval Europe, 500-1100." In Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Ed. Maryanne Kowaleski and Mary Erler. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. Pp. 83-101.

Mitchell, Linda Elizabeth. Family Life in the Middle Ages. Family Life through History. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 2007. [Contents: Introduction: Investigating the medieval family -- The late Roman family and transition to the Middle Ages -- The family in the medieval West -- The family in the Byzantine East -- The family in the Islamic world -- The Jewish family in the Middle Ages -- The physical environment of the medieval family -- Grooms and brides, husbands and wives, fathers and mothers -- Children and the family -- Religion and the family -- Families, labor, and the laboring family -- The family as rhetorical device: traditional, transitional, and non-traditional families.]

Neel, Carol, ed. Medieval Families: Perspectives on Marriage, Household, and Children. Medieval Academy Reprints for Teaching 40. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003. [Publisher's description: "During the past thirty years, the study of medieval families has emerged as a central discussion in scholarship of the European past. Largely unexplored in professional publications and teaching curricula until the 1970s, family history is now accepted as an aspect of medieval history essential to the development of the period's institutions and culture, and a field useful to comparative family studies. The present volume brings together essays by historians, art historians, and literary scholars about the structures, social functions, and emotional characteristics of families in the middle ages, from demographic, legal, theological, art historical, and literary sources according to a broad array of theoretical approaches. Presenting these materials in the chronological order of its constituent articles' publication, the collection reveals how scholars of the 1970s argued the importance of previously unconsidered questions about the shape of medieval familial experience, and how their mutual information and criticism has refined and added to this investigation in the intervening period. The volume's introduction and bibliography enable both beginning students and medievalists newly interested in family studies to set the articles gathered here in the context of the later twentieth-century transformation of medieval studies and, more broadly, historical scholarship. These supporting materials, like the eleven articles, affirm the profoundly interdisciplinary character of contemporary medieval studies."]

O'Day, Rosemary. The Family and Family Relationships, 1500-1900: England, France, and the United States of America. Themes in Comparative History. London: Macmillan, 1994. [A historical study of the family, which begins from a presupposition that socio-religious prescriptions are not a good source for the history of the family: given human nature, the search for comfort and harmony will predominate despite all attempts at ideological imposition from outside (husbands and wives have regularly "negotiated their own levels of comfort" apart from legal niceties and moral prescriptions).]

Orme, Nicholas. Medieval Children. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001. [Contents: Arriving; Family life; Danger and death; Words, rhymes, and songs; Play; Church; Learning to read; Reading for pleasure; Growing up.]

Rees Jones, S., et al. "The Later Medieval English Urban Household." History Compass 5.1 (Jan. 2007): 112-158. [Available online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com].

Ruether, Rosemary Radford. Christianity and the Making of the Modern Family. Boston: Beacon Press, 2000. [Contents: Families in Jewish and Greco-Roman worlds and early Christianity -- Asceticism, sex, and marriage in patristic and medieval Christianities -- Family, work, gender, and church in the Reformation era -- The making of the Victorian family: 1780-1890 -- From the progressive era through the Great Depression: 1890-1940 -- Changing ideologies and realities: 1940-1975 -- The family agenda of the Christian right -- The many faces of American families in the year 2000 -- Reimagining families: home, work, gender, and faith.]

Svensson, Eva. The Medieval Household: Daily Life in Castles and Farmsteads; Scandinavian Examples in their European Context. The Medieval Countryside 2. Turnhout: Brepols, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Recent archaeological excavations in Scandinavia provide us with a fascinating insight into the household and its function as a social focus for people of different medieval social estates. This book investigates four excavated Swedish sites--the castles of Saxholmen and Edsholm, and the rural settlements of Skramle and Skinnerud--in order to juxtapose the daily life of nobles and peasants. The author argues that the practices of everyday life revealed by these sites offer new insights into social traditions, mentalities, and cultural patterns. In particular, she asserts that notwithstanding the huge social gulf between the peasantry and the nobility in medieval Scandinavia, the two social groups shared some fundamental experiences which point to a common cultural milieu. In turn, the author uses daily life as a prism for addressing the formation of common European cultural traits during the medieval period by comparing these excavations with material from comparable sites in Central and Western Europe. By means of this comparison, the author questions the degree to which we may talk about a process of 'Europeanization' taking place in this era."]

E.vi. Villages and Manors: Rural Economies

Bourin, Monique, and Robert Durand. Vivre au village au moyen âge: Les solidarités paysannes du 11e au 13e siècles. La passion de l'histoire. Paris: Messidor / Temps actuels, 1984.

Briggs, Chris. Credit and Village Society in Fourteenth-Century England. British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship Monograph. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. [Publisher's description: "This study of rural credit in medieval England uses the evidence of inter-peasant debt litigation to investigate the lenders and borrowers, the uses to which credit was put, and the effects of credit on social relationships."
     Contents: Introduction: rural credit -- The forms of credit and their uses -- The formation of credit relationships -- Creditors and debtors -- Credit and social relations -- The credit supply.]

Campbell, Bruce M. S. Land and People in Late Medieval England. Variorum Collected Studies 922. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Variorum, 2009.

Keen, Elizabeth. "A Peopled Landscape: Bartholomew the Englishman on the Properties of Daily Life." Parergon 24.2 (2007): 7-22. [Parergon 24.2 is a Special Issue entitled "Houses, Households and Families in Medieval and Early Modern Europe." Abstract: "The Franciscan Bartholomew the Englishman's compilation of knowledge De proprietatibus rerum ('On the properties of things'), made before 1240, contains evocative descriptions of domestic and manorial life, indoors and out. These can appeal to the historian as ethnographic data on manorial life in Bartholomew's time and place, but marginal glosses transmitted in the earliest manuscripts show that such secular-seeming descriptions could be understood to hold lessons on the religious life--especially that of the mendicant preacher. They show that the underlying idea of fertility links Bartholomew's descriptions of the properties of a peopled and recognizable world. At the centre of this world is the lord and household, a refuge where men, women, children, servants, and animals go about their daily lives, working in the fields and vineyards by day and returning to the house at night. The glosses help the reader to connect this reality with the Gospel parable of the workers in the vineyard, and to perceive a web of connected spiritual meanings through the properties of people, animals, plants, and products found in the material world."]

Larson, P. L. Conflict and Compromise in the Late Medieval Countryside: Lords and Peasants in Durham, 1349-1400. Studies in Medieval History and Culture. New York: Routledge, 2006. [Contents: Lords and peasants, estates and villages -- Durham: historians, records, and the recovery of history -- Durham on the eve of the Black Death -- Durham and the Black Death, 1349 -- "Oppressions and extortions": the seigniorial response to the Black Death, 1349-1357 -- "Until God brings a remedy": peasant strategies and resistance, 1349-1357 -- Administrative changes, 1358-1384 -- Troublemakers and rebels: violence in the villages, 1358-1384 -- Crisis and stability, 1384-1400 -- Conclusions: peasants and lords in a changing world.]

E.vii. Peasant and Labour History

Alexander, Jonathan J. G. "Labeur and paresse: Ideological Representations of Medieval Peasant Labor." Art Bulletin 72.3 (Sept. 1990): 436-452. [Abstract: "Images of peasants laboring in medieval Calendar cycles are here contrasted not only with images of the pastimes of the aristocracy, but with images of the idle peasant. This makes clear the ideological function within later medieval society of the Calendar cycle. In particular, the negative images of the peasants in the Très Riches Heures of Jean, Duc de Berry, are argued to embody a shift in attitude, which has a historical context in the economic and social crises of the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries." [labour]]

Backhouse, Janet. Medieval Rural Life in the Luttrell Psalter. London: British Library, 2000.

Bailey, Mark, ed. and trans. The English Manor, c.1200-1500. Manchester Medieval Sources. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002. [Medieval sources and documents, translated and annotated.]

Bailey, Mark. "Rural Society." In Fifteenth-Century Attitudes: Perceptions of Society in Late Medieval England. Ed. Rosemary Horrox. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Pp. 150-168.

Bennett, H[enry] S[tanley]. Life on the English Manor: A Study of Peasant Conditions, 1150-1400. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1937.

Bennett, Judith M. "Public Power and Authority in the Medieval English Countryside." In Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Ed. Mary Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. Pp. 18-36.

Bennett, Judith M. Women in the Medieval English Countryside: Gender and Household in Brigstock before the Plague. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Brown, Michelle P. The World of the Luttrell Psalter. London: British Library, 2006. [Publisher's description: "One of the most appealing and arresting of medieval manuscripts, the Luttrell psalter was commissioned in the 1320s by a wealthy Lincolnshire landowner, Sir Geoffrey Luttrell of Irnham. Painted in vibrant colour, embellished with gold and silver, the vitality and inventiveness of its decoration is almost unique."
     Contents: Introduction -- The Luttrell family and their folk -- When, where and why was the Luttrell psalter made? -- Depictions of the Luttrells and their world -- Planners, artists, scribes -- People in the landscape -- Wild things: the grotesques -- Description of the manuscript: provenance; textual contexts; codicology; the artists and their division of labour -- Further reading.]

Bush, M. L., ed. Serfdom and Slavery: Studies in Legal Bondage. London and New York: Longman, 1996. [Publisher's description: "Serfdom and Slavery explores the variety--and the continuities and common characteristics--of the two main forms of legal servitude known to history. The seventeen chapters range from classical times to the modern age, and from Europe to the New World, India and Africa. The theme is not, however, a pale excuse for an unfocused antiquarian rummage through odd corners of the historical past. The book is tightly controlled, with a series of wide-ranging conceptual and contextual chapters, followed by specific case studies which examine how the general issues raised in these chapters manifested themselves in practice in key cultures, and at key moments, in the emergence of 'Western' society. Case studies examine the establishment of slavery in Ancient Greece; domestic slavery in Roman society; emancipation in Byzantium; attitudes towards serfdom in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century England; subject farmers in early modern Brandenburg-Prussia and Poland; the rural order in Tsarist Russia; and the emancipation of the Russian peasantry. There are also comparative studies of serfdom in medieval and modern Europe, of slave emancipations in modern times, and of slavery in the New and Old Worlds. The contributors (from Britain and America, with a welcome guest from St Petersburg) are highly distinguished; the contributions are rich with both information and insight; and the book as a whole makes an important contribution to our understanding of a subject which, even at the turn of a new millennium, is still far from being 'just history.'"
     Contents: 1. Introduction / Michael Bush -- 2. Slavery, serfdom and other forms of coerced labour: similarities and differences / Stanley L. Engerman -- 3. Some controversial questions concerning nineteenth-century emancipation from slavery and serfdom / Peter Kolchin -- 4. Continuity and change in Western slavery: ancient to modern times / William D. Phillips, Jr. -- 5. The origin and establishment of Ancient Greek slavery / Tracey Rihll -- 6. The hierarchical household in Roman society: a study of domestic slavery / Richard Saller -- 7. Emancipation in Byzantium: Roman law in a medieval society / Rosemary Morris -- 8. New World slavery, Old World slavery / Howard Temperley -- 9. Slave exploitation and the elementary structures of enslavement / Robin Blackburn -- 10. Slave emancipations in modern history / David Turley -- 11. Serfdom in medieval and modern Europe: a comparison / Michael Bush -- 12. On servile status in the early Middle Ages / Wendy Davies.; 13. The rises and declines of serfdom in medieval and early modern Europe / Robert Brenner -- 14. Memories of freedom: attitudes towards serfdom in England, 1200-1350 / Christopher Dyer -- 15. Subject farmers in Brandenburg-Prussia and Poland: village life and fortunes under manorialism in early modern Central Europe / William W. Hagen -- 16. The serf economy and the social order in Russia / Steven Hoch -- 17. When and why was the Russian peasantry emancipated? / Boris N. Mironov.]

Camille, Michael. "Labouring for the Lord: The Ploughman and the Social Order in the Luttrell Psalter." Art History 10 (1987): 423-454. [Abstract: "Sees the ploughing scene from the ca. 1320-1345 psalter (MS Add. 42130, British Library, London) as a nostalgic vision of an earlier golden age of feudal order at a time of crisis and change in the English agricultural and social system."]

Chapelot, Jean, and Robert Fossier. The Village and the House in the Middle Ages. Trans. Henry Cleere. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. [Trans. of Le village et la maison au moyen âge (Paris: Hachette, 1980).]

Dimitrova, Kate. "Class, Sex, and the Other: The Representation of Peasants in a Set of Late Medieval Tapestries." Viator 38 (2007): 85-125. [Abstract: "This essay investigates the characterization of peasants in a set of three fifteenth-century tapestries illustrating peasants hunting with ferrets and posits some interpretations of what that characterization means. During the late Middle Ages, tapestry served basic utilitarian needs such as insulating cold castle walls, but it also functioned on socio-political levels as well. Surviving aristocratic inventories show that there was widespread interest in the commissioning of tapestries, among which those with rustic themes form a special category. Interesting parallels can be drawn between late medieval literature and the visual arts in terms of the positive and negative typecasting of the peasant. For instance, in literature, the representation of peasants, especially in a satirical context, is generally negative. By contrast, in the visual arts (particularly tapestry), artistic choices concerning material, color and visual vocabulary create a complex and ambiguous context in which peasants and their activities are presented, allowing for a more nuanced interpretation of these images."]

Duby, Georges. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West. Trans. Cynthia Postan. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1968.

Dyer, Christopher C. "Memories of Freedom: Attitudes towards Serfdom in England, 1200-1350." In Serfdom and Slavery: Studies in Legal Bondage. Ed. M. L. Bush. London and New York: Longman, 1996. Pp. 277-295.

Dyer, C[hristopher] C. "Power and Conflict in the Medieval English Village." In Medieval Villages: A Review of Current Work. Ed. Della Hooke. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, Monograph 5. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, 1985. Pp. 27-32. [Note: "Many of the papers presented at a conference organized . . . for the Department for External Studies, the University of Oxford, in January 1982."]

Dyer, Christopher. "Rural Europe." In The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 7: c.1415-c.1500. Ed. Christopher Allmand. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Pp. 106-120.

Dyer, Christopher. Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Frantzen, Allen J., and Douglas Moffat, eds. The Work of Work: Servitude, Slavery, and Labor in Medieval England. Glasgow: Cruithne Press, 1994. [Contents: "Work of Work: Servitude, Slavery, and Labor in Medieval England," by Allen J. Frantzen; "Desire, Descendants, and Dominance: Slavery, the Exchange of Women, and Masculine Power," by Ruth Mazo Karras; "Metaphorical Usage, Sexual Exploitation, and Divergence in the Old English Terminology for Male and Female Slaves," by Elizabeth Stevens Girsch; "Labor Structure of Ælfric's Colloquy," by John Ruffing; "Cultural Context of Western Technology: Early Christian Attitudes toward Manual Labor," by George Ovitt, Jr.; "End of Early Medieval Slavery," by Ross Samson; "Labor and Agriculture in Early Medieval Ireland: Evidence from the Sources," by Niall Brady; "Sin, Conquest, Servitude: English Self-Image in the Chronicles of the Early Fourteenth Century," by Douglas Moffat; "Justice and Wage-Labor after the Black Death: Some Perplexities for William Langland," by David Aers; "Hearing God's Voice: Kind Wit's Call to Labor in Piers Plowman," by Louise M. Bishop; "Defining the Servant: Legal and Extra-Legal Terms of Employment in Fifteenth-Century England," by Madonna J. Hettinger. [William Langland; labour]]

Freedman, Paul [H.]. Images of the Medieval Peasant. Figurae: Reading Medieval Culture. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999. [On medieval representations of peasants, including literary works.]

Freedman, Paul [H.]. "Peasant Anger in the Late Middle Ages." In Anger's Past: The Social Uses of an Emotion in the Middle Ages. Ed. Barbara H. Rosenwein. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998. Pp. 171-188. ["Describes instances of group anger among peasants, arguing that it was only very rarely viewed as justifiable or dignified" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Freedman, Paul [H.]. "Rural Society." In The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 6: c.1300-1415. Ed. Michael Jones. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Pp. 82-100.

Fryde, E. B. Peasants and Landlords in Later Medieval England, c.1380-c.1525. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.

Galloway, James A., and Margaret Murphy. "Feeding the City: Medieval London and its Agrarian Hinterland." London Journal 16.1 (1991): 3-14.

Hallam, H. E. Rural England, 1066-1348. Fontana History of England. London: Fontana Paperbacks, 1981.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Peasant Resistance to Royal and Seigniorial Impositions." In Social Unrest in the Late Middle Ages: Papers of the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Ed. Francis X. Newman. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 39. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1986. Pp. 23-47.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Peasant Women's Contribution to the Home Economy in Late Medieval England." In Women and Work in Pre-Industrial Europe. Ed. Barbara A. Hanawalt. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986. Pp. 3-19.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. The Ties that Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. [Contents: Introduction -- [pt]. 1. The material environment -- 1. Field and village plans -- 2. Toft and Croft -- 3. Standards of living -- [pt]. 2. Blood ties and family wealth -- 4. Inheritance -- 5. Kinship bonds -- 6. Household size and structure -- [pt]. 3. Household economy -- 7. The family as an economic unit -- 8. The husbandman's year and economic ventures -- 9. Women's contribution to the home economy -- 10. Children and servants at home and in the fields -- [pt]. 4. Stages of life -- 11. Childhood -- 12. Growing up and getting married -- 13. The partnership marriage -- 14. Widowhood -- 15. Old age and death -- [pt]. 5. Surrogate family -- 16. Surrogate parents and children -- 17. Neighbors and brotherhoods -- Epilogue -- Appendix: Coroners' Rolls.]

Hanawalt, Barbara A., ed. Women and Work in Preindustrial Europe. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986. [Contents: Part 1: Peasant women's work in the context of marriage. Peasant women's contribution to the home economy in late Medieval England / Barbara A. Hanawalt -- The village ale-wife: women and brewing in fourteenth-century England / Judith M. Bennett. Part 2: Slaves and domestic servants. To town to serve: urban domestic slavery in Medieval Ragusa / Susan Mosher Stuard -- Women servants in Florence during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries / Christiane Klapisch-Zuber. Part 3: Occupations related to female biology: Wet nurses and midwives. Municipal wet nurses in fifteenth-century Montpellier / Leah L. Otis -- Early modern midwifery: a case study / Merry E. Wiesner -- Part 4: Urban women in work and business. Women in business in Medieval Montpellier / Kathryn L. Reyerson -- Women's work in a market town: Exeter in the late fourteenth century / Maryanne Kowaleski. Part 5: Is there a decline in women's economic position in the sixteenth century? Women in the crafts in sixteenth-century Lyon / Natalie Zemon Davis -- Women, the family economy, and the structures of market production in cities of Northern Europe during the late Middle Ages / Martha C. Howell.]

Hatcher, John. "English Serfdom and Villeinage: Towards a Reassessment." Past and Present no. 90 (Feb. 1981): 3-39. [Rpt. in Landlords, Peasants and Politics in Medieval England. Ed. T. H. Aston. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Pp. 247-284.]

Hazell, Dinah. "The Medieval Peasant." In Misconceptions about the Middle Ages. Ed. Stephen J. Harris and Bryon L. Grigsby. Routledge Studies in Medieval Religion and Culture 7. New York and London: Routledge, 2008. Pp. 213-217.

Hill, Ordelle G. The Manor, the Plowman, and the Shepherd: Agrarian Themes and Imagery in Late Medieval and Early Renaissance English Literature. Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press, 1992.

Hilton, Rodney [Howard]. Bond Men Made Free: Medieval Peasant Movements and the English Rising of 1381. 2nd. ed. London and New York: Routledge, 2003. [Publisher's description: "Rodney Hilton's account of the Peasant's Revolt of 1381 remains the classic authoritative text on the 'English Rising.' Hilton views the revolt in the context of a genral European pattern of class conflict. He demonstrates that the peasant movements that disturbed the Middle Ages were not mere unrelated outbreaks of violence but had their roots in common economic and political conditions and in a recurring conflict of interest between peasants and landowners. Now with a new introduction by Christopher Dyer, this survey is still a leading source for students of medieval English peasantry."
     Contents: Part I: General Problems of Medieval European Peasant Societies; Chap. 1, "The Nature of Medieval Peasant Economy"; Chap. 2, "Early Movements and their Problems"; Chap. 3, "Mass Movements of the Later Middle Ages"; Part II: The English Rising of 1381; Chap. 4, "The Events of the Rising"; Chap. 5, "The General Background"; Chap. 6, "The Areas of Revolt"; Chap. 7, "Social Composition"; Chap. 8, "The Allies of the Rebels"; Chap. 9, "Organization and Aims"; Chap. 10, "Conclusion."]

Hilton, R[odney] H[oward]. The Decline of Serfdom in Medieval England. Studies in Economic History. London, Melbourne [etc.]: Macmillan, for the Economic History Society; New York, St. Martin's Press, 1969.

Hilton, R[odney] H[oward]. "Peasant Movements in England before 1381." Journal of Peasant Studies 1 (1974): 207-219. [Rpt. in his Class Conflict and the Crisis of Feudalism: Essays in Medieval Social History. 2nd ed. London and New York: Verso, 1990. Pp. 122-138.]

Hilton, R[odney] H[oward]. "The Peasantry as a Class." Chap. 1 of his The English Peasantry in the Later Middle Ages: The Ford Lectures for 1973 and Related Studies. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975. Pp. 3-19. [Hilton argues that, despite the lack of peasant mobility, there seem to be some shared political ideals, which can be considered to constitute a class consciousness. This peasant ideology challenged the tripartite social ideal of the three estates, and expressed itself as a "popular monarchy" (the king and his "true commons" with no intermediate lords; cf. his Bond Men Made Free, pp. 227-230).]

Hilton, R[odney] H[oward]. "The Social Structure of the Village." Chap. 2 of his The English Peasantry in the Later Middle Ages: The Ford Lectures for 1973 and Related Studies. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975. Pp. 20-36.

Hobsbawm, E[ric] J., et al., eds. Peasants in History: Essays in Honour of Daniel Thorner. Calcutta: Published for Sameeksha Trust by Oxford University Press, 1980.

Homans, George Caspar. English Villagers of the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1941.

Hooke, Della, ed. Medieval Villages: A Review of Current Work. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, Monograph 5. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, 1985. [Note: "Many of the papers presented at a conference organized . . . for the Department for External Studies, the University of Oxford, in January 1982."]

Hourihane, Colum, ed. Time in the Medieval World: Occupations of the Months and Signs of the Zodiac in the Index of Christian Art. Index of Christian Art Resources 3. Princeton: Index of Christian Art, Department of Art and Archaeology, Princeton University, in association with Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007.

Jones, Richard, and Mark Page. Medieval Villages in an English Landscape. Oxford: Windgather Press / Oxbow Books, 2006. [Publisher's description: "The village--one of the keystones of the English rural landscape--has a powerful hold on the imagination. The origin of nucleated and dispersed settlements--the countryside of villages and the countryside of hamlets--has since become a central concern of landscape historians. This book directly addresses this central problem. The end-result of a 5 year project which has explored a group of 12 parishes on the Buckinghamshire-Northamptonshire boundary where elements of these two landscapes lie side by side, it looks at the reasons for fundamental changes in landscape that occurred in the parish of Whittlewood between AD 800--1400. Changes in how the land was perceived, divided, organised and exploited are examined to reveal the testimony of medieval villagers and answer the pressing question: Why did different communities develop different forms of communal living?"]

Maddicott, J. R. "The English Peasantry and the Demands of the Crown, 1294-1341." Past and Present Suppl. no. 1 (1974) [75 pp]. [Rpt. in Landlords, Peasants and Politics in Medieval England. Ed. T. H. Aston. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Pp. 285-359.]

McKisak, May. "Rural Society." Chap. 11 of her The Fourteenth Century, 1307-1399. Oxford History of England 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959. Pp. 312-348.

Miller, Edward, ed. The Agrarian History of England and Wales, Vol. 3: 1348-1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Miller, Edward, and John Hatcher. Medieval England: Rural Society and Economic Change, 1086-1348. Social and Economic History of England. London and New York: Longman, 1978. [See also their Medieval England: Towns, Commerce, and Crafts, 1086-1348.]

Mollat, Michel. The Poor in the Middle Ages: An Essay in Social History. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986. [Trans. of Les Pauvres au Moyen Age.]

Peake, Harold. The English Village: The Origin and Decay of its Community. London: Benn Brothers, 1922.

Putnam, Bertha Haven. The Enforcement of the Statutes of Labourers During the First Decade After the Black Death, 1349-1359. Columbia University Studies in the Social Sciences 85. New York: Columbia University Press, 1908. [Rpt.: Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law 32. New York: AMS Press, 1970. A published version of the author's thesis, Columbia University, 1908.]

Raftis, J[ames] A[mbrose]. Peasant Economic Development Within the English Manorial System. Montreal and Buffalo: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1996.

Raftis, J[ames] A[mbrose]. Tenure and Mobility: Studies in the Social History of the Mediaeval English Village. Studies and Texts 8. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1964.

Razi, Zvi. "Family, Land, and the Village Community in Later Medieval England." Past and Present no. 93 (1981): 3-36. [Rpt. in Landlords, Peasants and Politics in Medieval England. Ed. T. H. Aston. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Pp. 360-393.]

Rees Jones, Sarah. "City and Country, Wealth and Labour." In A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture c.1350-c.1500. Ed. Peter Brown. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 42. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Pp. 56-73.

Reynolds, Susan. Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Robertson, Kellie. The Laborer's Two Bodies: Literary and Legal Productions in Britain, 1350-1500. New Middle Ages. Basingstoke, Hants., and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. [Publisher's description: "Kellie Robertson explores the intellectual, cultural and political consequences of the first national labour regulation in 1348 in Britain. She analyses a wide variety of texts and images to show that the category of labour became a difficult subject for writers who struggled to understand its meanings."
     Contents: Keeping Paradise -- The laborer's two bodies -- Chaucer and the enforcement of the labor statues -- The ideology of common profit: rebels, heretics, merchants -- Corporeal style: representing the gentry household -- "Let God work!": drama and rebellion in fifteenth-century East Anglia -- Vagrant times.]

Rösener, Werner. Peasants in the Middle Ages. Trans. Alexander Stützer. Cambridge: Polity Press; and Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992. [Trans. of Bauern im Mittelalter.]

Rubin, Miri. "The Poor." In Fifteenth-Century Attitudes: Perceptions of Society in Late Medieval England. Ed. Rosemary Horrox. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Pp. 169-182.

Samson, Ross. "The End of Early Medieval Slavery." In The Work of Work: Servitude, Slavery, and Labor in Medieval England. Ed. Allen J. Frantzen and Douglas Moffat. Glasgow: Cruithne Press, 1994. Pp. 95-124. [[labour]]

Saunders, Tom. "The Feudal Construction of Space: Power and Domination in the Nucleated Village." In The Social Archaeology of Houses. Ed. Ross Samson. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990. Pp. 181-196. [A Marxist analysis of the spatial construction of feudalism in the medieval village. Abstract: "Social space is both the medium and the outcome of human practice. Any research into social dynamics therefore requires a spatial as well as a temporal dimension. However, the role of social space in the production and reproduction of social relations can only be assessed through concrete research. It is here that the discipline of archaeology has most to offer. The concrete context utilised below is that of medieval feudal society, a society based on rent extraction through the private control of landed estates. Its social structure was thus constituted within a hierarchy of land rights and through a hierarchy of space. Hence the development of politically regulated space was part of the very essence of feudalism. The reflexive relationship between social and spatial relations is examined through an analysis of the nucleated village. The rigorous definition of feudal space, restricting access and physical movement, it seen as being intrinsically linked to the economic power of feudal lords and their domination of the peasantry" (181).
     Last part of the Introduction: "Drawing on contemporary research within human geography, a materialist interpretation of space is used to explore class and power relations between lord and peasant within the English nucleated village. The argument is structured into three parts: first, there is a methodological discussion on the spatial construction of society; second, a definition of feudalism is offered, outlining the feudal construction of space in the abstract; and third, a concrete examination is made of the spatial data so far recovered from the Raunds area project in Northamptonshire" (182). In the village, the placement of the principal components--manor, church (placed beside and in league with the manor), tenements, and roads--emphasizes feudal dependencies, seen, for instance, in a particularly extreme form in the hamlet of West Cotton (adjacent to Raunds) where the mill was within the enclosed grounds of the manor, accessible to the peasants only by passing through the lord's gatehouse (190).]

Specht, Henrik. Poetry and the Iconography of the Peasant: The Attitude to the Peasant in Late Medieval English Literature and in Contemporary Calendar Illustration. Anglica et Americana 19. Copenhagen: Dept. of English, University of Copenhagen, 1983.

Troost, Linda. "The Noble Peasant." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 145-153.

Webster, J[ames] Carson. The Labors of the Months in Antique and Mediaeval Art to the End of the Twelfth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1938. [Rpt.: New York: AMS Press, 1970. [labour]]

Williams, William Morgan. The Sociology of an English Village: Gosforth. International Library of Sociology and Social Reconstruction. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956.

E.viii. Forests and Forest Laws

Cox, J[ohn] Charles. The Royal Forests of England. The Antiquary's Books. London: Methuen, 1905. [[the forest, forest laws]]

Grant, Raymond J. The Royal Forests of England. Stroud, Gloucestershire, and Wolfeboro Falls, NH: Alan Sutton, 1991.

Kaeuper, Richard W. "Forest Laws." In Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Ed. Joseph R. Strayer. 13 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, in association with The American Council of Learned Societies, 1982-1989. 5: 127-131.

Rackham, Oliver. Trees and Woodland in the British Landscape: The Complete History of Britains's Trees, Woods, and Hedgerows. London: Dent, 1993. [Includes a discussion of royal forests and hunting preserves; the forest laws were a cause of considerable hardship and grievance, and Robin Hood's repeated violation of them is an important theme of the Robin Hood ballads.]

Young, Charles R. The Royal Forests of Medieval England. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979.

E.ix. Village Customs; "Carnival" (Festive Misrule)

Abrahams, Roger D., and Richard Bauman. "Ranges of Festival Behavior." In The Reversible World: Symbolic Inversion in Art and Society. Ed. Barbara A. Babcock. Symbol, Myth, and Ritual Series. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1978. Pp. 193-208. [Papers from the "Forms of Symbolic Inversion" Symposium, Toronto, 1972. The authors argue against the "safety valve" theory of ritual inversion (posited by Max Gluckman and others).]

Axton, Richard. "Festive Culture in Country and Town." In Medieval Britain. Ed. Boris Ford. The Cambridge Cultural History of Britain 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Pp. 141-153.

Babcock, Barbara A. Introduction. In The Reversible World: Symbolic Inversion in Art and Society. Ed. Barbara A. Babcock. Symbol, Myth, and Ritual Series. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1978. Pp. 13-36. [Papers from the "Forms of Symbolic Inversion" Symposium, Toronto, 1972. Anthropological studies of cultural symbols of "inversion," by which is meant "ritualized 'role reversals,'" substitutions of categories, or the "rites of rebellion," to use Max Gluckman's phrase (p. 22). Babcock describes Gluckman's idea of rebellion (as expressed in his paper "Rituals of Rebellion in South East Africa" and his book Custom and Conflict in Africa) as the "steam valve" theory of social conflict (Ventilsitten; cathartic), in which ritualized inversion does not seriously challenge the established order, but, in fact, preserves it by dispelling the forces of opposition. Gluckman, says Babcock, is probably pursuing an idea expressed by Trotsky, that seasonal folk "rebellions" tended to be a hindrance to the development of true "revolutionary consciousness" (22). By contrast, and more recently, Victor Turner and others have discussed "disorder" as being a fundamental part of the liminal phase of every rite of passage (not just seasonal rites), as the "Nay" to society's "Yea," as an expression of the chaos which underlies all order (24). (Turner's approach to ritual is fundamental to the essays in this collection generally, and Turner himself provides an essay which responds to all of the others.)]

Bakhtin, M[ikhail] M[ikhailovich]. Rabelais and his World. Trans. Hélène Iswolsky. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1968.

Bennett, Judith M. "Conviviality and Charity in Medieval and Early Modern England." Past and Present no. 134 (Feb. 1992): 19-41. [On church ales and communal feasts as combining sociability with relief of the impoverished. Also see Past and Present no. 154 (Feb. 1997): 223-242 (objections are raised by Maria Moisà, and Bennett offers a response).]

Billington, Sandra. Midsummer: A Cultural Sub-Text from Chrétien de Troyes to Jean Michel. Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe. Turnhout: Brepols, 2001. [Publisher's description: "This book is based on fresh and original research from archives in France and the Low Countries, concerning customs and beliefs practised around the midsummer solstice. The information has never previously been considered and it reveals a festive treatment of divisiveness, which might also be politically engaged. The book shows how in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries these traditions were not solely observed by the lower classes. A study of texts throughout the Middle Ages shows that the significance of St John's Day was a valued source for some major writers, and it can be argued that it was even the rationale for works such as Chrétien's Yvain and the anonymous Perlesvaus. The midsummer customs also appear in the civic records of Leuven and Metz, in periods where the city authorities were strong enough to break free of feudal controls. Their civic freedom was expressed at the Feast of the Baptist's Nativity, and this appropriation by the bourgeoisie informs the romance, Galeran. The rationale of Midsummer is to examine the disparate, but interlinked[,] uses of the customs, and to bring to the awareness of scholars festive influences current in Europe before the better known influence of Carnival; also to discuss their seminal importance for early fiction and for the theatre. The book further reveals that pre-Christian belief in Chance/Fortune was supported by the phenomenon of the Solstice and that John the Baptist's Nativity, placed on 24 June, provided a way for Christian Fathers to allow for this, safely."]

Billington, Sandra. Mock Kings in Medieval Society and Renaissance Drama. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990. ["King-led outlaw defiance, riotous lords of misrule, proud midsummer mock kings, and stately Inns of Court princes: all could be seen as reflections of the dominant social order, and all influenced the writings of Shakespeare and his contemporaries." See esp. Chap. 1, "Outlaws, Rebels, and Civil War" (pp. 9-29) on the connections between carnivalesque festival, Robin Hood, and peasant rebellions.]

Bristol, Michael. "Acting Out Utopia: The Politics of Carnival." Performance 6 (1973): 13-28.

Burke, Peter. Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe. London: Temple Smith; New York: New York University Press, 1978.

Carroll, Margaret D. "Peasant Festivity and Political Identity in the Sixteenth Century." Art History 10 (1987): 289-314. [Abstract: "Focuses on the tradition of opinion in 16th c. Germany and the Netherlands which construed peasant festivity in positive terms. Notes that approving commentaries on peasant festivity were often linked to a broader polemic upholding the value of native popular culture in opposition to foreign instrusions. Argues that, in the Netherlands after 1550, images promoting an appreciation of the peasantry's festive customs contributed to the growing consciousness of a distinct ethnic and political identity, which became a crucial rallying point in the Netherlanders' war of independence from Spain."]

Cartlidge, Neil. "The Battle of Shrovetide: Carnival against Lent as a Leitmotif in Late Medieval Culture." Viator 35 (2004): 517-542. [Abstract: "This essay is concerned with the ways in which medieval writers and artists depicted the imagined conflict between Carnival and Lent--a metaphorical contrast that, as it happens, has often been appropriated by modern critics writing about the Middle Ages, most notably by Mikhail Bakhtin. Such an appropriation is not entirely unjustified, for it is an idea prominent in medieval culture, and perhaps even more prominent than Bakhtin's work actually demonstrates. Yet in a critical context the use of this imagery tends towards a rigid reductiveness that is sharply at odds with the richly complex and varied ways in which it appears in late medieval art and literature. In order to illustrate this point and to give an impression of the large field of texts at issue, the article provides a necessarily selective survey that briefly addresses in turn: a pair of letters attached to Guido Faba's (Latin) Rota Nova; the Old French poem La Bataille de Caresme et de Charnage; some dramatic texts in both French and German; and, finally, Pieter van Brueghel's famous painting 'The Battle between Carnival and Lent.' In the end, this article suggests, modern analysts of late medieval culture have been too ready to accept this metaphorical dichotomy as a self-sufficient account of the medieval world, and too slow to acknowledge the sophistication and self-consciousness with which medieval writers and artists themselves employed it."]

Chartier, Roger. "Ritual and Print, Discipline and Invention: The Fête in France from the Middle Ages to the Revolution." In his The Cultural Uses of Print in Early Modern France. Trans. Lydia G. Cochrane. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987. Pp. 13-31.

Cohen, Abner. Masquerade Politics: Explorations in the Structure of Urban Cultural Movements. Oxford: Berg, 1993. [On carnival generally, and especially the politics of the Notting Hill Carnival in London.]

Cooper, Quentin, and Paul Sullivan. Maypoles, Martyrs and Mayhem: 366 Days of British Customs, Myths and Eccentricities. London: Bloomsbury, 1994.

Cox, Harvey Gallagher. The Feast of Fools: A Theological Essay on Festivity and Fantasy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969. ["Festivity" (carnival) exposes "the arbitrary quality of social rank and enables people to see that things need not always be as they are" (6).]

Danticat, Edwidge. After the Dance: A Walk through Carnival in Jacmel, Haiti. Crown Journeys Series. New York: Crown Journeys, 2002. [An account of the author's personal experience of "carnival" in Haiti.]

Davidson, Clifford. Festivals and Plays in Late Medieval Britain. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007. [Contents: Part I: the landscape of festival drama -- Playing and the ritual year -- "Corpus Christi play" and the Feast of Corpus Christi -- The York Corpus Christi Guild and drama -- Play and spectacle at Pentecost -- Part II: some aspects of two genres of festival drama -- Suffering and the York plays -- The vernacular plays for Good Friday and Easter from MS. E Museo 160.]

Eisenbichler, Konrad, and Wim Hüsken, eds. Carnival and the Carnivalesque: The Fool, the Reformer, the Wildman, and Others in Early Modern Theatre. Ludus: Medieval and Early Renaissance Theatre and Drama 4. Amsterdam, and Athens, GA: Rodopi, 1999. ["This collection . . . originates from the meetings of the Société Internationale du Théâtre Médiéval held on 2-11 August, 1995, at Victoria College in the University of Toronto" (Introd., p. 7).]

Forrest, John. The History of Morris Dancing, 1458-1750. Studies in Early English Drama 5. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999. [Morris dancing is not, as folklorists have claimed, a survival of pagan calendar rituals, but an invention of the late fifteenth century, and is part of the rise of communal customs and public celebrations of the late medieval and early Tudor periods. (Cf. Ronald Hutton, The Rise and Fall of Merry England, who traces many supposedly "ancient" folk customs to parish fetes of the late medieval and early Tudor period.)]

Ganim, John M. "Bakhtin, Chaucer, Carnival, Lent." Chap. 2 of his Chaucerian Theatricality. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991. Pp. 17-30.

Greenfield, Peter H. "Festive Drama at Christmas in Aristocratic Households." In Festive Drama. Ed. Meg Twycross. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1996. Pp. 34-40.

Hole, Christina. English Custom and Usage, Illustrated from Prints and Photographs. 2nd ed. London: B. T. Batsford, 1943.

Humphrey, Chris. The Politics of Carnival: Festive Misrule in England. Manchester Medieval Studies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.

Humphrey, Chris. "The World Upside-Down in Theory and as Practice: A New Approach to the Study of Medieval Misrule." Medieval English Theatre 21 (1999): 5-20. [Vol. 21 of Medieval English Theatre is a special issue on "The World Upside-Down."
     Humphrey argues against the "safety valve" theory of misrule; something more truly radical is going on in the medieval carnivalesque.]

Hunt, Simon. "'Leaving out the insurrection': Carnival Rebellion, English History Plays, and a Hermeneutics of Advocacy." In Renaissance Culture and the Everyday. Ed. Patricia Fumerton and Simon Hunt. New Cultural Studies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Pp. 299-314.

Hutton, Ronald. The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991. [This is the first of three books in which Hutton pursues the idea of "pagan survivals" in the folk customs and ceremonies of Britain (here attempting to discover what we actually know about pre-Christian religions in Britain); by his own admission (see the preface to Rise and Fall of Merry England) he found little evidence of any such survivals.
     Publisher's description: "This is the first survey of religious beliefs of the British Isles from the Old Stone Age to the coming of Christianity. Ronald Hutton considers a fascinating range of evidence for Celtic and Romano-British paganism, from burial sites and cairns, to jewellery, weapons, literary texts and folklore."]

Hutton, Ronald. The Rise and Fall of Merry England: The Ritual Year, 1400-1700. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. [This is the second of three books in which Hutton pursues the idea of "pagan survivals" in the folk customs and ceremonies of Britain; by his own admission (see the preface to Rise and Fall of Merry England) he found little evidence of any such survivals. In Rise and Fall, Hutton explores the idea of "Merry England," the passing of which is often lamented in the time of the Stuarts and of the Puritan interregnum in the seventeenth century; he finds that it actually flourished in the period of the early Tudors, passing away about the same time as Queen Elizabeth. It is marked by a variety of ceremonies and rituals that define the "ritual year" (a concept first proposed by Phythian-Adams), between Christmas and midsummer each year. While it has been a commonplace among folklorists and historians that these activities must date from time immemorial and have pagan roots, in fact for most of them there is no historical record prior to the fifteenth century: they are mostly Christian inventions, created principally for the raising of funds for the parish.]

Hutton, Ronald. Stations of the Sun: The Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. [This is the third of three books in which Hutton pursues the idea of "pagan survivals" in the folk customs and ceremonies of Britain; by his own admission (see the preface to Rise and Fall of Merry England) he found little evidence of any such survivals. Here he explores the history of rituals and festivals connected to the seasons and the annual cycle of the agricultural year.]

Judge, Roy. "Changing Attitudes to May Day, 1844-1914, with Special Reference to Oxfordshire." Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Dialect and Folk Life Studies, University of Leeds, 1987.

Judge, Roy. "May Day and Merrie England." Folklore 102 (1991): 131-148.

Judge, Roy. May Day in England: An Introductory Bibliography; Based on the Holdings of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library of the English Folk Dance and Song Society. 3rd ed. FLS [Folklore Society Library] Books Bibliographies 1; Vaughan Williams Memorial Library Leaflet 20. London: Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, 1999.

Kendrick, Christopher. Utopia, Carnival, and Commonwealth in Renaissance England. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.

Kightly, Charles. The Customs and Ceremonies of Britain: An Encyclopaedia of Living Traditions. London: Thames and Hudson, 1986.

LeRoy Ladurie, Emmanuel. Carnival in Romans. Trans. Mary Feeney. New York: George Braziller, 1979. [Trans. of Le carnaval de Romans. A festival in sixteenth-century Romans-sur-Isère, France, takes a political and violent turn; this is a study of the politics of "carnival" with a focus on this particular event.]

Milis, Ludo J. R., ed. The Pagan Middle Ages. Trans. Tanis Guest. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1998. [Publisher's description: "Many aspects of the pagan past continued to survive into the Middle Ages despite the introduction of Christianity, influencing forms of behaviour and the whole mentality of the period. The essays collected in this stimulating volume seek to explore aspects of the way paganism mingled with Christian teaching to affect many different aspects of medieval society, through a focus on such topics as archaeology, the afterlife and sexuality, scientific knowledge, and visionary activity."]

Mills, David. "Drama and Folk-Ritual." Chap. 2.4 of Medieval Drama. By A. C. Cawley, Marion Jones, Peter F. MacDonald, and David Mills. Vol. 1 of The Revels History of Drama in English. London and New York: Methuen, 1983. Pp. 122-151. [On "folk plays" and games as part of village festivities. Includes a section on Robin Hood plays.]

Muir, Edward. "The Ritual Calendar." In his Ritual in Early Modern Europe. 2nd ed. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Pp. 55-80.

Pettitt, Thomas. "Early English Traditional Drama: Approaches and Perspectives." Research Opportunities in Renaissance Drama 25 (1982): 1-30. [On "folk plays" and games as part of village festivities.]

Phythian-Adams, Charles. Local History and Folklore: A New Framework. London: Bedford Square Press of the National Council of Social Service, for the Standing Conference for Local History, 1975. [The "survivalist" interpretation of folk customs (i.e., merely explaining them as "survivals" of ancient religious rites) does not help us to account for innovations (there are many new customs which arise, and many local practices which are not replicated elsewhere), nor does it explain why certain practices continue and others die out (what social needs were felt to be fulfilled in the here and now of the person practicing what may or may not have been an ancient custom?). What is needed is a new dialogue between the folklorist and the historian, to develop a fuller understanding of the role of folk customs in the lives of real villagers.]

Scribner, Robert W. "Reformation, Carnival and the World Turned Upside-Down." In his Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany. London and Ronceverte, WV: Hambledon Press, 1987. Pp. 71-101.

Stallybrass, Peter, and Allon White. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986. [On cultural boundaries and their transgression. While the examples used are primarily from the seventeenth century and after, the general approach used here could be usefully applied to medieval cultures.]

Turner, Victor W[itter]. Dramas, Fields and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1974.

Turner, Victor W[itter]. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-structure. The Lewis Henry Morgan Lectures 1966. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1969.

White, Paul Whitfield. "Holy Robin Hood!: Carnival, Parish Guilds, and the Outlaw Tradition." In Tudor Drama before Shakespeare, 1485-1590: New Directions for Research, Criticism, and Pedagogy. Ed. Lloyd Edward Kermode, Jason Scott-Warren, and Martine Van Elk. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Pp. 67-89.

E.x. The "Green Man" and the "Wild Man of the Woods"

Anderson, William. Green Man: The Archetype of Our Oneness with the Earth. Photography by Clive Hicks. London and San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1990.

Bartra, Roger. The Artificial Savage: Modern Myths of the Wild Man. Trans. Christopher John Follett. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996.

Basford, Kathleen. "A New View of 'Green Man' Sculptures." Folklore 102 (1991): 237-239.

Basford, Kathleen. The Green Man. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1978. [A collection of photographs of church decoration (gargoyles, capitals, etc.) showing the "foliated head" (face with vines, twigs, leaves, etc., growing out of it) of the Green Man. Includes a brief introduction to the character. Also includes a few manuscript illuminations, but not many.]

Bernheimer, Richard. Wild Men in the Middle Ages: A Study in Art, Sentiment, and Demonology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1952.

Centerwall, Brandon S. "The Name of the Green Man." Folklore 108 (1997): 25-33. [A consideration of Lady Raglan's naming of the foliated head of medieval sculpture "the Green Man"; Centerwall asserts that Lady Raglan was working "intuitively," but that she guessed right: the "Green Man" named in early modern pageants and on inn signs is a development of the character found in medieval sculptures.
     At the same time, Centerwall argues against Lady Raglan's too quick identification of "Green Men" and "Wild Men." The Green Man is covered in leaves, while the Wild Man is covered in hair. The Wild Man is "man without God" and without civilization; the Wild Man is bestial; the Wild Man is a Nebuchadnezzar figure, punished for willful ignorance of the divine. While both the Green Man and the Wild Man were used as "whifflers" in sixteenth-century pageants, to clear a way through the crowd and to amuse with fireworks and displays of fighting, the Wild Man was sometimes a character within the pageant while the Green Man appears in only one pageant on record. Further, the Green Man is associated with processes of distillation (there are images of the "Green Man and his still" in early modern manuscripts), while the uncivilized Wild Man is ignorant of alcohol. Further, the Green Man as pageant whiffler, while warming up the crowd, according to one document at least, seems to have been associated with drunkenness; these associations with stills and drunkenness are what led to his appearance on inn signs [and in the name of a large brewery in Bury St. Edmunds]. Thus the Wild Man and the Green Man are not synonymous and interchangeable.
     That the Green Man of pageant and inn sign is the same as the foliated head of medieval church sculpture is proven by their co-existence in some church sculptures. A sixteenth-century bench end at Crowcombe shows two of the pageant Green Men (with leaf-covered body, but not face: the pageant Green Man would grow tired and would be unable to speak if he had to hold branches clenched in his teeth, so the pageant green man is in a costume of leaves from the neck down) among the leaves growing out of a foliated head, demonstrating that the former is derived from the latter. Further, there are instances of the foliated head in medieval churches in which the branches surrounding the face are clearly grape vines, showing that the Green Man's association with wine and drunkenness is probably a medieval tradition.]

Doel, Fran, and Geoff Doel. The Green Man in Britain. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus, 2001. [Includes some consideration of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Robin Hood, etc.]

Dudley, Edward, and Maximillian E. Novak, eds. The Wild Man Within: An Image in Western Thought from the Renaissance to Romanticism. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1972.

Ellis, H. D. "The Wodewose in East Anglian Church Decoration." Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History 14 (1912): 287-293. [The "wodewose" or "wodehous" is the "wood man" (the wild man of the woods) (though Ellis denies it, "wood" is probably a pun on "wood" as "forest" and "wood" as "mad").]

Husband, Timothy, and Gloria Gilmore-House. The Wild Man: Medieval Myth and Symbolism. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980. [The catalogue of an exhibition held at the Cloisters, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 8 Oct. 1980 to 12 Jan. 1981.]

Judge, Roy. "The Green Man Revisited." In Colour and Appearance in Folklore. Ed. John Hutchings and Juliette Wood. London: Folklore Society, 1991. Pp. 51-60.

Judge, Roy. The Jack-in-the-Green: A May Day Custom. 2nd ed. London: Hisarlik Press, 1998. [The Jack-in-the-Green was a man or a boy enclosed in a wooden or wicker frame covered with leaves, as part of the nineteenth-century May Day games (and urban begging activities) of chimney-sweeps and milk-maids in London and many provincial towns (and there is a reference to them in Dickens's Sketches by Boz), and a practiced which continues in some towns even today. Judge considers the relationship of the "Jack-in-the-Green" to the medieval and early modern "Green Man," and finds only an indirect and distant connection: the "Jack-in-the-Green" is largely a nineteenth-century invention rather than an ancient tradition.]

Kinser, Samuel C. "Wildmen in Festival, 1300-1550." In Oral Tradition in the Middle Ages. Ed. W. F. H. Nicolaisen. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 112. Binghamton, NY: Centre for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton, 1995. Pp. 145-160. ["Discusses the appearance of figures dressed in long hair and fur in carnival masquerades, and distinguishes three symbolic modes: the diabolic wildman, the fertilising wildman and the coercive wildman" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Kinser, Samuel C. "Why is Carnival so Wild?" In Carnival and the Carnivalesque: The Fool, the Reformer, the Wildman, and Others in Early Modern Theatre. Ed. Konrad Eisenbichler and Wim Hüsken. Ludus: Medieval and Early Renaissance Theatre and Drama 4. Amsterdam, and Athens, GA: Rodopi, 1999. Pp. 43-87. ["This collection . . . originates from the meetings of the Société Internationale du Théâtre Médiéval held on 2-11 August, 1995, at Victoria College in the University of Toronto" (Introd., p. 7). On the wildman and his association with Carnival.]

Raglan, J. (Lady). "The Green Man in Church Architecture." Folklore 50 (1939): 45-57.

Spittal, Michael. "The Green Man / Foliate Head." FLS News 24 (1996): 8-9.

Wells, David Arthur. The Wild Man from the Epic of Gilgamesh to Hartman von Aue's "Iwein": Reflections on the Development of a Theme in World Literature. Belfast: Queen's University of Belfast, 1975.

Wylie, Ruth. "The Green Man / Foliate Head." FLS News 24 (1999): 11-12.

F.i. General Background: Women in the Middle Ages

Amsler, Mark. "The Wife of Bath and Women's Power." Assays 4 (1987): 67-83.

Amt, Emilie, ed. Women's Lives in Medieval Europe: A Sourcebook. 2nd ed. Abingdon, Oxon., and New York: Routledge, 2009. [A collection of illustrative primary sources regarding medieval women, not only from the Catholic majority, but also from minority groups such as the Jews, Muslims, and various heretical sects.
     Publisher's description: "Long considered to be a definitive and truly groundbreaking collection of sources, this book presents the everyday lives and experiences of women in the Middle Ages."
     Contents: The heritage of ideas -- Women and the law -- Marriage, sex, childbirth, and health -- Noblewomens lives -- Peasant women's lives -- Townswomen's lives -- Religious lives -- Jewish, Muslim, and heretic women.]

Atkinson, Clarissa. The Oldest Vocation: Christian Motherhood in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Baker, Derek, ed. Medieval Women: Dedicated and Presented to Prof. Rosalind M. T. Hill on the Occasion of her 70th Birthday. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1978.

Bardsley, Sandy. Venomous Tongues: Speech and Gender in Late Medieval England. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. [Publisher's description: "Sandy Bardsley examines the complex relationship between speech and gender in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and engages debates on the static nature of women's status after the Black Death. Focusing on England, Venomous Tongues uses a combination of legal, literary, and artistic sources to show how deviant speech was increasingly feminized in the later Middle Ages. Women of all social classes and marital statuses ran the risk of being charged as scolds, and local jurisdictions interpreted the label "scold" in a way that best fit their particular circumstances. Indeed, Bardsley demonstrates, this flexibility of definition helped to ensure the longevity of the term: women were punished as scolds as late as the early nineteenth century. The tongue, according to late medieval moralists, was a dangerous weapon that tempted people to sin. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, clerics railed against blasphemers, liars, and slanderers, while village and town elites prosecuted those who abused officials or committed the newly devised offense of scolding. In courts, women in particular were prosecuted and punished for insulting others or talking too much in a public setting. In literature, both men and women were warned about women's propensity to gossip and quarrel, while characters such as Noah's Wife and the Wife of Bath demonstrate the development of a stereotypically garrulous woman. Visual representations, such as depictions of women gossiping in church, also reinforced the message that women's speech was likely to be disruptive and deviant."
     Contents: "Sins of the tongue" and social change -- The sins of women's tongues in literature and art -- Women's voices and the law -- Men's voices -- Communities and scolding -- Who was a scold? -- Conclusion: consequences of the feminization of deviant speech.]

Bardsley, Sandy. Women's Roles in the Middle Ages. Women's Roles through History. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "Information about women in the period from 500 to 1500 is in demand and has been a challenge for historians to uncover. Medievalist Bardsley has mined a wide range of primary sources, from noblewomen's writing, court rolls, chivalric literature, laws and legal documents, to archeology and artwork. This fresh survey provides readers with an understanding of how women high and low fared in terms of religion, work, family, law, culture, and politics and public life. Even though medieval women were divided by social class, religion, age, marital status, place and period, they were all subject to an overarching patriarchal structure and sometimes could transcend their inferior status. Numerous examples of these exceptional women and their words are included."
     Contents: Women and religion -- Women and work -- Women and the family -- Women and the law -- Women and culture -- Women, power, and authority.]

Barron, Caroline. "The 'Golden Age' of Women in Medieval London." In Medieval Women in Southern England. A Special Issue of Reading Medieval Studies 15 (1989): 35-58. [Argues that women were relatively well off in late medieval London, and less well off in the age of the Tudors.]

Bennett, Judith M. Ale, Beer, and Brewsters in England: Women's Work in a Changing World, 1300-1600. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press, 1996. [Publisher's description: "Women brewed and sold most of the ale drunk in medieval England, but after 1350, men slowly took over the trade. By 1600, most brewers in London--as well as in many towns and villages--were male, not female. Ale, Beer, and Brewsters in England investigates this transition, asking how, when, and why brewing ceased to be a women's trade and became a trade of men. Drawing on a wide variety of sources--such as literary and artistic materials, court records, accounts, and administrative orders--Judith Bennett vividly describes how brewsters (that is, female brewers) slowly left the trade. She tells a story of commercial growth, gild formation, changing technologies [the introduction of hops led to longer lasting brews, and this permitted mass production which was performed by men], innovative regulations, and, finally, enduring ideas that linked brewsters with drunkenness and disorder. Examining this instance of seemingly dramatic change in women's status, Bennett argues that it included significant elements of continuity. Women might not have brewed in 1600 as often as they had in 1300, but they still worked predominantly in low-status, low-skilled, and poorly remunerated tasks. Using the experiences of brewsters to rewrite the history of women's work during the rise of capitalism, Ale, Beer, and Brewsters in England offers a telling story of the endurance of patriarchy in a time of dramatic economic change."]

Bennett, Judith M., and Amy M. Froide, eds. Singlewomen in the European Past, 1250-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.

Berman, Constance H., Charles W. Connell, and Judith Rice Rothschild, eds. The Worlds of Medieval Women: Creativity, Influence, Imagination. Literary and Historical Perspectives of the Middle Ages 2. Morgantown: West Virginia University Press, 1985.

Bertini, Ferruccio, ed. Medioevo al Femminile. Rome: Editori Laterza, 1989. ["The figure of the Medieval Woman, in all her ambiguity and attractiveness, is the subject of this work. Eight emblematic figures have been chosen, each from a different century: Egeria the Pilgrim; Baudonivia the Biographer; Dhuoda the Mother; Rosvita the Poet; Trotula the Doctor; Eloisa the Intellectual; Ildegarda [Hildegard] the Visionary; Caterina the Prophet. The authors, F. Bertini, F. Cardini, Mt. Fumagalli Beonio Brocchieri, C. Leonardi, use both their subjects' works and those of their contemporaries to show how medieval woman lived and thought."]

Blamires, Alcuin. The Case for Women in Medieval Culture. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Blamires, Alcuin, with Karen Pratt and C. W. Marx, eds. Woman Defamed and Woman Defended: An Anthology of Medieval Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. [Contents: The roots of antifeminist tradition -- The Church Fathers -- The legacy of the Church Fathers -- The satirical tradition in Medieval Latin -- Antifeminist tales -- Vernacular adaptations in the later Middle Ages -- The Wife of Bath -- Responses to antifeminism -- A woman defends women -- Texts.]

Bornstein, Diane. "Women at Work in the Fifteenth Century." Fifteenth-Century Studies 6 (1983): 33-40.

Brown-Grant, Rosalind. Christine de Pizan and the Moral Defence of Women: Reading Beyond Gender. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 40. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion. New York: Zone Books, 1991.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women. The New Historicism 1. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Cassidy-Welch, M., and P. Sherlock, eds. Practices of Gender in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Late Medieval and Early Modern Studies 11. Turnhout: Brepols, 2009. [Publisher's description: "The sixteen original essays examine theories and practices of gender in domestic, religious, and political contexts, including the Reformation, the convent, the workplace, witchcraft, the household, literacy, the arts, intellectual spheres, and cultures of violence and memory."]

Cherewatuk, Karen, and Ulrike Wiethaus. Dear Sister: Medieval Women and the Epistolary Genre. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 1993.

Clover, Carol J. "Regardless of Sex: Men, Women, and Power in Early Northern Europe." Speculum 68 (1993): 363-387. [Speculum 68.2 (April 1993) is a Special Issue entitled "Studying Medieval Women: Sex, Gender, Feminism." Clover argues against the assumption of a simple male=powerful, female=victim approach to the Middle Ages, since power relations fluctuated, and even gender was a fairly fluid concept: "sexual difference used to be less a wall than a permeable membrane . . . in a world in which a physical woman could become a social man, a physical man could (and sooner or later [as in old age] did) become a social woman" (p. 387).]

Coss, Peter R. The Lady in Medieval England, 1000-1500. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 1998.

Crawford, Anne, ed. Letters of the Queens of England, 1100-1547. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1994.

Damico, Helen, and Alexandra Hennessey Olsen, eds. New Readings on Women in Old English Literature. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

DuBruck, Edelgard E., ed. New Images of Medieval Women: Essays Toward a Cultural Anthropology. Mediaeval Studies 1. Lewiston, NY [etc.]: Edwin Mellen Press, 1989. [Contents: Filling and fleshing out the feminine figure: innovative representations of women in Les cent nouvelles nouvelles / Judith Bruskin Diner -- Speaking of tongues: the poetics of the feminine voice in Chaucer's Legend of good women / Elizabeth D. Harvey -- Christine de Pisan: speaking like a woman/speaking like a man / Lynne R. Huffer -- Reinmar der alte and the woman as courtly victim / William E. Jackson -- Christine de Pisan's Le dit de poissy: an exploration of an alternate life-style for aristocratic women in fifteenth-century France / Kathleen E. Kells -- Between the pit and the pedestal: images of Eve and Mary in medieval Cornish drama / Evelyn S. Newlyn -- Female nudity and sexuality in medieval art / John A. Nichols -- Israhel von Meckenem's marriage a la mode: the Alltagsleben / Diane G. Scillia -- Elaine and Guinevere: gender and historical consciousness in the Middle Ages / Martin B. Shichtman -- Arms and the lover in the fifteenth-century Spanish novel / James R. Stamm -- Wifely wiles: comic unmasking in Les quinze joyes de mariage / Steven M. Taylor -- Clandestine marriages in the late Middle Ages / Zacharias P. Thundy.]

Edwards, Robert R., and Vickie Ziegler, eds. Matrons and Marginal Women in Medieval Society. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1995.

Ennen, Edith. The Medieval Woman. Trans. Edmund Jephcott. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989. [First pub. in West Germany, 1984.]

Erler, Mary, and Maryanne Kowaleski, eds. Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988.

Eshlean, Lori. "Weavers of Peace, Weavers of War." In Peace and Negotiation: Strategies for Coexistence in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Ed. Diane Wolfthal. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 4. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2000. Pp. 15-37. [On the role of women in medieval peace and war.]

Evans, Rudy, and Lesley Johnson, eds. Feminist Readings in Middle English Poetry: The Wife of Bath and All Her Sect. London: Routledge, 1995.

Ferrante, Joan M. "Public Postures and Private Maneuvers: Roles Medieval Women Play." In Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Ed. Mary Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. Pp. 213-229.

Ferrante, Joan M. Woman as Image in Medieval Literature from the Twelfth Century to Dante. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975.

Fiero, Gloria K., Wendy Pfeffer, and Mathé Allain, eds. and trans. Three Medieval Views of Women: La Contenance des Fames, Le Bien des Fames, Le Blasme des Fames. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989.

Geary, Patrick J. Women at the Beginning: Origin Myths from the Amazons to the Virgin Mary. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006. [Publisher's description: "In these four artfully crafted essays, Patrick Geary explores the way ancient and medieval authors wrote about women. Geary describes the often marginal role women played in origin legends from antiquity until the twelfth century. Not confining himself to one religious tradition or region, he probes the tensions between women in biblical, classical, and medieval myths (such as Eve, Mary, Amazons, princesses, and countesses), and actual women in ancient and medieval societies. Using these legends as a lens through which to study patriarchal societies, Geary chooses moments and texts that illustrate how ancient authors (all of whom were male) confronted the place of women in their society. Unlike other books on the subject, Women at the Beginning attempts to understand not only the place of women in these legends, but also the ideologies of the men who wrote about them. The book concludes that the authors of these stories were themselves struggling with ambivalence about women in their own worlds and that this struggle manifested itself in their writings."
     Contents: "Women and Origins in Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages"; "Writing Women Out: Amazons and Barbarians"; "A Tale of Two Judiths"; "Writing Women In: Sacred Genealogy and Gender"; "Women at the End."]

Gies, Frances, and Joseph Gies. Women in the Middle Ages. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1978.

Goldberg, P. J. P. "Women in Fifteenth-Century Town Life." In Towns and Townspeople in the Fifteenth Century. Ed. John A. F. Thomson. Stroud, Gloucestershire, and Wolfeboro Falls, NH: Alan Sutton, 1988. Pp. 107-128. [That women enjoyed varied roles and a good deal of integration in town life.]

Goldberg, P. J. P., ed. Women in England, 1275-1525. Manchester Medieval Sources. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.

Goldberg, P. J. P., ed. Women in Medieval English Society, c. 1200-1500. Sutton History. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1997. [First published in 1992 as Woman is a Worthy Wight: Women in English Medieval Society, c.1200-1500. The collection is based upon the proceedings of a conference entitled "Woman is a Worthy Wight" held at Cambridge in 1988. This edition has a new Preface (in part, summarizing scholarship on the subject since the original publication), but the texts of the essays are unchanged. Publisher's description: "The authors present a broad, balanced approach to the subject by analysing the position and influence of women in a variety of religious and secular contexts. Among the important areas discussed are marriage and servanthood, work and status, confession and charity, lordship and estate management. . . . The authors consider in detail the workings of medieval marriage, the status of peasant women in the countryside, the provision of charity for women, the information about gender that can be revealed by archaeology, the responsibility of women in the household and their influence on the running of great estates."
     Contents: P. J. P. Goldberg, "Marriage, Migration, and Servanthood: The York Cause Paper Evidence" (1-15); Richard M. Smith, "Geographical Diversity in the Resort to Marriage in Late Medieval Europe: Work, Reputation, and Unmarried Females in the Household Formation Systems of Northern and Southern Europe" (16-59); P. P. A. Biller, "Marriage Patterns and Women's Lives: A Sketch of a Pastoral Geography" (60-107); P. J. P. Goldberg, "'For Better, For Worse': Marriage and Economic Opportunity for Women in Town and Country" (108-125); Helena Graham, "'A Woman's Work . . .': Labour and Gender in the Late Medieval Countryside" (126-148); Rowena E. Archer, "'How Ladies . . . who Live on their Manors ought to Manage their Households and Estates': Women as Landholders and Administrators in the Later Middle Ages" (149-181); P. H. Cullum, "'And hir Name was Charite': Charitable Giving by and for Women in Late Medieval Yorkshire" (182-211); Roberta Gilchrist, "'Blessed art Thou among Women': The Archaeology of Female Piety" (212-226).]

Hanawalt, Barbara. The Wealth of Wives: Women, Law, and Economy in Late Medieval London. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "London became an international center for import and export trade in the late Middle Ages. The export of wool, the development of luxury crafts and the redistribution of goods from the continent made London one of the leading commercial cities of Europe. While capital for these ventures came from a variety of sources, the recirculation of wealth through London women was important in providing both material and social capital for the growth of London's economy. A shrewd Venetian visiting England around 1500 commented about the concentration of wealth and property in women's hands. He reported that London law divided a testator's property three ways allowing a third to the wife for her life use, a third for immediate inheritance of the heirs, and a third for burial and the benefit of the testator's soul. Women inherited equally with men and widows had custody of the wealth of minor children. In a society in which marriage was assumed to be a natural state for women, London women married and remarried. Their wealth followed them in their marriages and was it was administered by subsequent husbands. This study, based on extensive use of primary source materials, shows that London's economic growth was in part due to the substantial wealth that women transmitted through marriage. The Italian visitor observed that London men, unlike Venetians, did not seek to establish long patrilineages discouraging women to remarry, but instead preferred to recirculate wealth through women. London's social structure, therefore, was horizontal, spreading wealth among guilds rather than lineages. The liquidity of wealth was important to a growing commercial society and women brought not only wealth but social prestige and trade skills as well into their marriages. But marriage was not the only economic activity of women. London law permitted women to trade in their own right as femmes soles and a number of women, many of them immigrants from the countryside, served as wage laborers. But London's archives confirm women's chief economic impact was felt in the capital and skill they brought with them to marriages, rather than their profits as independent traders or wage labourers."
     Contents: Daughters and identities -- Education and apprenticeship -- Inheritance, dowry, and dower -- The formation of marriage -- Recovery of dower and widows' remarriage -- For better or for worse: the marital experience -- Standard of living and women as consumers -- Women as entrepreneurs -- Servants, casual labor, and vendors.]

Harrison, Dick. The Age of Abbesses and Queens: Gender and Political Culture in Early Medieval Europe. Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 1998. [A study of political culture of early medieval Europe, especially as reflected in documentary evidence for attitudes towards women (was there a gendered political culture? specific spheres of influence in which females had sway?). Harrison argues that gender is an important aspect of medieval political culture, and that men and women in similar circumstances often acted in quite different ways as a result, but that sweeping generalizations about "all-powerful males and permanently suppressed females" have flourished only in the absence of historical research in this field (29). Harrison's conclusion is that the stereotypes of female emotion and irrationality arise in this period ("[w]hat we see [in the texts under consideration] is gender in the process of being constructed"), despite (perhaps because of) very real women exercising very real political power and influence.]

Harwood, Britton J., and Gillian R. Overing, eds. Class and Gender in Early English Literature: Intersections. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1994.

Haskell, Ann S. "The Portrayal of Women by Chaucer and His Age." In What Manner of Woman: Essays on English and American Life and Literature. Ed. Marlene Springer. The Gotham Library. New York: New York University Press, 1977. Pp. 1-14.

Holloway, Julia Bolton, Constance S. Wright, and Joan Bechtold, eds. Equally in God's Image: Women in the Middle Ages. New York: Peter Lang, 1990.

Jewell, Helen M. Women in Late Medieval and Reformation Europe, 1200-1550. European Culture and Society. Basingstoke, Hants., and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. [Contents: Contemporary gender theory and society's expectations of women -- The practical situation: women's function in rural communities -- The practical situation: women's function in urban communities -- Women and power: royal and landholding women -- Women and religion -- Women who exceeded society's expectations.]

Jewell, Helen M. Women in Medieval England. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996.

Kanner, Barbara, ed. The Women in England from Anglo-Saxon Times to the Present: Interpretive Bibliographical Essays. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1979.

Kelly, Kathleen Coyne, and Marina Leslie, eds. Menacing Virgins: Representing Virginity in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Fwd. Margaret Ferguson. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1999. [Contents: Introduction: "The Epistemology of Virginity," Kathleen Kelly and Marina Leslie; "'Blæju [th]öll--Young Fir of the Bed-Clothes': Skaldic Seduction," Wiilliam Sayers; "Rhetoric, Power and Integrity in the Passion of the Virgin Martyr," Maud Burnett McInerney [challenges the presumed equation of virginity and silence, though a study of feminine power and eloquence in stories such as Chaucer's Second Nun's Tale]; "King by Day, Queen by Night: The Virgin Camille in the Roman d'Eneas," Wendy Chapman Peek; "Diana's 'Bowe Ybroke': Impotence, Desire, and Virginity in Chaucer's Parliament of Fowls," Kathryn L. Lynch; "Menaced Masculinity and Imperiled Virginity in Malory's Morte Darthur," Kathleen Coyne Kelly; "Il Trionfo della Pudicizia: Menacing Virgins in Italian Renaissance Domestic Painting," Cristelle L. Baskins; "Metaphor and the Mystification of Chastity in Vives's Instruction of a Christen Woman," Nancy Weitz Miller; "Figuring Chastity: Milton's Ludlow Masque," Lauren Shohet [Comus]; "Lost Honor and Torn Veils: A Virgin's Rape in Music," Lydia Hamessley; "Evading Rape and Embracing Empire in Margaret Cavendish's Assaulted and Pursued Chastity," Marina Leslie.]

Kirshner, Julius, and Suzanne Wemple, eds. Women of the Medieval World: Essays in Honour of John H. Mundy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985.

Kittel, Ruth. "Women under the Law in Medieval England, 1066-1485." In The Women of England from Anglo-Saxon Times to the Present: Interpretive Bibliographical Essays. Ed. Barbara Kanner. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1979. Pp. 124-137.

Lerner, Gerda. The Creation of Feminist Consciousness from the Middle Ages to Eighteen-Seventy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Levin, Carole, and Jeanie Watson, eds. Ambiguous Realities: Women in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1987. [Contents: Role and representation in Medieval and early Renaissance texts. Boccaccio's in-famous women: gender and civic virture in the De mulieribus claris / Constance Jordan -- Zenobia in Medieval and Renaissance literature / Valerie Wayne -- Heloise: inquiry and the Sacra pagina / Eileen Kearney -- The frivolities of courtiers follow the footprints of women: public women and the crisis of virility in John of Salisbury / Cary J. Nederman and N. Elaine Lawson -- Rereadings of Medieval and Renaissance literary texts. Domestic treachery in the Clerk's tale / Deborah S. Ellis -- Enid the disobedient: the Mabinogion's Gereint and Enid / Jeanie Watson -- Communication short-circuited: ambiguity and motivation in the Heptameron / Karen F. Wiley -- Reading Spenser's Faerie Queen--In a different voice / Shirley F. Staton -- Role and representation in English Renaissance texts. Presentations of women in the English popular press / Sara J. Eaton -- The Feme covert in Elizabeth Cary's Mariam / Betty S. Travitsky -- The myth of a feminist humanism: Thomas Salter's The Mirrhor of Modestie / Janis Butler Holm -- "I trust I may not trust thee": women's visions of the world in Shakespeare's King John / Carole Levin -- Recorder Fleetwood and the Tudor queenship controversy / Dennis Moore.]

Leyser, Henrietta. Medieval Women: A Social History of Women in England, 450-1500. Women in England. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1995.

Lucas, Angela M. Women in the Middle Ages: Religion, Marriage and Letters. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983.

Maddern, Philippa. "Honour among the Pastons: Gender and Integrity in Fifteenth-Century English Provincial Life." Journal of Medieval History 14 (1988): 357-371. [The Paston Letters reveal a strong orientation towards the community, with significant scope for women to be involved in public affairs.]

Mann, Jill. Apologies to Women. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Martos, Joseph, and Pierre Hégy, eds. Equal at the Creation: Sexism, Society, and Christian Thought. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Mate, Mavis E. Women in Medieval English Society. New Studies in Economic and Social History 39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. [Publisher's description: "This book presents a concise and accessible introduction to the various issues and debates surrounding women and their position in medieval society. Professor Mate examines the role women played in the economy, clarifies legal provisions for women and highlights the importance of class, as well as gender, in determining marriage and opportunities."]

McCracken, Peggy. The Romance of Adultery: Queenship and Sexual Transgression in Old French Literature. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998. [On fluctuating attitudes to queenly adultery in history and literature.]

McMillan, Ann Hunter. "'Evere an hundred goode ageyn oon badde': Catalogues of Good Women in Medieval Literature." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1979. [DAI 40 (1979-1980): 5437A. Abstract: "Catalogues of noble pagan women in medieval literature have been largely ignored by scholars. A study of these catalogues reveals the medieval literary treatment of women to be misrepresented by the labels of 'antifeminism' and 'courtly love' usually applied. The catalogues also caution contemporary readers that the medieval attitude toward written authority was much more flexible than is often believed.
     "My first chapter begins with an examination of classical catalogues of women, particularly Ovid's Heroides and the lugentes campi of Vergil's Aeneid. In both of these works, women are depicted as the natural victims of passion, suffering self-imposed martyrdom for their fidelity in love. In early Christian times, St. Jerome praised two other kinds of classical heroines, the virginal maiden and the chaste wife. Many of his classical virgins are 'manly,' in that they exercise male prerogatives as hunters, warriors, and priests. These three types of women--the chaste wife, the 'manly' virgin, and the martyr of love--continue to dominate the catalogues throughout the Middle Ages. The chapter concludes with an overview of medieval treatments of women.
     "The second chapter examines Boccaccio's extremely influential catalogue, De Claris Mulieribus. Writing about virtually all the famous women from classical times, Boccaccio attempts to set up an ideal to which contemporary women should aspire. However, his standards are muddled, and he assumes the inferiority of women to men. My third chapter traces a group of warrior women from their earliest appearance as the neuf preuses in Deschamps to the highly adapted group praised by Thomas Heywood. The glorification of such 'manly' women resulted largely from the popularity of De Claris Mulieribus and tends to share Boccaccio's beliefs about women. Christine de Pisan's Cité des Dames, which makes use of many pagan warrior women and seeks to temper Boccaccio's antifeminism, is also discussed.
     "Chaucer's early use of catalogues of women is the subject of my fourth chapter. Chaucer, drawing mainly upon the idea of love's martyrs from Ovid and Vergil, shows awareness of conflicting authorities and of the double standard which often made women the victims and men the heroes of 'fame.' Thus, the question of what makes a good woman becomes for him an aspect of the larger conflicts between men and women and between experience and authority.
     "The Legend of Good Women and three of the Canterbury Tales are used together in my fifth chapter to illustrate the tendency of the catalogues to reveal more about their tellers than about women. The Merchant, Manciple, and Monk attempt to hide behind 'authority' in their catalogues, but in fact reveal their lack of self-awareness. In the Legend, the Chaucerian narrator finds himself forced by an authority--the God of Love--to praise women in a way that can only be achieved through the deliberate mishandling of his other authorities--old books. The Legend exposes its own purported aims and methods as based on misleading rhetoric and false ideas about women.
     "Chaucer's development of the catalogue from a rhetorical device to a means of characterization reachers [sic] its culmination in Dorigen and the Wife of Bath. These two female characters, whom I discuss in an epilogue, evaluate the examples provided by the catalogues in terms of their own experience, and find them wanting."]

Mirrer, Louise, ed. Upon my Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe. Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991.

Morewedge, Rosemarie T., ed. The Role of Woman in the Middle Ages. Albany: State University of New York, 1975.

Owen, D. D. R. Eleanor of Aquitaine. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1993.

Parsons, John Carmi, ed. Medieval Queenship. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1994.

Parsons, John Carmi, and Bonnie Wheeler, eds. Medieval Mothering. The New Middle Ages 3; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1979. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1996. [Among other content, "[t]heoretical essays examine medical and literary sources to establish that for male commentators, the narrowly biological, female parameters of maternity were insistently supplanted by images of nurturant mothering, an ungendered activity that could be preempted and associated with male behavior."]

Partner, Nancy F. "No Sex, No Gender." Speculum 68 (1993): 363-387. [Speculum 68.2 (April 1993) is a Special Issue entitled "Studying Medieval Women: Sex, Gender, Feminism." "The two polar terms of sex and gender (alias: body vs. society; nature vs. culture; biology vs. artifice) offered us in current discussions are just not enough conceptual equipment to address the complex issues of psychosexual identity and collective culture. . . . A middle or third term is always needed--'self' or 'sexuality' will do quite well--to acknowledge the developmental negotiations of mind with world which produce men and women who do tend to be recognizably like others of the same sex (and class, society, etc.) when regarded collectively, but yet are quite distinct and individual when seen 'close up.' Gender, as a concept carrying all the explanatory weight for human behaviour, thins out and dehumanizes the individual while never accounting for the deviance, rebellion, and simple idiosyncrasy which happily fill the historical record. The currently missing middle term of psychosexual development would restore the reality that human beings actively negotiate their way into their worlds; they are not passively processed by them" (pp. 441-442).]

Phillips, Kim M. Medieval Maidens: Young Women and Gender in England, c.1270-c.1540. Manchester Medieval Studies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003. [Publisher's description: "The medieval landscape, as traditionally viewed through the eyes of scholars, was hardly populated by women--aside from the occasional dazzling queen or mistress, strong-willed abbess, or exotic mystic. This picture has been dramatically altered by the scholarship of the last few decades as women have been restored to the medieval scene. However, to date, young unmarried women or 'maidens' have attracted little academic attention. This book aims to fill that gap by examining the experiences and voices of young womanhood. The life-phase of 'adolescence' was rather different for maidens than for young men, and, as such, merits study in its own right. At the same time a study of young womanhood provides insights into ideals of feminine gender roles and identities at different social levels. Young women were engaged in the process of acquiring the gendered selves required of adult women, but were themselves representative of a powerful ideal of femininity. This book will appeal to students interested in themes of women and gender, youth and the life-cycle, upbringing and sexuality in the medieval period."
     Contents: Introduction: Medieval youth, Constructing gender, Approach and sources; Attributes: Bodies, Minds, Exit Points, Perfect Age, Conclusion; Upbringing: Modes of learning, Teachers, Messages, Conclusion; Work: Noble service, Town and country, Conclusion; Sexualities: Sexual boundaries, Flirtation and fantasy, Conclusion; Voices: 'Send more clothes,' 'Marry me,' 'Ave Maria,' Restive voices, Conclusion.]

Power, Eileen. Medieval Women. Ed. M. M. Postan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

Renate Bridenthal, Susan Mosher Stuard, and Merry E. Wiesner, eds. Becoming Visible: Women in European History. 3rd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998. [Contents: Women of ancient Egypt and western Asia / Barbara S. Lesko -- Daughters of Demeter: women in ancient Greece / Marilyn A. Katz -- Matres patriae / matres ecclesiae: women of Rome / Jo Ann McNamara -- Women in early medieval northern Europe / Lisa M. Bitel -- The dominion of gender or how women fared in the high middle ages / Susan Mosher Stuard -- Women in the Renaissance / Carole Levin -- The reformation of women / Susan C. Karant-Nunn -- Spinning out capital: women's work in preindustrial Europe, 1350-1750 / Merry E. Wiesner -- Women and the Enlightenment / Dena Goodman -- A political revolution for women?: the case of Paris / Darline Gay Levy and Harriet B. Applewhite -- Doing capitalism's work: women in the western European industrial economy / Laura L. Frader -- Contextualizing the theory and practice of feminism in nineteenth-century Europe (1789-1914) / Karen Offen -- Socialism, feminism, and the socialist women's movement from the French Revolution to World War II / Charles Sowerwine -- Gender, race, and empire in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Africa and Asia / Margaret Strobel -- Women and the revolutionary process in Russia / Richard Stites -- Women in war and peace, 1914-1945 / Sandi E. Cooper -- The "woman question" in authoritarian regimes / Claudia Koonz -- Friend or foe?: women and state welfare in western Europe / Jane Jenson -- The great divide?: women's rights in eastern and central Europe since 1945 / Barbara Einhorn -- Women in the new Europe / Renate Bridenthal.]

Rigby, S. H. "The Wife of Bath, Christine de Pizan, and the Medieval Case for Women." Chaucer Review 35 (2000-2001): 133-165.

Roberts, Anna, ed. Violence against Women in Medieval Texts. Gainesville, Tallahassee, Tampa, Boca Raton, Pensacola, Orlando, Miami, Jacksonville: University Press of Florida, 1998.

Rose, Mary Beth, ed. Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: Literary and Historical Perspectives. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986. [Contents: Women's defense of their public role / Merry E. Wiesner -- Heroics of virginity: brides of Christ and sacrificial mutilation / Jane Tibbetts Schulenburg -- Women and the Italian inquisitions / William Monter -- Annihilating intimacy in Coriolanus / Madelon Sprengnether -- John Foxe and the responsibilities of Queenship / Carole Levin -- Shakespeare's comic heroines, Elizabeth I, and the political uses of androgyny / Leah S. Marcus -- Autobiography of a new "creatur": female spirituality, selfhood, and authorship in The book of Margery Kempe / Janel M. Mueller -- Spiritual fun: a study of sixteenth-century Tuscan convent theater / Elissa Weaver -- Countess of Pembroke and the art of dying / Mary Ellen Lamb -- Inventing authority of origin: the difficult enterprise / Tilde Sankovitch -- Gender, genre and history: seventeenth-century English women and the art of autobiography / Mary Beth Rose.]

Rosenthal, Joel T., ed. Medieval Women and the Sources of Medieval History. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1991.

Salih, Sarah. Versions of Virginity in Late Medieval England. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001. [Publisher's description: "This study looks at the question of what it meant to be a virgin in the Middle Ages, and the forms which female virginity took. It begins with the assumptions that there is more to virginity than sexual inexperience, and that virginity may be considered a gendered identity, a role which is performed rather than biologically determined. The author explores versions of virginity as they appear in medieval saints' lives, in the institutional chastity of nuns, and as shown in the book of Margery Kempe, showing how it can be active, contested, vulnerable but also recoverable."]

Saunders, Corinne J. "Women and Warfare in Medieval English Writing." In Writing War: Medieval Literary Responses to Warfare. Ed. Corinne J. Saunders, Françoise Le Saux, and Neil Thomas. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2004. Pp. 187-212.

Schrader, Richard J. God's Handiwork: Images of Women in Early Germanic Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1983.

Seward, Desmond. Eleanor of Aquitaine: The Mother Queen. London: David and Charles, 1978.

Shahar, Shulamith. The Fourth Estate: A History of Women in the Middle Ages. Trans. Chaya Galai. London: Methuen, 1983.

Sheehan, Michael M., CSB. "The Wife of Bath and her Four Sisters: Reflections on a Woman's Life in the Age of Chaucer." Medievalia et Humanistica ns 13 (1985): 23-42. [Rpt. in Critical Essays on Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales." Ed. Malcolm Andrew. London: Open University Press; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991. Pp. 187-204.
     This is an excellent essay, summarizing the current state of our knowledge about women in the period of Chaucer. Sheehan objects to the "generalizations" and universalizing tendencies of many current articles, since, on the one hand, there were many distinctions between women of different groups which distinctions are too often blurred by modern writers, and, secondly, we are only just beginning to analyze the available evidence: this field of study is still in its infancy and it is too soon to be drawing broad conclusions.]

Smith, Susan L. The Power of Women: A Topos in Medieval Art and Literature. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

Stuart, Susan Mosher. Women in Medieval History and Historiography. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987.

"Studying Medieval Women: Sex, Gender, Feminism." A Special Issue of Speculum 68.2 (April 1993).

Swabey, Ffiona. Medieval Gentlewoman: Life in a Widow's Household in the Later Middle Ages. New York: Routledge; Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 1999.

Van Houts, Elisabeth. Memory and Gender in Medieval Europe, 900-1200. Explorations in Medieval Culture and Society 1. London: Macmillan; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999. [Publisher's description: "Tracing the oral and written memories of families and monastic communities though chronicles, saints' lives, and material objects such as jewellery and memorial stones, Elisabeth van Houts argues that in the Middle Ages, as now, the knowledge of the past was shaped by men as well as women. Men may have dominated the pages of literature but many of the stories they wrote were told to them by women. The Norman Conquest of England in 1066 provides a case study to illustrate the ways in which one memorable event reverberated through the generations. In England and Normandy, men and women remembered their ancestors' experiences: the worst were kept alive orally for a long time before they were written down, the best were put on paper straight away." Van Houts challenges the traditional view, that medieval historical writing was the product of self-perpetuating monastic and male privilege, Van Houts emphasizes the collaboration of women and men in preserving both the memory of familial ancestry as well as in the production of chronicles, annals, and saints' lives.]

Ward, Jennifer C. English Noblewomen in the Later Middle Ages. The Medieval World. London and New York: Longman, 1992. ["A look into the often varied life and activities of the noblewoman--her role in household and estate business, the use of wealth and show, and the exercise of hospitality and patronage."]

Watt, Diane, ed. Medieval Women in their Communities. Cardiff: University of Wales Press; Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1997.

Weir, Alison. Eleanor of Aquitaine: By the Wrath of God, Queen of England. London: Jonathan Cape, 1999.

Wilson, Katharina M., and Elizabeth M. Makowski. Wykked Wyves and the Woes of Marriage: Misogamous Literature from Juvenal to Chaucer. SUNY Series in Medieval Studies. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

Wright, Sharon Hubbs. "Women in the Northern Courts: Interpreting Legal Records of Familial Conflict in Early Fifteenth-Century Yorkshire." Florilegium 19 (2002): 27-48. [The story of Kathleen Northfolk, a Yorkshire heiress whose uncle tried to do her out of her inheritance, is more complicated and nuanced than Eileen Power, who first brought it to scholarly notice, was aware. This is a story about how Kathleen's mother fought back on behalf of her daughter--and eventually won.]

F.ii. Women and Culture (Reading, Writing, Religion)

Beer, Frances. Women and Mystical Experience in the Middle Ages. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1992.

Biller, Peter. "Women and Dissent." In Medieval Holy Women in the Christian Tradition c.1100-c.1500. Ed. Alastair Minnis and Rosalynn Voaden. Brepols Essays in European Culture 1. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. Pp. 133-162. [Challenges the idea that heretical and dissenting groups (such as the Cathars and Lollards) held a special attraction for women.]

Bitel, Lisa M., and Felice Lifshitz, eds. Gender and Christianity in Medieval Europe: New Perspectives. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. [Publisher's description: "In Gender and Christianity in Medieval Europe, six historians explore how medieval people professed Christianity, how they performed gender, and how the two coincided. Many of the daily religious decisions people made were influenced by gender roles, the authors contend. Women's pious donations, for instance, were limited by laws of inheritance and marriage customs; male clerics' behavior depended upon their understanding of masculinity as much as on the demands of liturgy. The job of religious practitioner, whether as a nun, monk, priest, bishop, or some less formal participant, involved not only professing a set of religious ideals but also professing gender in both ideal and practical terms. The authors also argue that medieval Europeans chose how to be women or men (or some complex combination of the two), just as they decided whether and how to be religious. In this sense, religious institutions freed men and women from some of the gendered limits otherwise imposed by society.
     "Whereas previous scholarship has tended to focus exclusively either on masculinity or on aristocratic women, the authors define their topic to study gender in a fuller and more richly nuanced fashion. Likewise, their essays strive for a generous definition of religious history, which has too often been a history of its most visible participants and dominant discourses. In stepping back from received assumptions about religion, gender, and history and by considering what the terms 'woman,' 'man,' and 'religious' truly mean for historians, the book ultimately enhances our understanding of the gendered implications of every pious thought and ritual gesture of medieval Christians."
     Contents: Convent ruins and Christian profession: toward a methodology for the history of religion and gender / Lisa M. Bitel -- Tertullian, the angelic life, and the bride of Christ / Dyan Elliot -- One flesh, two sexes, three genders? / Jacqueline Murray -- Thomas Aquinas's chastity belt: clerical masculinity in medieval Europe / Ruth Mazo Karras -- Women's monasteries and sacred space: the promotion of saints' cults and miracles / Jane Tibbetts Schulenberg -- Priestly women, virginal men: litanies and their discontents / Felice Lifshitz.]

Blamires, Alcuin. "The Limits of Bible Study for Medieval Women." In Women, the Book, and the Godly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda's Conference, 1993. Ed. Leslie Smith and Jane H. M. Taylor. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1995. Pp. 1-12.

Boffey, Julia. "Women Authors and Womens' Literacy in Fourteenth- and Fifteenth-Century England." In Women and Literature in Britain, 1150-1500. Ed. Carol M. Meale. 2nd ed. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Pp. 159-182.

Chance, Jane. The Literary Subversions of Medieval Women. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Chance, Jane. "Speaking in Propria Persona: Authorizing the Subject as a Political Act in Late Medieval Feminine Spirituality." In New Trends in Feminine Spirituality: The Holy Women of Liege and Their Impact. Ed. Juliette Dor, Lesley Johnson, and Jocelyn Wogan-Browne. Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts 2. Turnhout: Brepols, 1999. Pp. 269-294.

Chewning, Susannah Mary. Intersections of Sexuality and the Divine in Medieval Culture: The Word Made Flesh. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005. [Publisher's description: "As distinct from the many recent collections and studies of medieval literature and culture that have focused on gender and sexuality as their major themes, this collection considers and serves to re-think and re-situate religion and sexuality together. Including 'traditional' works such as Chaucer and the Pearl-poet, as well as less well known and studied texts--such as alchemical texts and the Wohunge group--the contributors here focus on the meeting point of these two often-examined concepts. They seek an understanding of where sex and religion distinguish themselves from one another, and where they do not.
     This volume locates the Divine and the Erotic within the continuum of experience and devotion that characterize the paradox of the medieval world. Not merely original in their approaches, these authors seek a new vision of how these two inter-connected themes--sexuality and the Divine--meet, connect, distinguish themselves, and merge within medieval life, language, and literature."
     Contents: Part I Secular Literature and Drama: Religion, sexuality, and representation in the York Joseph's Troubles pageant, Michael W. George; The gentrification of Eve: sexuality, speech, and self-regulation in noble conduct literature, Mark Addison Amos; Queer copulation and the pursuit of divine conjunction in two Middle English alchemical poems, Cynthea Masson. Part II Romance and Narrative: Via erotica/via mystica: a tour de force in the Merchant's Tale, M. C. Bodden; 'My Lemman Swete': gender and passion in Pearl, Catherine S. Cox. Part III Saints and Religious Women: Spectators of martyrdom: corporeality and sexuality in the Liflade ant te Passiun of Seinte Margarete, Julie E. Fromer; 'The woman who shares the king's bed': the innocent eroticism of Gertrud the Great of Helfta, Alexandra Barratt; Virgin, mother, whore: the sexual spirituality of Margery Kempe, Liz Herbert McAvoy. Part IV Visionaries and Mystics: Corpus Mysticum: text as body/body as text, David A. Salomon; Cross-dressing souls: same-sex desire and the mystic tradition in A Talkyng of the Loue of God, Michelle M. Sauer; 'Mi bodi henge / wid þi bodi': the paradox of sensuality in Þe Wohunge of Ure Lauerd, Susannah Mary Chewning.]

Clark, Robert L. A. "Constructing the Female Subject in Late Medieval Devotion." In Medieval Conduct. Ed. Kathleen Ashley, and Robert L. A. Clark. Medieval Cultures 29. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001. Pp. 160-182.

Crawford, Patricia. Women and Religion in England, 1500-1720. Christianity and Society in the Modern World. London and New York: Routledge, 1993.

Delany, Sheila. Writing Woman: Women Writers and Women in Literature, Medieval to Modern. New York: Schocken Books, 1983.

Dinshaw, Carolyn, and David Wallace, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Women's Writing. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. [Publisher's description: "The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Women's Writing seeks to recover the lives and particular experiences of medieval women by concentrating on various kinds of texts: the texts they wrote themselves as well as texts that attempted to shape, limit, or expand their lives. The first section investigates the roles traditionally assigned to medieval women (as virgins, widows, and wives); it also considers female childhood and relations between women. The second section explores social spaces, including textuality itself: for every surviving medieval manuscript bespeaks collaborative effort. It considers women as authors, as anchoresses 'dead to the world,' and as preachers and teachers in the world staking claims to authority without entering a pulpit. The final section considers the lives and writings of remarkable women, including Marie de France, Heloise, Joan of Arc, Julian of Norwich, Margery Kempe, and female lyricists and romancers whose names are lost, but whose texts survive."
     Contents: Contributors; Chronology, Chris Africa; Introduction, Carolyn Dinshaw and David Wallace; Part I. Estates of Women: 1. "Female Childhoods," Daniel T. Kline; 2. "Virginity," Ruth Evans; 3. "Marriage," Dyan Elliott; 4. "Widows," Barbara Hanawalt; 5. "Between Women," Karma Lochrie; Part II. Texts and Other Spaces: 6. "Women and authorship," Jennifer Summit; 7. "Enclosure," Christopher Cannon; 8. "At home; out of the house," Sarah Salih; 9. "Beneath the pulpit," Alcuin Blamires; Section III. Medieval Women: 10. "Heloise," Christopher Baswell; 11. "Marie de France," Roberta L. Krueger; 12. "The Roman de la Rose, Christine de Pizan, and the querelles des femmes," David F. Hult; 13. "Lyrics and romances," Sarah McNamer; 14. "Julian of Norwich," Nicholas Watson; 15. "Margery Kempe," Carolyn Dinshaw; 16. "Continental women mystics and English readers," Alexandra Barratt; 17. "Joan of Arc," Nadia Margolis; Guide to further reading.]

Dyas, Dee, Valerie Edden, and Roger Ellis, eds. Approaching Medieval English Anchoritic and Mystical Texts. Christianity and Culture: Issues in Teaching/Research. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2005. [Publisher's description: "This volume seeks to explore the origins, context and content of the anchoritic and mystical texts produced in England during the Middle Ages and to examine the ways in which these texts may be studied and taught today. It foregrounds issues of context and interaction, seeking both to position medieval spiritual writings against a surprisingly wide range of contemporary contexts and to face the challenge of making these texts accessible to a wider readership. The contributions, by leading scholars in the field, incorporate historical, literary and theological perspectives and offer critical approaches and background material which will inform both research and teaching. The approaches to Middle English anchoritic and mystical texts suggested in this volume are many and varied. In this they reflect the richness and complexity of the contexts from which these writings emerged. These essays are offered as part of an ongoing exploration of aspects of medieval spirituality which, while posing a considerable challenge to modern readers, also offer invaluable insights into the interaction between medieval culture and belief."
     Contents: Anchorites and hermits in historical context / Eddie Jones -- "Wildernesse is anlich lif of ancre wununge": the wilderness and medieval anchoritic spirituality / Dee Dyas -- The devotional life of the laity in the late Middle Ages / Valerie Edden -- Medieval contemplation and mystical experience / Santha Bhattacharji -- Richard Rolle / Denis Renevey -- Language and its limits: The cloud of unknowing and Pearl / A. C. Spearing -- Walter Hilton / Thomas H. Bestul -- "Be thou, to whom this booke shall come": Julian of Norwich and her audience, past, present and future / Liz Herbert-McAvoy -- "I use but comownycacyon and good wordys": teaching and the book of Margery Kempe / Barry Windeatt -- Teaching anchoritic texts: the shock of the old / Alexandra Barratt -- Appendix: The rule of a recluse, from MS Bodley 423 -- Introducing the mystics / R. S. Allen -- Holy fictions: another approach to the Middle English mystics / Roger Ellis -- Women mystics / Ann M. Hutchison -- Contexts for teaching Julian of Norwich / Marion Glasscoe -- Appendix: "Stond wel, moder, under rode."]

Elliot, Dyan. Proving Woman: Female Spirituality and Inquisitional Culture in the Later Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.

Erler, Mary C[arpenter]. Women, Reading, and Piety in Late Medieval England. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 46. Cambridge, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Ferrante, Joan M. To the Glory of her Sex: Women's Roles in the Composition of Medieval Texts. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1997. [Publisher's description: "A study of the roles women played in medieval literature as patrons or collaborators and as authors. The author also considers the work of men who wrote for women, whether religious texts written at their request, historical texts written as propaganda for them or their cause, or romances composed for their favor."]

French, Katherine L. The Good Women of the Parish: Gender and Religion After the Black Death. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "There was immense social and economic upheaval between the Black Death and the English Reformation, and contemporary writers often blamed this upheaval on immorality, singling out women's behavior for particular censure. Late medieval moral treatises and sermons increasingly connected good behavior for women with Christianity, and their failure to conform to sin. Katherine L. French argues, however, that medieval laywomen both coped with the chaotic changes following the plague and justified their own changing behavior by participating in local religion. Through active engagement in the parish church, the basic unit of public worship, women promoted and validated their own interests and responsibilities.
     "Scholarship on medieval women's religious experiences has focused primarily on elite women, nuns, and mystics who either were literate enough to leave written records of their religious ideas and behavior or had access to literate men who did this for them. Most women, however, were not literate, were not members of religious orders, and did not have private confessors. As The Good Women of the Parish shows, the great majority of women practiced their religion in a parish church. By looking at women's contributions to parish maintenance, the ways they shaped the liturgy and church seating arrangements, and their increasing opportunities for collective action in all-women's groups, the book argues that gendered behavior was central to parish life and that women's parish activities gave them increasing visibility and even, on occasion, authority. In the face of demands for silence, modesty, and passivity, women of every social status used religious practices as an important source of self-expression, creativity, and agency."]

Frye, Susan. Pens and Needles: Women's Textualities in Early Modern England. Material Texts. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "The Renaissance woman, whether privileged or of the artisan or the middle class, was trained in the expressive arts of needlework and painting, which were often given precedence over writing. Pens and Needles is the first book to examine all these forms as interrelated products of self-fashioning and communication.
     "Because early modern people saw verbal and visual texts as closely related, Susan Frye discusses the connections between the many forms of women's textualities, including notes in samplers, alphabets both stitched and penned, initials, ciphers, and extensive texts like needlework pictures, self-portraits, poetry, and pamphlets, as well as commissioned artwork, architecture, and interior design. She examines works on paper and cloth by such famous figures as Elizabeth I, Mary, Queen of Scots, and Bess of Hardwick, as well as the output of journeywomen needleworkers and miniaturists Levina Teerlinc and Esther Inglis, and their lesser-known sisters in the English colonies of the New World. Frye shows how traditional women's work was a way for women to communicate with each other and to shape their own identities within familial, intellectual, religious, and historical traditions. Pens and Needles offers insights into women's lives and into such literary texts as Shakespeare's Othello and Cymbeline and Mary Sidney Wroth's Urania."
     Contents: Political designs: Elizabeth Tudor, Mary Stuart, and Bess of Hardwick -- Miniatures and manuscripts: Levina Teerlinc, Jane Segar, and Esther Inglis as professional artisans -- Sewing connections: narratives of agency in women's domestic needlework -- Staging women's relations to textiles in Shakespeare's Othello and Cymbeline -- Mary Sidney Wroth: clothing romance.]

Gee, Loveday Lewes. Women, Art and Patronage from Henry III to Edward III 1216-1377. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2002. [Publisher's description: "In Britain in the high Middle Ages women played an active and significant role as artistic patrons. This study considers who these women were, their social status, the sources of their wealth and their motives for acting as they did, in addition to examining the various buildings, tombs and artefacts which they commissioned. Their piety, interests and concerns, and the cultural and social context of their lives are discussed in the context of the evidence offered by surviving buildings, tombs, manuscripts and seal impressions, together with relevant wills, documents and contemporary texts."]

Gilleir, Anke, Alicia C. Montoya, and Suzan van Dijk, eds. Women Writing Back / Writing Women Back: Transnational Perspectives from the Late Middle Ages to the Dawn of the Modern Era. Intersections 16. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2010. [Contents: Introduction: toward a new conception of women's literary history / Anke Gilleir and Alicia C. Montoya -- 'To promote God's praise and her neighbour's salvation'. Strategies of authorship and readership among mystic women in the later Middle Ages / Madeleine Jeay and Kathleen Garay -- Gendering place: the role of place in Anne Krabbe's Ballad works / Anne-Marie Mai -- 'To make frequent assemblies, associations, and combinations amongst our sex.' Nascent ideas of female bonding in seventeenth-century England / Ina Schabert -- Women and literary sociability in eighteenth-century Lisbon / Vanda Anástacio -- Female writing and the use of literary byways. Pastoral drama by Maddalena Campiglia (1553-1595) / Philiep Bossier -- Prescriptions for women: alchemy, medicine and the renaissance Querelle des femmes / Meredith K. Ray -- The appropriation of the genre of nuptial poetry by Katharina Lescailje (1649-1711) / Nina Geerdink -- Madame De Maintenon Au Miroir de sa correspondance: réhabilitation du personnage et redécouverte d'une écriture féminine / Christine Mongenot and Hans Bots -- French women writers and heroic genres / Perry Gethner -- The tartar girl, the Persian princess, and early modern English women's authorship from Elizabeth II to to Mary Wroth / Bernadette Andrea -- A cloistered nun abroad: Arcangela Tarabotti's international literary career / Lara Lynn Westwater -- Traveller, pedagogue and cultural mediator: Marie-Elisabeth De La Fite and her female context / Ineke Janse -- Translation and intellectual reflection in the works of enlightened Spanish women: Inés Joyes (1731-1808) / Mónica Bolufer -- 'Nous voudrions que les femmes s'occupent de la littérature': traductions des romanciéres françaises en russie autour de 1800 / Elena Gretchanaia.]

Gillespie, Katharine. Domesticity and Dissent in the Seventeenth Century: English Women's Writing and the Public Sphere. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. [Publisher's description: "In Domesticity and Dissent Katharine Gillespie examines writings by seventeenth-century English Puritan women who fought for religious freedom. Seeking the right to preach and prophesy, women such as Katherine Chidley, Anna Trapnel, Elizabeth Poole, and Anne Wentworth envisioned the modern political principles of toleration, the separation of church from state, privacy, and individualism. Gillespie argues that their sermons, prophesies, and petitions illustrate the fact that these liberal theories did not originate only with such well-known male thinkers as John Locke and Thomas Hobbes. Rather, they emerged also from a group of determined female religious dissenters who used the Bible to reassess traditional definitions of womanhood, public speech and religious and political authority. Gillespie takes the pamphlet literatures of the seventeenth century as important subjects for analysis, and her study contributes to the growing scholarship on the revolutionary writings that emerged during the volatile years of the mid-seventeenth-century Civil War in England."
     Contents: Introduction: Sabrina versus the state; Born of the Mothers seed: Liberalism, feminism, and religious separatism; A hammer in her hand: Katherine Chidley and Anna Trapnel separate church from state; Cure for a diseased head: divorce and contract in the prophesies of Elizabeth Poole; The unquenchable smoking flax: Sarah Wight, Anne Wentworth, and the rise of the sovereign individual; Improving God's estate: preaching and the possessive economy in the writings of Mary Cary.]

Green, D. H. Women Readers in the Middle Ages. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 65. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. ["A comprehensive study of women and reading between c.700 and 1500." Publisher's description: "Throughout the Middle Ages, the number of female readers was far greater than is commonly assumed. D. H. Green shows that, after clerics and monks, religious women were the main bearers of written culture and its expansion. Moreover, laywomen played a vital part in the process whereby the expansion of literacy brought reading from religious institutions into homes, and increasingly from Latin into vernacular languages. This study assesses the various ways in which reading was practised between c.700 and 1500 and how these differed from what we mean by reading today. Focusing on Germany, France and England, it considers the different categories of women for whom reading is attested (laywomen, nuns, recluses, semi-religious women, heretics), as well as women's general engagement with literature as scribes, dedicatees, sponsors, and authors. This fascinating study opens up the world of the medieval woman reader to new generations of scholars and students.
     Contents: Part I. Reading in the Middle Ages: 1. Literal reading; 2. Figurative reading; Part II. Women and Reading in the Middle Ages: 3. Categories of women readers; 4. Women's engagement with literature.]

Groag Bell, Susan. "Medieval Women Book Owners: Arbiters of Lay Piety and Ambassadors of Culture." In Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Ed. Mary Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. Pp. 149-187. [Rpt. from Signs 7 (1982): 742-768.]

Hackel, Heidi Brayman, and Catherine E. Kelly, eds. Reading Women: Literacy, Authorship, and Culture in the Atlantic World, 1500-1800. Material Texts. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "In 1500, as many as 99 out of 100 English women may have been illiterate, and girls of all social backgrounds were the objects of purposeful efforts to restrict their access to full literacy. Three centuries later, more than half of all English and Anglo-American women could read, and the female reader was emerging as a cultural ideal and a market force. While scholars have written extensively about women's reading in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and about women's writing in the early modern period, they have not attended sufficiently to the critical transformation that took place as female readers and their reading assumed significant cultural and economic power.
     "Reading Women brings into conversation the latest scholarship by early modernists and early Americanists on the role of gender in the production and consumption of texts during this expansion of female readership. Drawing together historians and literary scholars, the essays share a concern with local specificity and material culture. Removing women from the historically inaccurate frame of exclusively solitary, silent reading, the authors collectively return their subjects to the activities that so often coincided with reading: shopping, sewing, talking, writing, performing, and collecting. With chapters on samplers, storytelling, testimony, and translation, the volume expands notions of reading and literacy, and it insists upon a rich and varied narrative that crosses disciplinary boundaries and national borders."]

Howard, Amy Kathleen. "The Word Made Flesh: The Perception of Holiness in the Texts of Late Medieval and Early Modern Women in England." Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 2009. [DAI 70 (2009-2010): 3460A. Abstract: "This project analyzes the perception of holiness in the texts of four late medieval and early modern holy women. It argues that lived holiness was defined not by strict religious standards, but by the reaction of the communities in which these women lived and wrote. These reactions could be influenced by factors ranging from the type of spiritual expression that was manifested to the political circumstances in which the holy woman lived. These women used their texts as a way to advocate for the holiness of their spiritual experiences and their lives."]

Jeay, Madeleine, and Katheleen Garay. "'To promote God's praise and her neighbour's salvation': Strategies of Authorship and Readership among Mystic Women in the Later Middle Ages." In Women Writing Back / Writing Women Back: Transnational Perspectives from the Late Middle Ages to the Dawn of the Modern Era. Ed. Anke Gilleir, Alicia C. Montoya, and Suzan van Dijk. Intersections 16. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2010. Pp. 23-50.

Johnson, Penelope D. Equal in Monastic Profession: Religious Women in Medieval France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. ["A study of women living in religious communities which explores the ways in which gender affected their behavior and also shows how many were respected and self-respecting people who shared with monks a family model of monastic life which was mostly gender-neutral."]

Krug, Rebecca. Reading Families: Women's Literate Practice in Late Medieval England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002. [Contents: Introduction: from law to practice: women, resistance, and writing -- Husbands and sons: Margaret Paston's letter-writing -- Margaret Beaufort's literate practice: service and self-inscription -- Children of God: women Lollards at Norwich -- Reading at Syon Abbey -- Conclusion: medieval women authors?]

Larrington, Carolyne. Women and Writing in Medieval Europe. London: Routledge, 1995.

Mazzoni, Cristina. The Women in God's Kitchen: Cooking, Eating, and Spiritual Writing. London: Continuum, 2005. [Contents: Learning to cook, eat, and read with Christian holy women -- How to bake wonder dough into miracle bread: Byzantine saints and Catherine of Genoa -- How to make cheese and how to eat love: Hildegard of Bingen with Hadewijch -- How to taste sugar and spice: the flavors of Elisabeth of Schönau -- How to bite with grace into forbidden fruits: apples, sweets, and Margaret Ebner -- How to confect convent treats: sweet traditions and the martyrdom of Saint Agatha -- How to sift flour, wash lettuce, and serve bread and fish: lessons from Angela of Foligno -- How to skin stockfish and chop stew: Margery Kempe's sacrifices -- How to boil and fry in God's pots and pans: Teresa of Avila's kitchen secrets -- How to do philosophy in a busy kitchen: Margaret Mary Alacoque, Sor Juana, Cecilia Ferrazzi -- How to feed the spirit on corn pudding and pork fat: Elizabeth Seton's culinary conversion -- How to indulge in divine delicacies: Gemma Galgani's tasty treats -- How to savor sweets, play with food, and dress a salad: flavoring the spirit with Thérèse of Lisieux.]

McCash, June Hall, ed. The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

McLaughlin, Eleanor. "Women, Power and the Pursuit of Holiness in Medieval Christianity." In Women of Spirit: Female Leadership in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. Ed. Rosemary Ruether, and Eleanor McLaughlin. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979. Pp. 99-130.

McSheffrey, Shannon. "Literacy and the Gender Gap in the Late Middle Ages: Women and Reading in Lollard Communities." In Women, the Book, and the Godly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda's Conference, 1993. Ed. Leslie Smith and Jane H. M. Taylor. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1995. Pp. 157-170.

Meale, Carol M. "'. . . Alle the bokes that I haue of latyn, englisch, and frensch': Laywomen and their Books in Late Medieval England." In Women and Literature in Britain, 1150-1500. Ed. Carol M. Meale. 2nd ed. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Pp. 128-158.

Meale, Carol M. "Reading Women's Culture in Fifteenth-Century England: The Case of Alice Chaucer." In Mediaevalitas: Reading the Middle Ages; The J. A. W. Bennett Memorial Lectures, Ninth Series, Perugia, 1995. Ed. Piero Boitani and Anna Torti. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1996. Pp. 81-101 and 8 plates (between pp. 102-103).

Meale, Carol M. Women and Literature in Britain, 1150-1500. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Meale, Carol M. "Women's Voices and Roles." In A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture c.1350-c.1500. Ed. Peter Brown. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 42. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Pp. 74-90.

Meale, Carol M., and Julia Boffey. "Gentlewomen's Reading." In The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, Volume III: 1400-1557. Ed. Lotte Hellinga and J. B. Trapp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. 526-540.

Mulder-Bakker, Anneke B., and Liz Herbert McAvoy, eds. Women and Experience in Later Medieval Writing: Reading the Book of Life. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. [Contents: Experientia and the construction of experience in medieval writing: an introduction / Anneke B. Mulder-Bakker and Liz Herbert McAvoy -- The new devout and their women of authority / Koen Goudriaan -- Partners in profession: inwardness, experience, and understanding in Heloise and Abelard / Ineke van 't Spijker -- Communities of discourse: religious authority and the role of holy women in the later middle ages / Carolyn Muessig -- Two women of experience, two men of letters, and the Book of Life / Anneke B. Mulder-Bakker -- "[A]n awngel al clothyd in white": Rereading the Book of Life as The Book of Margery Kempe / Liz Herbert McAvoy -- Die Gheestelicke Melody: a program for the spiritual life in a Middle Dutch song cycle / Thom Mertens -- Handing on wisdom and knowledge in Hadewijch of Brabant's Book of Visions / Veerle Fraeters.]

Peters, Christine. Patterns of Piety: Women, Gender and Religion in Late Medieval and Reformation England. Cambridge Studies in Early Modern British History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. [Publisher's description: "This book offers a new interpretation of the transition from Catholicism to Protestantism in the English Reformation, and explores its implications for an understanding of women and gender. Central to this is an appreciation of the significance of medieval Christo-centric piety in offering a bridge to the Reformation, and in shaping the nature of Protestantism in the period up to the Civil War. Not only does this explain much of the support for Protestantism, but it also suggests the need to question assumptions that the 'loss' of the Virgin Mary and the saints was detrimental to women. Patterns of piety are crucial in two senses: devotional trends intersected with the ideas expressed in the lives of godly exemplars. The strength of the idea of the godly woman ensured that the outcome would shape the contemporary understanding of gender."
     Contents: Introduction; Part I: 1. Religious roles; 2. Religious choices; 3. The Virgin Mary and Christo-centric devotion; 4. The saints; 5. Eve and the responsibility for sin; Part II: 6. Responses to Reformation change; 7. Parish religion in the Reformation; 8. The godly woman; 9. The Virgin Mary and the saints; 10. The return to the Old Testament; 11. Martyrs; 12. Adam's fall; 13. Godly marriage; Conclusion; Appendix; Bibliography.]

Petersen, Zina N. "Authority, Ritual and Spirituality in Middle English Women's Religious Works." Ph.D. diss., Catholic University of America, 1997. [DAI 58 (1997-1998): 862A. Including Margery Kempe and Julian of Norwich.]

Ranft, Patricia. Women and Spiritual Equality in Christian Tradition. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

Ranft, Patricia. Women and the Religious Life in Premodern Europe. London: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. [On the achievements of women in religious orders (abbesses, visionaries, contributions to music, science, etc.). Includes sections on Hildegard of Bingen, Heloise, etc.]

Renevey, Denis, and Christiania Whitehead, eds. Writing Religious Women: Female Spiritual and Textual Practices in Late Medieval England. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000.

Riddy, Felicity. "Women Talking About the Things of God: A Late Medieval Subculture." In Women and Literature in Britain, 1150-1500. Ed. Carol M. Meale. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Pp. 104-127.

Schulenburg, Jane Tibbetts. "Female Sanctity: Public and Private Roles, ca. 500-1100." In Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Ed. Mary Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. Pp. 102-125.

Shea, Mary Lou. Medieval Women on Sin and Salvation: Hadewijch of Antwerp, Beatrice of Nazareth, Margaret Ebner, and Julian of Norwich. American University Studies, Series VII: Theology and Religion 304. New York: Peter Lang, 2010.

Smith, Kathryn A[nn]. Art, Identity and Devotion in Fourteenth-Century England: Three Women and Their Books of Hours. British Library Studies in Medieval Culture. London: British Library; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003. [Examines the De Lisle hours of Margaret de Beauchamp, the De Bois hours (Dubois hours) of Hawisia de Bois, and the Neville of Hornby hours of Isabel de Byron.]

Taylor, Jane, and Lesley Smith. Women and the Book: Assessing the Visual Evidence. British Library Studies in Medieval Culture. London: British Library, 1997.

Vines, Amy Noelle. "A 'Worldly Occupacioun': English Women's Readership and Patronage of Medieval Secular Literature, 1350-1500." Ph.D. diss., Brown University, 2006. [DAI 67.8 (2007): 2980. Abstract: "This dissertation disputes the familiar opposition between the categories of sacred literature and secular literature in the Middle Ages and redefines the secular as a hybrid category that supports multiple reading practices. I argue that many examples from the so-called secular genres of the Middle Ages, such as historical chronicles and romances, represent a fusion of the secular and the sacred. The category of secular literature is governed and defined largely in terms of its readership: how were these works being read by a medieval audience and in what contexts? Women's readership in particular offers a productive lens through which to study the blending of sacred and secular literature in this period. Much of the modern scholarship on medieval women's reading habits emphasizes the highly devotional nature of their literary tastes; women read and bequeathed religious material such as Psalters or Books of Hours on a large scale in the Middle Ages. Yet 'popular' medieval literature--chivalric romances and chansons de gestes in particular--is often characterized as 'women's reading,' much like the romance paperbacks of today. My project uses, in part, manuscript and textual evidence of medieval women's readership as a vehicle for re-construing the secular category and, in turn, posits a more detailed model of female reading tastes in the Middle Ages."]

Wallace, David. Strong Women: Life, Text, and Territory, 1347-1645. Clarendon Lectures in English 2007. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Warren, Nancy Bradley. The Embodied Word: Female Spiritualities, Contested Orthodoxies, and English Religious Cultures, 1350-1700. Reformations. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "In The Embodied Word, Nancy Bradley Warren expands on the topic of female spirituality, first explored in her book Women of God and Arms, to encompass broad issues of religion, gender, and historical periodization. Through her analyses of the variety of ways in which medieval spirituality was deliberately and actively carried forward to the early modern period, Warren underscores both continuities and revisions that challenge conventional distinctions between medieval and early modern culture. Drawing on the philosophical writings of Stanley Cavell and Karl Morrison, Warren illuminates a number of medieval and early modern texts, including St. Birgitta of Sweden's Revelations, St. Catherine of Siena's Dialogue, Julian of Norwich's Showings, devotional anthologies created by early modern English nuns in exile, the prophetic and autobiographical texts of Anna Trapnel, and the writings of Luisa de Carvajal y Mendoza."
     Contents: Introduction: from corpse to corpus -- The incarnational and the international: St. Birgitta of Sweden, St. Catherine of Siena, Julian of Norwich, and Aemilia Lanyer -- Medieval legacies and female spiritualities across the "great divide": Julian of Norwich, Grace Mildmay, and the English Benedictine nuns of Cambrai and Paris -- Embodying the "old religion" and transforming the body politic: the Brigittine nuns of Syon, Luisa de Carvajal y Mendoza, and exiled women religious during the English Civil War -- Women's life writing, women's bodies, and the gendered politics of faith: Margery Kempe, Anna Trapnel, and Elizabeth Cary -- The embodied presence of the past: medieval history, female spirituality, and traumatic textuality, 1570-1700.]

Warren, Nancy Bradley. "Productivity and Power: The Material and Symbolic Economics of Female Spirituality in Late Medieval English Culture." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1997. [DAI 58 (1997-1998): 3517A. Abstract: "This dissertation takes as its starting point the intimate involvement of religion in the marketplace and the marketplace in religion in fourteenth- and fifteenth-century England. In such an environment, nunneries as religious communities were also very much social institutions involved in material practices. Additionally, women's monasticism, so little studied in comparison to secular female spirituality, is the source of far-reaching interpretative schemes used to make meaning from the relationships of the interconnected material and spiritual realms.
     "The study explores the ways in which women religious as individuals and nunneries as institutions were involved in material, symbolic, and spiritual systems of exchange. To this end, it examines archival sources, monastic rules, devotional texts, and sources traditionally designated as 'literary' in light of the works of cultural anthropologists and theorists who combine psychoanalysis, historical materialism, and philosophy. Chapters 1 and 2 treat female monasticism 'from the inside.' The first chapter analyzes obedientiaries' accounts, court records, and letters to demonstrate that the quotidian, material practices of nuns both fit into and disturbed the structures of female monasticism set up in profession services and visitation documents. The second chapter addresses the debate concerning vernacular translations of religious texts, tracing the impact of political and religious unrest on women's monasticism. It argues that some Middle English translations of monastic texts attempt to harness the socially-transformative powers of translation to preserve masculine power and clerical privilege, while others emphasize the translation process's empowering possibilities for women.
     "Chapters 3 and 4 turn the perspective around to consider the social impact of female monasticism beyond the cloister walls. The third chapter reveals the ways in which textual portrayals of female monasticism present cultural anxieties about women's productivity and simultaneously present solutions to such anxieties. It then explores mobilizations of monastic signifiers by women themselves and by those seeking to regulate women's conduct. The final chapter analyzes the circulation of stories of good women, which have much in common with idealized visions of female monasticism, as commodities in textual transactions between writers, patrons, and authorial predecessors in the increasingly professional fifteenth-century culture of writing."]

Warren, Nancy Bradley. Spiritual Economies: Female Monasticism in Later Medieval England. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. [Publisher's description: "From its creation in the early fourteenth century to its dissolution in the sixteenth, the nunnery at Dartford was among the richest in England. Although obliged to support not only its own community but also a priory of Dominican friars at King's Langley, Dartford prospered. Records attest to the business skill of the Dartford nuns, as they managed the house's numerous holdings of land and property, together with the rents and services owed them. That the Dartford nuns were capable businesswomen is not surprising, since the house was also a center of female education.
     "For Nancy Bradley Warten, the story of Dartford exemplifies the vibrancy of nuns' material and spiritual lives in later medieval England. Revising the long-held view that fourteenth- and fifteenth-century English nunneries were impoverished both financially and religiously, Warren clarifies that the women in female monastic communities like Dartford were not woefully incompetent at managing their affairs. Instead, she reveals the complex role of female monasticism in diverse systems of production and exchange. Like the nuns at Dartford, women religious in late medieval England were enmeshed in material, symbolic, political, and spiritual economies that were at times in harmony and at other times in conflict with each other."
     Contents: Part I: Monastic Identities in Theory and Practice: Vows and visitations: textual transactions and the shaping of monastic identity -- The value of the mother tongue: vernacular translations of monastic rules for women -- Accounting for themselves: nuns' everyday practices and alternative monastic identities -- Part II: Beyond the Convent Wall: Female Monasticism in Later Medieval Culture: A coin of changing value: monastic paradigms and secular women -- Kings, saints, and nuns: symbolic capital and political authority in Fifteenth-Century England -- Liabilities and assets: Holy women in the literary economy -- Paying the price: Holy women and political conflict.]

Watt, Diane. "Authorizing Female Piety." In The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English. Ed. Elaine M. Treharne and Greg Walker. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. 240-255.

Watt, Diane. Medieval Women's Writing: Works by and for Women in England, 1100-1500. Cambridge: Polity, 2007. [Publisher's description: "'Medieval Women's Writing' is a major new contribution to our understanding of women's writing in England, 1100-1500. The most comprehensive account to date, it includes writings in Latin and French as well as English."
     Contents: Christina of Markyate (c. 1096-after 1155) -- Marie de France (fl. 1180) -- Legends and lives of women saints (late tenth to mid-fifteenth century) -- Julian of Norwich (1342/3-after 1416) -- Margery Kempe (c. 1373-after 1439) -- The Paston letters (1440-1489).]

Watt, Diane. Secretaries of God: Women Prophets in Late Medieval and Early Modern England. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1997.

Webb, Diana M. "Women and Home: The Domestic Setting of Late Medieval Spirituality." In Women in the Church: Papers Read at the 1989 Summer Meeting and the 1990 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society. Ed. W. J. Sheils and Diana Wood. Studies in Church History 27. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, for the Ecclesiastical History Society, 1990. Pp. 159-173.

Wiethaus, Ulrike, ed. Maps of Flesh and Light: The Religious Experience of Medieval Women Mystics. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1993.

Winston-Allen, Anne. Convent Chronicles: Women Writing About Women and Reform in the Late Middle Ages. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004. [Publisher's description: "The late Middle Ages was a time of intense religious ferment in Europe marked by countless calls for reform of the Church. Within monastic orders, the Observant movement was one such effort to reform religious houses, sparked by the widespread fear that these houses had strayed too far from their original calling. In Convent Chronicles, Anne Winston-Allen offers a rare inside look at the Observant reform movement from the women's point of view.
     "Although we know a great deal about the men who inhabited Observant religious houses, we know very little about their female counterparts--even though women outnumbered men in many places. Often what we do know about women comes to us through the filter of men's accounts. Recovering long-overlooked writings by women in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, Winston-Allen surveys the extraordinary literary and scribal activities in German- and Dutch-speaking religious communities in Italy, Switzerland, Germany, and the Low Countries. While previous studies have relied on records left by male activists, these women's narratives offer an alternative perspective that challenges traditional views of women's role and agency. Women were, in fact, active participants in the religious conversations that dominated the day.
     "With its rich depiction of women as transmitters of culture, Convent Chronicles will be invaluable to scholars as well as to graduate and undergraduate students interested in the history of women's monasticism and religious writing."
     Contents: Introduction: Women Writing in the Late Middle Ages; Late Medieval Nunneries: Accounts by Women; The "Women's Religious Movement" and the Observant Movement: Female Piety and the Establishment; Women of the Reform; Opponents of the Reform and Enclosure; Did Nuns Have a Renaissance?: Libraries and Literary Activities; "Femininity-in-Writing": New Heroines, Strategies, and Roles in Late Medieval Piety.]

Wogan-Browne, Jocelyn. Saints' Lives and Women's Literary Culture c.1150-1300: Virginity and its Authorizations. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Wood, Diana, ed. Women and Religion in Medieval England. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2003. [Publisher's description: "Nuns and devout noblewomen were celebrated for their achievements in the literature of the medieval period, but more often than not these women only appear on the side-lines of history, while the ordinary wife and mother is virtually invisible. These papers, written by historians and archaeologists, discuss the religious devotion and spiritual life of medieval women from all walks of life. From an analysis of the architecture and economic organisation of nunneries, to an assessment of the medieval Church's response to the pain and perils of childbirth, these papers consider the influence of the church on the lives of women, and the influence that women had on the life and worship of the Church."]

Zimmerman, Elizabeth Farrell. "God's Teachers: Women Writers, Didacticism, and Vernacular Religious Texts in the Later Middle Ages." Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 2009. [DAI 70 (2009-2010): 3869A. Abstract: "During the Middle Ages, women were restricted from most formal teaching roles, particularly due to their exclusion from the all-male universities and cathedral schools flourishing across Europe. Despite these institutional and cultural restrictions, women found opportunities to take part in the transmission of knowledge: women often taught their children informally at home, took part in the education available in convents, and developed communities in which they shared texts among themselves.
     "A number of extant medieval texts feature women who adopt teaching roles, although this aspect of these texts has not received close scholarly attention. My dissertation, 'God's Teachers: Women Writers, Didacticism, and Vernacular Religious Texts in the Later Middle Ages,' examines a selection of these texts written by the medieval women writers Clemence of Barking, Marguerite Porete, Julian of Norwich, and Margery Kempe from the twelfth through fifteenth centuries. My project focuses generally on how these women used their texts to transmit knowledge to their audiences. Specifically, my research examines how these women writers engaged their readers with their texts. In each of the texts by these medieval women there is a significant didactic, or instructive, element that encourages--and even requires-NMs readers to actively engage with the text in order to acquire the knowledge it contains. My other primary interest is to examine how female writers claimed authority by positioning themselves as transmitters of knowledge that would benefit their readers. My analysis of these texts reveals that the women writers adopted a number of strategies which enabled them to fashion themselves as authoritative transmitters of knowledge in spite of their gender.
 sp;   "I have chosen to focus on texts written in the vernacular, or the writer's native language, because women became increasingly involved in the vernacular literary culture that began to flourish in Europe in the twelfth century. Recent scholarship has done much to illuminate medieval women as readers and writers who were more engaged with texts written in the vernacular than those written in Latin--the language in which the vast majority of literary texts had previously been written but that was predominantly confined to the male learned elite. In these studies, scholars have investigated the socio-historical context of women's engagement with literate culture, thus expanding our understanding of women's education and literacy during the Middle Ages. My project builds on this scholarship by examining how women writers perceived themselves within this burgeoning culture and how they negotiated their positions as authors within that culture. My project also focuses on religious literature because religious women often had more access to education and literate practices than laywomen and were therefore more likely to leave their own written accounts.
     "The historical approach of my project allows me to examine how the texts reflect--or differ from--the literary traditions of which they are a part, and to consider what they reveal about the similarities and differences of authorizing strategies between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. I have also adopted a comparative approach, which allows me to consider how certain authorizing strategies were used by women writers from different cultures. Therefore, in addition to texts written by medieval English women in the English vernacular, I am examining a text by an English nun who was writing from within the Anglo-Norman culture that greatly influenced literature in England for a century and a half after the Norman Conquest in 1066, as well as a text written by a woman on the continent in her French vernacular that was later circulated in translation in England.
     "Throughout my dissertation, I argue that these female-authored texts depict women as authoritative transmitters of knowledge who are driven by didactic purposes. This didacticism has been largely overlooked in scholarship, despite the fundamental importance of this didacticism to the texts. My project thus addresses significant gaps in our understanding of women's active participation in the literary and intellectual history of the Middle Ages in spite of the institutional and cultural restrictions that limited their involvement in these aspects of medieval culture."]

G.i. Medieval Religion / Religious Dissent

Aers, David, and Lynn Staley. The Powers of the Holy: Religion, Politics, and Gender in Late Medieval English Culture. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996.

Barnwell, P. S., Claire Cross, and Ann Rycraft, eds. Mass and Parish in Late Medieval England: The Use of York. Reading: Spire Books, 2005. [Contents: The Mass in its urban setting / Claire Cross and P. S. Barnwell -- The ornaments of the altar and the ministers in Late-Medieval England / Allan B. Barton -- Choral music in York, 1400-1540 / Lisa Colton -- 'Four hundred masses on the four Fridays next after my decease'. The care of souls in fifteenth-century All Saints, North Street, York / P. S. Barnwell -- A York priest and his parish: Thomas Worrall at St. Michael, Spurriergate, York, in the early sixteenth-century / Claire Cross -- Endings and beginnings / Claire Cross -- An introduction to the Requiem Mass in the use of York / P. S. Barnwell, Allan B. Barton and Ann Rycraft -- A note on the reconstructed Requiem Mass held at All Saints', North Street, York, on 20 April 2002 / John Hawes with Lisa Colton -- The Requiem Mass: text and translation / compilers/translators P. S. Barnwell, Allan B. Barton and Ann Rycraft.]

Bartlett, Anne Clark, and Thomas H. Bestul, eds. Cultures of Piety: Medieval English Devotional Literature in Translation. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Bellenger, Dominic Aidan, and Roberta Anderson, eds. Medieval Religion: A Sourcebook. London and New York: Routledge, 2006. [Publisher's description: "This book provides a wide-ranging collection of original source material that covers the history of medieval religion from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance. Easy to read and accessible to students, with introductions to each section explaining the main themes and issues raised, it provides coverage of the key elements of the history of the Western Church in the period, including the Papacy; saints; monastic orders; popular piety and devotion; sections on the Eastern Church, Judaism, Islam and Mysticism. The texts selected are arranged clearly in chronological order and each one is introduced by a brief editorial note to provide context. Medieval Religion also includes a comprehensive further reading section."
     Contents: 1. Background: The Mediterranean World and its Religions; 2. The Creation of Christendom; 3. Saints; 4. Monks and Nuns; 5. The Papacy; 6. The Clergy; 7. Theology and the Sacraments; 8. Popular Religion: Pilgrimage; 9. Popular Religion: Mass Movements; 10. Popular Religion: Devotion and Folk Religion; 11. Magic and Heresy; 12. Islam; 13. The Eastern Church; 14. Judaism; 15. Mysticism.]

Berman, Constance Hoffman, ed. Medieval Religion: New Approaches. Rewriting Histories. London and New York: Routledge, 2005. [Publisher's description: "Constance Hoffman Berman presents an indispensable collection of the most influential and revisionist work to be done on religion in the Middle Ages in the last two decades. Bringing together an authoritative list of scholars from around the world, this book is a comprehensive compilation of the most important work in this field. Medieval Religion provides a valuable service for all those who study the Middle Ages, church history or religion."
     Contents: Introduction; 1. Religious Speculation and Social Thought; 2. Reform and Growth in the Clerical Hierarchy; 3. Women and the Practice of Asceticism and Contemplation; 4. Increasing Violence and Exclusion.]

Bose, Mishtooni. "Religious Authority and Dissent." In A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture c.1350-c.1500. Ed. Peter Brown. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 42. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Pp. 40-55.

Bose, Mishtooni. "Writing, Heresy, and the Anticlerical Muse." In The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English. Ed. Elaine M. Treharne and Greg Walker. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. 276-296.

Brooke, Rosalind B., and Christopher N[ugent] L[awrence] Brooke. Popular Religion in the Middle Ages: Western Europe, 1000-1300. London: Thames and Hudson, 1984.

Brown, Peter. The Cult of the Saints, its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity. The Haskell Lectures on the History of Religions ns 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Bryan, Jennifer. Looking Inward: Devotional Reading and the Private Self in Late Medieval England. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "'You must see yourself.' The exhortation was increasingly familiar to English men and women in the two centuries before the Reformation. They encountered it repeatedly in their devotional books, the popular guides to spiritual self-improvement that were reaching an ever-growing readership at the end of the Middle Ages. But what did it mean to see oneself? What was the nature of the self to be envisioned, and what eyes and mirrors were needed to see and know it properly?
     "Looking Inward traces a complex network of answers to such questions, exploring how English readers between 1350 and 1550 learned to envision, examine, and change themselves in the mirrors of devotional literature. By all accounts, it was the most popular literature of the period. With literacy on the rise, an outpouring of translations and adaptations flowed across traditional boundaries between religious and lay, and between female and male, audiences. As forms of piety changed, as social categories became increasingly porous, and as the heart became an increasingly privileged and contested location, the growth of devotional reading created a crucial arena for the making of literate subjectivities. The models of private reading and self-reflection constructed therein would have important implications, not only for English spirituality, but for social, political, and poetic identities, up to the Reformation and beyond.
     "In Looking Inward, Bryan examines a wide range of devotional and secular texts, from works by Walter Hilton, Julian of Norwich, and Thomas Hoccleve to neglected translations like The Chastising of God's Children and The Pricking of Love. She explores the models of identification and imitation through which they sought to reach the inmost selves of their readers, and the scripts for spiritual desire that they offered for the cultivation of the heart. Illuminating the psychological paradigms at the heart of the genre, Bryan provides fresh insights into how late medieval men and women sought to know, labor in, and profit themselves by means of books."]

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages. Publications of the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, UCLA, 16. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1982.

Cameron, Euan K. Enchanted Europe: Superstition, Reason, and Religion, 1250-1750. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univiversity Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "'Enchanted Europe' offers a comprehensive account of Europe's long, complex relationship with its own folklore & popular religion. From debates over the efficacy of charms & spells, to belief in fairies & demons, Euan Cameron constructs a compelling narrative of the rise & fall of 'superstition' in the European mind."
     Contents: The problems of pre-modern life -- A densely populated universe -- Helpful performances: the uses of ritual -- Insight and foresight: techniques of divination -- The Patristic and Early Medieval heritage -- Scholastic demonology in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries -- The demonological reading of superstitions in the Late Middle Ages: areas of consensus -- The demonological reading of superstitions in the Late Middle Ages: areas of difference and disagreement -- The pastoral use of the scholastic critique of superstitions -- Some Renaissance Christian humanists and 'superstition' -- Magic, the fallen world, and fallen humanity: Martin Luther on the devil and superstitions -- Prodigies, providences, and possession: the sixteenth-century Protestant context -- The Protestant critique of consecrations: Catholicism as superstition -- The Reformed doctrine of providence and the transformation of the Devil -- Reformed Catholicism: purifying sources, defending traditions -- Demonology becomes an open subject in the seventeenth century -- Defending the 'invisible world': the campaign against 'saducism' -- Towards the Enlightenment.]

Cawsey, Kathy. "Tutivillus and the 'Kyrkchaterars': Strategies of Control in the Middle Ages." Studies in Philology 102 (2005): 434-451. [The demon Tutivillus (who later becomes the "printer's demon") has two main tales associated with him in the Middle Ages, on the one hand watching for (and encouraging) inattentiveness during worship, and on the other encouraging the gossiping and loose talk of women. In both roles, then, Tutivillus helps to represent medieval anxieties about and attempts to impose control upon speech, and so helps us better to understand medieval ideas about language and the need to control the tongue. The representation of women as particularly subject to such sins also represents medieval anxieties about unofficial communities of women--represented as "gossips" (compare Uxor--Mrs. Noah--in the flood plays, who is distressed by the thought of the women she leaves behind, or Chaucer's Wife of Bath and her gossips). The control of women and the control of women's speech is also implicated in perceived threat of Lollardy.]

Chadwick, Henry. The Early Church. The Pelican History of the Church 1. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1967.

Clark, Linda, Maureen Jurkowski and Colin Richmond, eds. Image, Text and Church, 1380-1600: Essays for Margaret Aston. Papers in Mediaeval Studies 20. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2009. [Papers originally presented at a conference held at University College, London, Mar. 15, 2008.]

Cole, Andrew. "Heresy and Humanism." In Middle English. Ed. Paul Strohm. Oxford Twenty-First Century Approaches to Literature. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp. 421-437.

Coulton, G[eorge] G[ordon]. Parish Life in Medieval England. London: E. Stock, 1907. [A 16-page article, reprinted from The Churchman, April, 1907.]

Crassons, Kate. "Performance Anxiety and Watson's Vernacular Theology." English Language Notes 44.1 (Spring, 2006): 95-102. [Abstract: "This article presents a response to Nicholas Watson's essay, 'Censorship and Cultural Change in Late-Medieval England: Vernacular Theology, the Oxford Translation Debate, and Arundel's Constitutions of 1409.' It explores the implication of Watson's thesis for an understanding of fifteenth-century drama, an area of literary creation that Watson chooses not to consider in his essay. It argues that Watson's exclusion of medieval dramatic texts is counterintuitive since they fulfill his criteria for vernacular theology."]

Craun, Edwin D. Ethics and Power in Medieval English Reformist Writing. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 76. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. [Contents: Universalizing correction as a moral practice -- Negotiating contrary things -- Managing the rhetoric of reproof: the B-version of Piers Plowman -- John Wyclif: disciplining the English clergy and the Pope -- Wycliffites under oppression: fraternal correction as polemical weapon -- Lancastrian reformist lives: toeing the line while stepping over it.]

Cusato, Michael F., and G. Geltner, eds. Defenders and Critics of Franciscan Life: Essays in Honor of John V. Fleming. The Medieval Franciscans 6. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009. [A collection of essays that were presented at a conference honoring John V. Fleming at Princeton University on Apr. 21-22, 2004.
     Contents: A literary apostolate: John Fleming and the Franciscan literature of the middle ages / D. Vance Smith -- Part I: Franciscan exegesis -- Francis of Assisi, deacon: an examination of the claims of the earliest Franciscan sources, 1229-1235 / Michael F. Cusato -- Tobit's dog and the dangers of literalism: William Woodford, OFM, as critic of Wycliff's exegesis / Alastair Minnis -- Part II: Students and scholars -- Franciscan learning: university education and biblical exegesis / William J. Courtenay -- Using, not owning duties, not rights: the consequences of some Franciscan perspectives on politics / Janet Coleman -- Langland and the Franciscans on dominium / Lawrence M. Clopper -- William of St. Amour's De periculis novissimorum temporum: a false start to medieval anit-fraternalism? / G. Geltner -- Part III: Franciscan critics and critics of theGranciscans -- History as prophecy: Angelo Clareno's chronicle as a spiritual Franciscan apocalypse / David Burr -- Views of John XXII as a heretical pope / Patrick Nold -- Kicking the habit: the campaign against the friars in a fourteenth-century encyclopedia / Penn Szittya -- Si Sind all Glichsner: anti-fraternalism in Medieval and Renaissance German literature / Geoffrey Dipple -- Part IV: Franciscan legacies -- Imitatio francisci: the influence of Francis of Assisi on late medieval religious life / Lester K. Little -- Louis IX: preaching to Franciscan and Dominican brothers and nuns / William Chester Jordan -- Preaching as playwriting: a semi-dramatic sermon of the fifteenth century / Katherine l. Jansen.]

Davies, Horton, and Marie-Hélène Davies. Holy Days and Holidays: The Medieval Pilgrimage to Compostela. London: Associated University Presses, 1982.

Dove, Mary, ed. The Earliest Advocates of the English Bible: The Texts of the Medieval Debate. Exeter Medieval Texts and Studies. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2010. [Contents: The prologue to the Wycliffite Bible -- The prologue to Isaiah and the prophets -- The twelve Cambridge tracts -- First sei[th] bois -- The holi prophete David -- Pater noster II -- Glossed Gospel prologues and epilogue -- In [th]e biginnyng.]

Dyas, Dee. Pilgrimage in Medieval English Literature, 700-1500. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2001. [Publisher's description: "Pilgrims are so frequently encountered in the pages of Middle English literature that it is easy to take their presence, and their significance, for granted. The pilgrimage motif is all too frequently simply accepted as a 'given' of medieval spirituality, its presence noted but its meaning seldom analysed. This study therefore asks several fundamental but hitherto largely ignored questions. What exactly did pilgrimage mean to medieval writers? How well did various understandings of pilgrimage combine within medieval spirituality? Who were the true pilgrims--those who travelled to saints' shrines, those who withdrew into the cloister or the anchorite's cell, or those who simply walked the path of daily obedience? In answering these questions, this wide-ranging survey of the origins and development of the pilgrim motif examines the development of Christian pilgrimage through the Bible, the writings of the Fathers, the influences of classical pagan religion and the impulses of popular devotion. It then traces the ways in which the resulting multiple meanings of pilgrimage were incorporated into medieval spirituality and literature, offering fresh perspectives on Old English poetry and prose together with Middle English texts such a the Canterbury Tales, Piers Plowman, Pearl and the Book of Margery Kempe."]

Eade, John, and Michael J. Sallnow. Contesting the Sacred: The Anthropology of Christian Pilgrimage. London: Routledge, 1991.

Edden, Valerie. "The Devotional Life of the Laity in the Late Middle Ages." In Approaching Medieval English Anchoritic and Mystical Texts. Ed. Dee Dyas, Valerie Edden, and Roger Ellis. Christianity and Culture: Issues in Teaching/Research. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2005. Pp. 35-49.

Eliade, Mircea. The Quest: History of Meaning in Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Emerson, Jan Swango, and Hugh Feiss, eds. Imagining Heaven in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays. Afterword by Jeffrey Burton Russell. Garland Medieval Casebooks 27; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 2096. New York: Garland Publishing, 2000. [On the Christian Otherworld (including issues of heavenly corporality, sexuality, etc.) as presented in Dante's Divine Comedy, "The Vision of Tundale," Bernard of Cluny's De contemptu mundi, the Victorines, Thomas Aquinas, and others.]

Farina, Lara. Erotic Discourse and Early English Religious Writing. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. [Publisher's description: "Erotic Discourse discusses the role of sexuality in medieval devotional practice, looking in particular at religious writings circulating in England in the tenth to thirteenth centuries. During this period of changing opportunities for religious expression, erotic components of Christian worship were reconsidered and altered to meet the needs of a variety of audiences: monastic, anchoritic, mendicant, and lay. Farina's book takes an audience-specific approach, moving beyond looking at well-known representations of sexual behavior to consider reading itself as an eroticized performance occupying differing cultural spaces. In doing so, it expands our ideas about sexuality and its place in religious history."
     Contents: Before affection: Christ I and the social erotic -- Dirty words: Ancrene Wisse and the sexual interior -- Mystical desire, erotic economy, and the wooing group -- The "popularization" of the affective?: Friar Thomas of Hales and his audience.]

Frassetto, Michael. The Great Medieval Heretics: Five Centuries of Religious Dissent. New York: BlueBridge, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Replete with terror, passion, and hope, this gripping narrative history explores the intricate mysteries of medieval Europe through the lives of the great heretics whose beliefs and practices challenged the teachings of an all-powerful church. Five centuries of social and spiritual turmoil are covered through a vivid and telling mix of events, personalities, and ideas. A host of figures are discussed in detail, including Bogomil, an obscure priest from the Balkans who introduced Manichean ideas to parishioners; Henry the Monk, who eluded capture and prepared southern France for the Cathars; Marguerite Porete, the great mystic who was burned at the stake; Fra Dolcino, whose brigand followers terrorized northern Italy; and the heralds of the Reformation, John Wyclif and Jan Hus. By the end of the Middle Ages, the courageous lives and beliefs of these and the other heretics discussed had transformed the religious, cultural, and political map of Europe."
     Contents: Introduction: Heribert's warning -- Pop Bogomil and Cosmas the Presbyter -- Stephen and Lisois: heretics in the eleventh century -- Henry the Monk and the twelfth century -- Valdes of Lyons and the Waldenses -- Raymond VI of Toulouse: the Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade -- Pierre Autier: the last Cathars -- Fra Dolcino and the Apostolici -- Marguerite Porete: mysticism and the Beguines -- John Wyclif: England and the Lollards -- Jan Hus: reform and heresy in Bohemia.]

French, Katherine L. The People of the Parish: Community Life in a Late Medieval English Diocese. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. [Publisher's description: "The parish, the lowest level of hierarchy in the medieval church, was the shared responsibility of the laity and the clergy. Most Christians were baptized, went to confession, were married, and were buried in the parish church or churchyard; in addition, business, legal settlements, sociability, and entertainment brought people to the church, uniting secular and sacred concerns. In The People of the Parish, Katherine L. French contends that late medieval religion was participatory and flexible, promoting different kinds of spiritual and material involvement. The rich parish records of the small diocese of Bath and Wells include wills, court records, and detailed accounts by lay churchwardens of everyday parish activities. They reveal the differences between parishes within a single diocese that cannot be attributed to regional variation. By using these records show to the range and diversity of late medieval parish life, and a Christianity vibrant enough to accommodate differences in status, wealth, gender, and local priorities, French refines our understanding of lay attitudes toward Christianity in the two centuries before the Reformation."]

French, Katherine L., Gary G. Gibbs, and Beat A. Kümin, eds. The Parish in English Life, 1400-1600. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1997. ["Book originated at the First International Medieval Congress held at Leeds" (Pref.).]

Gasquet, Francis Aidan. Parish Life in Mediaeval England. The Antiquary's Books. London: Methuen and Co., 1906.

Gayk, Shannon Noelle. Image, Text, and Religious Reform in Fifteenth-Century England. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 81. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "Focusing on the period between the Wycliffite critique of images and Reformation iconoclasm, Shannon Gayk investigates the sometimes complementary and sometimes fraught relationship between vernacular devotional writing and the religious image. She examines how a set of fifteenth-century writers, including Lollard authors, John Lydgate, Thomas Hoccleve, John Capgrave, and Reginald Pecock, translated complex clerical debates about the pedagogical and spiritual efficacy of images and texts into vernacular settings and literary forms. These authors found vernacular discourse to be a powerful medium for explaining and reforming contemporary understandings of visual experience. In its survey of the function of literary images and imagination, the epistemology of vision, the semiotics of idols, and the authority of written texts, this study reveals a fifteenth century that was as much an age of religious and literary exploration, experimentation, and reform as it was an age of regulation."
     Contents: Lollard iconographies -- Hoccleve's spectacles -- Lydgate's refigurations of the image -- Capgrave's material memorials -- Pecock's libri laicorum.]

Geary, Patrick. Furta Sacra: Thefts of Relics in the Central Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978.

Georgianna, Linda. "Vernacular Theologies." English Language Notes 44.1 (Spring, 2006): 87-94. [Abstract: "This article investigates the role played by vernacular theology, as a tool for literary criticism, in changing the direction of medieval religious culture. The transfer of knowledge is a goal sought by clergy and laity alike instead of it being a loss for clerical authority. The vernaculars are viewed as inclusionary, providing access to knowledge and practices formerly the preserve of a spiritual elite."]

Gillespie, Vincent. "Vernacular Theology." In Middle English. Ed. Paul Strohm. Oxford Twenty-First Century Approaches to Literature. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp. 401-420. [Religious writings by laypeople for laypeople.]

Gilson, Etienne. The Mystical Theology of Saint Bernard. Trans. A. H. C. Downes; Introd. Jean Leclerq. Cistercian Studies 120. Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1990. [Lectures delivered in 1933 at University College of Wales (Aberystwith). Originally published as Le théologie mystique de saint Bernard. Études de philosophie médiévale 20. Paris: J. Vrin, 1934. Includes a section on Courtly Love.]

Greene, J. Patrick. Medieval Monasteries. The Archaeology of Medieval Britain. Leicester, London, and New York: Leicester University Press, 1992.

Groom, Matthew. "England: Piety, Heresy and Anti-Clericalism." In A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages. Blackwell Companions to British History. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. Pp. 381-395.

Halverson, James L., ed. Contesting Christendom: Readings in Medieval Religion and Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2008. [Contents: Background to Augustine's mission to Anglo-Saxon England / Rob Meens -- Some historical re-identification and the Christianization of Kent / Ian Wood -- The barbarian conversion from paganism to Christianity / Richard Fletcher -- Forgetful of their sex: female sanctity and society, ca. 500-1100 / Jane Tibbets Schulenburg -- Popular religion in late Saxon England: elf charms in context / Karen Louise Jolly -- The rise of western Christendom / Peter Brown -- The knight, the lady and the priest: the making of modern marriage in medieval France / Georges Duby -- Knightly piety and the lay response to the First Crusade / Marcus Bull -- Sword, mitre, and cloister: nobility and the church in Burgundy, 980-1198 / Constance Brittain Bouchard -- Under crescent and cross: the Jews in the Middle Ages / Mark R. Cohen -- Women's role in Latin letters from the fourth to the early twelfth centuries / Joan M. Ferrante -- Religious movements in the Middle Ages / Herbert Grundmann -- Religious poverty and the profit economy in medieval Europe / Lester K. Little -- Holy anorexia / Rudolf Bell -- Women mystics and eucharistic devotion in the thirteenth century / Caroline Walker Bynum -- The devil's world: heresy and society, 1100-1300 / Andrew P. Roach -- Religious life in Germany on the eve of the Reformation / Bernd Moeller -- The stripping of the altars: traditional religion in England, ca. 1400-1580 / Eamon Duffy -- Religion and the decline of magic / Keith Thomas -- Women in the late medieval English parish / Katherine L. French -- The magnificent ride: the first reformation in Hussite Bohemia / Thomas A. Fudge.]

Heffernan, Thomas J. Sacred Biography: Saints and their Biographers in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Hirsh, John C. The Boundaries of Faith: The Development and Transmission of Medieval Spirituality. Studies in the History of Christian Thought 67. Leiden and New York: E. J. Brill, 1996.

Hudson, Anne. "The Debate on Bible Translation, Oxford 1401." English Historical Review 90 [354] (1975): 1-18. [Reprinted in her Lollards and their Books. London, and Ronceverte, WV: Hambledon Press, 1985. Pp. 67-84.]

Hutchinson, A. M. "Devotional Reading in the Monastery and in the Late Medieval Household." In De cella in seculum: Religious and Secular Life and Devotion in Late Medieval England; An Interdisciplinary Conference in Celebration of the Eighth Centenary of the Consecration of St. Hugh of Avalon, Bishop of Lincoln, 20-22 July, 1986. Ed. Michael G. Sargent. Cambridge, and Wolfeboro, NH: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1989. Pp. 215-227.

Jolly, Karen Louise. Tradition and Diversity: Christianity in a World Context to 1500. Sources and Studies in World History. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1997.

Jones, Mike Rodman. Radical Pastoral, 1381-1594: Appropriation and the Writing of Religious Controversy. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2011. [Revision of author's thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of York, 2007, under title: "Radical Pastoral: Appropriation and the Writing of Religious Controversy, c.1381-c.1595."
     Publisher's description: "From William Langland's Piers Plowman, through the highly polemicized literary culture of fifteenth-century Lollardy, to major Reformation writers such as Simon Fish, William Tyndale and John Bale, and into the 1590s, this book argues for a vital reassessment of our understanding of the literary and cultural modes of the Reformation. It argues that the ostensibly revolutionary character of early Protestant literary culture was deeply indebted to medieval satirical writing and, indeed, can be viewed as a remarkable crystallization of the textual movements and polemical personae of a rich, combative tradition of medieval writing which is still at play on the London stage in the age of Marlowe and Shakespeare.
     "Beginning with a detailed analysis of Piers Plowman, this book traces the continued vivacity of combative satirical personae and self-fashionings that took place in an appropriative movement centred on the figure of the medieval labourer. The remarkable era of Protestant 'plowman polemics' has too often been dismissed as conventional or ephemeral writing too stylistically separate to be linked to Piers Plowman, or held under the purview of historians who have viewed such texts as sources of theological or documentary information, rather than as vital literary-cultural works in their own right.
     "Radical Pastoral, 1381-1594 makes a vigorous case for the existence of a highly politicised tradition of 'polemical pastoral' which stretched across the whole of the sixteenth century, a tradition that has been largely marginalised by both medievalists and early modernists."
     Contents: The Ploughman's commonwealth -- Polemical pastoralism: the Reformation and before -- "The living ghost of Piers Plowman": The Ploughman in print, 1510-1550 -- The Elizabethan Ploughman, from "Piers Marprelate," to Pierce Penniless and back to Piers Plowman.]

Kamerick, Kathleen. Popular Piety and Art in the Late Middle Ages: Image Worship and Idolatry in England, 1350-1500. The New Middle Ages. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. [Publisher's description: "In the late Middle Ages holy images were condemned by the Lollards and subsequently by English churchmen as 'demonic snares,' although there remained many who still believed in the didactic value of idolatry. This study looks at the debate over the worship of religious images and examines the relationship between the lay population and the holy images that they worshipped. Through historical and literary sources, Kamerick 'sets late medieval controversies about images, relics and devotional endowments into the context of Christianity's basic and long-term debate about how 'high religion' could best be filtered to become 'popular religion.'"]

Karant-Nunn, S. C., ed. Varieties of Devotion in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and Renaissance 7. Turnhout: Brepols, 2003.

Kendall, Alan. Medieval Pilgrims. New York: Putnam's, 1970.

Knowles, David. The Religious Orders in England. 3 vols. 1948; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Lutton, Robert. "Religious Dissent and Heterodox Pieties." In his Lollardy and Orthodox Religion in Pre-Reformation England: Reconstructing Piety. Royal Historical Society Studies in History, ns 50. London: Royal Historical Society, 2006. Pp. 149-195.

Midmer, Roy. English Mediaeval Monasteries, 1066-1540: A Summary. London: Heinemann, 1979.

Morris, Colin, and Peter Roberts, eds. Pilgrimage: The English Experience from Becket to Bunyan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Moss, Amanda. "Context and Construction: The Nature of Vernacular Piety in a Fifteenth-Century Devotional Anthology." In Vernacularity in England and Wales, c. 1300-1550. Ed. Elisabeth Salter and Helen Wicker. Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy 17. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011. Pp. 41-64.

Ní Chuilleanáin, Eiléan, and John Flood, eds. Heresy and Orthodoxy in Early English Literature, 1350-1680. Dublin Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature 3. Dublin and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2010. ["This book originated in a one-day conference held at Trinity College Dublin on 17 November 2007."
     Contents: 'Known men'?: The identification of Lollards and their works / John Flood -- 'Why sholde I sowen draf out of my fest?': Chaucer and the false prophet motif / Frances McCormack -- Erasing Oldcastle: some literary reactions to the Lollard rising of 1414 / John Scattergood -- Misogamy as heresy: the impossible choice for a woman in the late medieval romance / Felicity Cable -- Hidden heresies in Jacke Jugeler / Amanda Piesse -- Burning books and burning martyrs in the Examinations of Anne Askew / Kate Roddy -- Foundational faults: heresy and religious toleration in the later thought of John Donne / Mark S. Sweetnam -- Obscure and giddy sects: Milton and the scandal of divorce / Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin.]

Pantin, William Abel. The English Church in the Fourteenth Century. Mediaeval Academy Reprints for Teaching 5. 1955; Toronto: University of Toronto Press in association with the Mediaeval Academy of America, 1980.

Peterson, Janine Larmon. "Social Roles, Gender Inversion, and the Heretical Sect: The Case of the Guglielmites." Viator 35 (2004): 203-219. [Abstract: "This article investigates the relationship between two leaders of a thirteenth-century Milanese heretical sect named the Guglielmites. The Guglielmites believed a woman named Guglielma of Milan was the female incarnation of the Holy Spirit, and with her predicted Second Coming there would be a new church with a female pope at the helm. Andrea Saramita, the primary disseminator of these heterodox ideas, and Maifreda da Pirovano, the chosen future pope, worked together to organize the activities and beliefs of the sect divided upon gender lines. The inquisitorial process reveals that they had a complementary but unequal partnership: Maifreda's power gradually surpassed Andrea's, leading to some resentment on Andrea's part. It is precisely because the sect was heretical, the article argues, that Maifreda was able to invert socially constructed gender roles and become the supreme authority for the group."]

Prudlo, Donald S., ed. The Origin, Development, and Refinement of Medieval Religious Mendicancies. Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition 24. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Rapp, Francis. "Religious Belief and Practice." In The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 7: c.1415-c.1500. Ed. Christopher Allmand. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Pp. 205-219.

Ringbom, Sixten. "Devotional Images and Imaginative Devotions: Notes on the Place of Art in Late Medieval Private Piety." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 6th ser. 73 (1969): 159-170.

Rubin, Miri, ed. Medieval Christianity in Practice. Princeton Readings in Religions. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009. [Publisher's description: "Comprising forty-two selections from primary source materials, each translated with an introduction and commentary by a specialist in the field, this collection illustrates the religious cycles, rituals, and experiences that gave meaning to medieval Christian individuals and communities. The texts represent the practices through which Christians conducted their individual, family, and community lives and explore such life-cycle events as birth, confirmation, marriage, sickness, death, and burial. The texts also document religious practices related to themes of work, parish life, and devotions, as well as power and authority."
     Contents: Baptismal practice in Germany / Peter Cramer -- Cathars and baptism / Shulamith Shahar -- The early medieval barbatoria / Yitzhak Hen -- Lollard instruction / Rita Copeland -- Florentine marriage in the fifteenth century / Christiane Klapisch-Zuber -- Annulment of Henry III's "marriage" to Joan of Ponthieu confirmed by Innocent IV on 20 May 1254 / David d'Avray -- Agius of Corvey's account of the death of Hathumoda, first abbess of Gandersheim, in 874 / Frederick S. Paxton -- A royal funeral of 1498 / Alain Boureau -- Charms to ward off sheep and pig murrain / William C. Jordan -- Fishermen and mariners / Harold S. Fox -- Storms at sea on a voyage between Rhodes and Venice, November 1470 / Olivia Remie Constable -- Rules and ritual on the Second Crusade campaign to Lisbon, 1147 / Susanna A. Throop -- The consecration of church space / Dominique Iogna-Prat -- Fourteenth-century instructions for bedside pastoral care / Joseph Ziegler -- How to behave in church and how to become a priest / Daniel Bornstein -- A sermon on the virtues of the contemplative life / Katherine L. Jansen -- Preaching and pastoral care of a devout woman (deo devota) in fifteenth-century Basel / Hans-Jochen Schiewer -- Doing penance / Sarah Hamilton -- A penitential diet / Rob Meens -- A layman's penance / Joseph Goering -- Prayers / Virginia Reinburg -- Two healing prayers / Eamon Duffy -- Images in the world: reading the crucifixion / Sara Lipton -- The Old English nine herbs charm / Debby Banham -- Amulets and charms / Peter Murray Jones -- A deaf-mute's story / Sharon Farmer -- Bequests for the poor / Brigitte Resl -- Translation of the body of St. Junianus / Thomas Head -- Pilgrimage and spiritual healing in the ninth century / Julia M. H. Smith -- Interrogation of Waldensians / Peter Biller -- The lives of the Beghards / Walter Simons -- The renovation of the chapel in the Beguinage of Lille / Penny Galloway -- The practices of Devotio moderna / John Van Engen -- The possession of Blessed Jordan of Saxony / Aviad M. Kleinberg -- On the stigmatization of Saint Margaret of Hungary / Gábor Klaniczay -- Eschatological prophecy: "woe to the world in one hundred years" / Robert E. Lerner -- Raymond de Sabanac, preface to Constance de Rabastens, 'The revelations' / Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski -- The life of the hermit Stephen of Obazine / György Geréby and Piroska Nagy -- Creating an anchorhold / Alexandra Barratt -- The ritual for the ordination of nuns / Nancy Bradley Warren -- An Anglo-Saxon queen's consecration / Janet L. Nelson -- Mass at the election of the mayor of London, 1406 / Caroline Barron.]

Ryan, Christopher, ed. The Religious Roles of the Papacy: Ideals and Realities, 1150-1300. Papers in Mediaeval Studies 8. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1989.

Salter, Elisabeth. "Evidence for Devotional Reading in Fifteenth-Century England: A Comparative Analysis of One English Poem in Six Manuscript Contexts." In Vernacularity in England and Wales, c. 1300-1550. Ed. Elisabeth Salter and Helen Wicker. Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy 17. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011. Pp. 65-99.

Shinners, John Raymond, ed. Medieval Popular Religion, 1000-1500: A Reader. 2nd ed. Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures 2. Peterborough, ON, and Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press, 2007. [Contents: I. Instruction in the Faith: -- 1. Basic Christian prayers -- 2. The Fourth Lateran Council -- 3. A handbook for parish priests -- 4. A tract on hearing confessions -- 5. A sermon on the articles of faith -- 6. Popular sermons -- 7. Durandus on the symbolism of church art -- 8. The faith of Peter Waldes -- 9. The faith of St. Francis of Assisi -- 10. The faith of Joan of Arc -- 11. The faith of the Spanish peasant, Juan de Rabe -- II. God: -- 12. The Play of Adam -- 13. St. Francis of Assisi and the Christmas creche -- 14. The passion narrative from Giovanni de' Cauli's Meditations on the Life of Christ -- 15. Caesarius of Heisterbach's miracles of the Eucharist -- 16. Two hymns for the feast of Corpus Christi -- 17. Catherine of Siena on receiving the Eucharist -- 18. The host and libels against the Jews -- 19. A French peasant's theology of God -- III. The Virgin Mary: -- 20. Four antiphons of the Virgin -- 21. Elisabeth of Schönau's vision of the assumption -- 22. The Stabat mater -- 23. The Cantigas de Santa Maria of Alfonso X -- 24. A liturgical drama of the annunciation -- 25. Johannes Herolt's miracles of the Virgin Mary -- 26. The Obsecro te -- 27. An apparition of the Virgin Mary in Castile -- IV. Saints, Relics, and Pilgrimage: -- 28. The traveling relics of Laon cathedral -- 29. Accommodating pilgrims at the church of St.-Denis -- 30. The miracles of St. Thomas Becket -- 31. Bishop Hugh of Lincoln's devotion to relics -- 32. St. Mary Magdalene and St. Nicholas from the Golden Legend -- 33. A Pilgrim's guide to the church of the Holy Sepulcher -- 34. Margery Kempe visits Jerusalem -- 35. An inventory of relics at Durham cathedral -- 36. Thomas More's dialogue on saints and their shrines -- V. Devils, Demons, and Spirits: -- 37. The English peasant Thurkill's vision of hell -- 38. German encounters with demons -- 39. Demons vex some English villagers -- 40. The young priest Walchelin's purgatorial vision -- 41. Ghost stories -- 42. The sorcery trial of Lady Alice Kyteler -- 43. Bernardino of Siena on witchcraft and superstition -- 44. The Malleus Maleficarum on superstitious practices -- 45. A necromancer's love spell -- VI. Rituals: -- 46. Advice to a young wife on mass and confession -- 47. Bishop Guillaume Durandus's list of blessings -- 48. Various blessings -- 49. Jacob of Voragine on the greater and lesser rogations -- 50. A litany of the saints -- 51. Liturgical drama -- 52. Ceremony for the exclusion of a leper -- 53. Christian charms -- VII. Daily Devotions and Practices: -- 54. Rule for the Franciscan third order -- 55. The fraternity of the blessed Virgin at Perugia -- 56. The fraternity of St. Catherine, Aldersgate, London -- 57. Guild sponsors of the York mystery plays -- 58. Guillaume de Deguileville's Pilgrimage of Human Life -- 59. Behaving piously: a knight's advice for his daughters -- 60. Geert Grote preaches the modern devotion -- 61. A spiritual regimen for a fifteenth-century gentleman -- 62. A fifteenth-century English yeoman's commonplace book -- 63. Popular proverbs -- 64. Indulgences -- VIII. Enthusiasm: -- 65. Pious church-builders at Chartres cathedral -- 66. The children's crusade -- 67. The shepherds' crusade -- 68. The Franciscan Salimbene on the "Green Halleluia" -- 69. Pious responses to the black death in Tournai -- IX. Error: -- 70: Burchard of Worms' Corrector and doctor -- 71. The inquisitor Bernard of Gui on sorcery -- 72. The spurious Saint Guinefort -- 73. An English bishop oversees popular piety -- 74: Popular heresy in twelfth-century Le Mans -- 75. Heresy and orthodoxy in a French village -- 76: Heresy and orthodoxy in an English town -- X. Death and Judgment: -- 77.The Dies irae -- 78. The knight Owein's journey through St. Patrick's purgatory -- 79. Last wills and testaments -- 80. A sermon for all souls' day -- 81. The Art of Dying Well -- 82. Burial of the dead.]

Sumption, Jonathan. Pilgrimage: An Image of Mediaeval Religion. London: Faber and Faber, 1975.

Swanson, R[obert] N[orman]. Religion and Devotion in Europe, c.1215-c.1515. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. [A good, basic introduction to medieval Christian religion and spirituality.]

Tadmor, Naomi. The Social Universe of the English Bible: Scripture, Society, and Culture in Early Modern England. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "How can we explain the immense popularity of the English Bible? Naomi Tadmor argues that the vernacular Bible became so influential in early modern English society and culture not only because it was deeply revered, widely propagated, and resonant but also because it was--at least in some ways--Anglicised. She focuses in particular on the rendering into English of biblical terms of social description and demonstrates the emergence of a social universe through the processes of translation from ancient and medieval texts to successive and inter-related English versions. She investigates the dissemination of these terms in early modern society and culture, focusing on community ties, gender and labour relations, and offices of state. The result is an important contribution to the history of the English Bible, biblical translations, and to early modern English history more generally."
     Contents: Friends and neighbours in early modern England: biblical translations and social norms -- Women and wives: the language of marriage in early modern biblical translations -- Slaves and servants: a Bible for freeborn Englishmen -- Prince, captain, lord, duke, and eunuch: the making of the English biblical polity.]

Thomson, Williell R. Friars in the Cathedral: The First Franciscan Bishops, 1226-1261. Studies and Texts 33. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1975.

Turville-Petre, Thorlac. "Piety." Chap. 5 of his Reading Middle English Literature. Blackwell Introductions to Literature 15. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Pp. 123-159.

Van Engen, John H. Sisters and Brothers of the Common Life: The Devotio Moderna and the World of the Later Middle Ages. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. [Publisher's description: "The Devotio Moderna, or Modern Devout, puzzled their contemporaries. Beginning in the 1380s in market towns along the Ijssel River of the east-central Netherlands and in the county of Holland, they formed households organized as communes and forged lives centered on private devotion. They defended their self-designed style of life as exemplary and sustained it in the face of opposition, their women labeled 'beguines' and their men 'lollards,' both meant as derogatory terms. Yet the movement grew, drawing in women and schoolboys, priests and laymen, and spreading outward toward Minister, Flanders, and Cologne."
     Dust jacket: "The Devout were arguably more culturally significant than the Lollards and Beguines, yet they have commanded far less scholarly attention in English. John Van Engen's magisterial book keeps the Modern Devout at its center and thinks through their story anew. Few interpreters have read the Devout so insistently within their own time and space by looking to the social and religious conditions that marked towns and parishes in northern Europe during the fifteenth century and examining the widespread upheavals in cultural and religious life between the 1370s and the 1440s. In Sisters and Brothers of the Common Life, Van Engen grasps the Devout in their humanity, communities, and beliefs, and places them firmly within the urban societies of the Low Countries and the cultures we call late medieval."
     Contents: Introduction: The Devotio Moderna and modern history -- Converts in the Middle ages -- Conversion as a medieval form of life -- Converts in the Low Countries -- Circles of converts at Strassburg and Brussels -- Converts under suspicion: legislating against Beguines and free spirits -- Modern-day converts in the Low Countries -- The Low Countries -- Households of devout women -- Societies of devout men -- Modern-day conversion -- Suspicion and inquisition -- Suspicion of devout practices -- Charge and counter-charge in the mid-1390s -- Sisters under inquisition, 1396-1397: Friar Eylard Schoneveld intervenes -- Resisting the inquisitor: legal tactics -- Awaiting the Bishop's decision, 1398-1401 -- From converts to communities: tertiaries, sisters, brothers, schoolboys, canons -- Tertiaries "living the common life" -- Sisters of the common life -- Brothers of the common life -- Schoolboys -- Windesheim canons and canonesses -- An option for enclosure: male canons and female tertiaries -- Inventing a communal household: goods, customs, labor, and "republican" harmony -- Living together without personal property -- House customs and personal exercises -- Obedience and humility in a voluntary community -- Labor: living from the work of their own hands -- Communal gatherings and a "republican" impulse -- Defending the modern-day Devout: expansion under scrutiny -- Women's houses and converting schoolboys: Burgher critics at Zwolle -- Friar Matthew Grabow and the Council of Constance -- The sisters and the aldermen in conflict at Deventer: the women's narrative -- Institutionalizing under scrutiny -- Proposing a theological rationale: the freedom of the "Christian religion" -- Place in society: taking on the "estate of the perfect" -- John Pupper of Goch (d. 1475) -- Gospel law and the freedom of the Christian religion -- Taking the spiritual offensive: caring for the self, examining the soul, progressing in virtue -- Reading, writing, and the lay tongue -- Exhortation in public and correction in private -- Spiritual guidance and mutual reproof -- Modern-day devotion: examining the self, making progress, experiencing peace -- Private gatherings and self-made societies in the fifteenth century -- The question of an afterlife.]

Vauchez, André. Sainthood in the Later Middle Ages. Trans. Jean Birrell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Volz, Carl A. The Church of the Middle Ages: Growth and Change from 600-1400. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1970.

Watt, Tessa. Cheap Print and Popular Piety. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. ["In this provocative study, Watt challenges the traditional divide between a pre-Reformation culture of orality and image and the ensuing Protestant culture of the written word. Cheap print (broadside ballads, chapbooks, wall hangings) offers a response to this 'confrontational' model, since godly ballads and other popular devotional materials juxtapose word and image in ways that suggest gradual modification of traditional piety, rather than a wholesale rejection of previous values. In this light, Watt suggests that print and literacy should not be viewed as 'unchanging technologies which unilaterally replaced other forms of communication.' Instead, as the ballads and other examples of cheap print make clear, such communication is only part of a much larger network of seeing, reading, remembering, and hearing which comprised the post-Reformation devotional (and consumer) experience" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Wilson, Stephen G., ed. Saints and their Cults: Studies in Religious Sociology, Folklore and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

G.ii. Apocalypticism / Apocalyptic Movements

Aune, David Edward. Apocalypticism, Prophecy, and Magic in Early Christianity: Collected Essays. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006. [Rpt.: Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2008. Contents: Understanding Jewish and Christian apocalyptic -- From the idealized past to the imaginary future: eschatological restoration in Jewish apocalyptic literature / with Eric Stewart -- The Apocalypse of John and the problem of genre -- Following the Lamb: discipleship in the Apocalypse -- Qumran and the book of Revelation -- The influence of Roman imperial court ceremonial on the Apocalypse of John -- An intertextual reading of the Apocalypse of John -- The Apocalypse of John and Palestinian Jewish Apocalyptic -- The social matrix of the Apocalypse of John -- Stories of Jesus in the Apocalypse of John -- The form and function of the proclamations to the seven churches (Revelation 2-3) -- Revelation 5 as an ancient Egyptian enthronement scene? -- Revelation 17: a lesson in remedial reading -- The prophetic circle of John of Patmos and the exegesis of Revelation 22:16 -- God and time in the Apocalypse of John -- Charismatic exegesis in early Judaism and early Christianity -- Christian prophecy and the messianic status of Jesus -- The Odes of Solomon and early Christian prophecy -- The Apocalypse of John and Graeco-Roman revelatory magic -- Magic in early Christianity.]

Bostick, Curtis V. "Apocalypticism: Definitions, Connotations, and Models." Chap. 1 of his The Antichrist and the Lollards: Apocalypticism in Late Medieval and Reformation England. Studies in Medieval and Reformation Thought 70. Leiden, Boston, and Cologne: Brill, 1998. Pp. 1-18.

Bynum, Caroline Walker, and Paul Freedman, eds. Last Things: Death and the Apocalypse in the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Cohn, Norman. Cosmos, Chaos, and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith. 2nd ed. Yale Nota Bene. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2001. [Contents: The Ancient Near East and Beyond: "Egyptians"; "Mesopotamians"; "Vedic Indians"; "Zorastrians"; "From Combat Myth to Apocalyptic Faith"; Syro-Palestinian Crucible: "Ugarit"; "Yahweh and the Jerusalem Monarchy"; "Exile and After"; "Jewish Apocalpses (I)"; "Jewish Apocalpses (II)"; "The Jesus Sect"; "The Book of Revelation"; "Zoroastrians, Jews and Christians."]

Cohn, Norman. The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970. [On millenarianism and apocalypticism, and their effects in the Middle Ages, including the English Rising of 1381: "though . . . the majority of the insurgents were simply moved by specific grievances to demand specific reforms, it seems certain that millenarian hopes and aspirations were not altogether lacking" (203).]

Emmerson, Richard K. Antichrist in the Middle Ages. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1981.

Emmerson, Richard K., and Bernard McGinn, eds. The Apocalypse in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.

Emmerson, Richard K., and Ronald B. Herzman. The Apocalyptic Imagination in Medieval Literature. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

Erdoes, Richard. A.D. 1000: Living on the Brink of Apocalypse. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1988.

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn. "'The Place of the Apocalyptic View of History in the Later Middle Ages' and the Legacy of Morton Bloomfield [1999]." In The Morton W. Bloomfield Lectures, 1989-2005. Ed. Daniel Donoghue, James Simpson, and Nicholas Watson. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University, 2010. Pp. 116-140.

Kinane, Karolyn, and Michael A. Ryan. End of Days: Essays on the Apocalypse from Antiquity to Modernity. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009. [Publisher's description: "The idea of the annihilation of life is a culturally universal concept. The first half of the book invites readers to explore ancient, medieval, early modern, and modern popular conceptions of the apocalypse. The second half focuses on the continuance of apocalyptic expectations and how they are understood within the realms of politics and popular culture."
     Contents: Introduction / Karolyn Kinane and Michael A. Ryan -- Teaching the end of days: medieval meets modern apocalypse in the classroom / Brett Edward Whalen -- Development and dissemination -- Ancient visions: the roots of Judeo-Christian apocalypse / Casey Starnes -- Beatus of Libana: medieval Spain and the othering of Islam / Kevin R. Poole -- "Seeing" the apocalyptic city in the fourteenth century / Tessa Morrison -- Social upheaval and the English doomsday plays / Lisa LeBlanc -- Flight from the apocalypse: Protestants, Puritans, and the great migration / Carmen Gomez-Galisteo -- J. Edmestone Barnes, a Jamaican apocalyptic visionary in the early twentieth century / Richard Smith -- "Tidings out of the east": World War I, the eastern question and British millennialism / Eric Michael Reisenauer -- Nazi end times: the Third Reich as millennial reich / David Redles -- Political and popular -- Protestant Evangelicals and U.S. policy towards Israel / Husam Mohamad -- At the edge of tomorrow: apocalypticism and science fiction / Lorenzo DiTommaso -- A human incarnate: Puritans and parody in good omens / Therese-Marie Meyer -- The end-times narratives of the American far-right / Johann Pautz -- The left behind series and its place within the American Evangelical subculture / Nancy A. Schaefer -- Gaming armageddon: leaving behind race, class, and gender / Evelyn Stiller -- Apocalyptic thought in UFO-based religions / Benjamin E. Zeller -- Zombie apocalypse: plague and the end of the world in popular culture / Rikk Mulligan.]

Lerner, Robert E. "The Black Death and Western European Eschatological Mentalities." American Historical Review 86.3 (June 1981): 533-552. [Rpt. in The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-Century Plague; Papers of the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Ed. Daniel Williman. Medieval and Renaissance Text and Studies 13. Binghamton, NY: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, 1982. Pp. 77-103.]

McGinn, Bernard. "Apocalypticism in the Middle Ages: An Historiographical Sketch." Medieval Studies 37 (1975): 252-286. [Rpt. in his Apocalypticism in the Western Tradition (Aldershot, Hants., and Brookfield, VT: Variorum, 1994).]

McGinn, Bernard. Apocalypticism in the Western Tradition. Collected Studies CS430. Aldershot, Hants., and Brookfield, VT: Variorum / Ashgate, 1994.

McGinn, Bernard. Visions of the End: Apocalyptic Traditions in the Middle Ages. Records of Civilization, Sources and Studies 96. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

Papka, Claudia Rattazzi. "The Limits of Apocalypse: Eschatology, Epistemology, and Textuality in the Commedia and Piers Plowman." In Last Things: Death and the Apocalypse in the Middle Ages. Ed. Caroline Walker Bynum and Paul Freedman. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Pp. 233-256. [[Dante; Langland]]

Reeves, Marjorie. "The Development of Apocalyptic Thought: Medieval Attitudes." In The Apocalypse in English Renaissance Thought and Literature: Patters, Antecedents and Repercussions. Ed. C. A. Patrides and Joseph Wittreich. Manchester: Manchester University Press; Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984. Pp. 40-72.

Ridyard, Susan J., ed. Last Things: Apocalypse, Judgment and Millennium in the Middle Ages. Sewanee Mediaeval Studies 12. Sewanee, TN: University of the South Press, 2002. [Contents: Debating justification: faith, deeds, and the parables of Pearl and Piers Plowman / Alexander Bruce -- A glorious vision of heaven: the chapel of Henry VII at Westminster Abbey / Virginia Knox Henderson -- Dante's prophecy of peripety (Par. 27.142-148): an astrological Fortuna / Richard Kay -- Meditating on passion, meditating on judgment: the first and second comings of Christ in medieval imagination / Richard Kieckhefer -- Thomas Aquinas on both ends of the world / Ralph McInerny -- The first-fruit of the last judgment: the Commedia as a thirteenth-century apocalypse / James C. Nohrnberg.]

Szittya, Penn. "Domesday Bokes: The Apocalypse in Medieval English Literary Culture." In The Apocalypse in the Middle Ages. Ed. Richard K. Emmerson and Bernard McGinn. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1993. Pp. 374-397.

Verbeke, Werner, Daniel Verhelst, and Andries Welkenhuysen, eds. The Use and Abuse of Eschatology in the Middle Ages. Mediaevalia Lovaniensia, Ser. 1, Studia 15. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1988. [Papers from an international colloquium organized by the Instituut voor Middeleeuwse Studies of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 14-16 May 1984.]

G.iii. Wyclif and the Lollards

Aers, David. "The Humanity of Christ: Representations in Wycliffite Texts and Piers Plowman." In The Powers of the Holy: Religion, Politics, and Gender in Late Medieval English Culture. By David Aers and Lynn Staley. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996. Pp. 43-76.

Aston, Margaret. "'Caim's Castles': Poverty, Politics and Disendowment." In The Church, Politics and Patronage in the Fifteenth Century. Ed. R. B. Dobson. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1984. Pp. 45-81.

Aston, Margaret. "Lollard Women Priests." In Lollards and Reformers: Images and Literacy in Late Medieval Religion. History Series 22. London: Hambledon Press, 1983. Pp. 49-70. [Although some Lollard texts argue hypothetically that women can take on priestly roles, there is no good evidence that any women among the Lollards actually did so.]

Aston, Margaret. Lollards and Reformers: Images and Literacy in Late Medieval Religion. History Series 22. London: Hambledon Press, 1983.

Aston, Margaret. "Lollardy and Sedition, 1381-1431." Past and Present no. 17 (April 1960): 1-44. [Rpt. in Peasants, Knights, and Heretics: Studies in Medieval English Social History. Ed. R[odney] H[oward] Hilton. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. Pp. 273-318.
     Includes some consideration of the Peasants' Revolt and Oldcastle's Rebellion.]

Barr, Helen, and Ann M. Huchison, eds. Text and Controversy from Wyclif to Bale: Essays in Honor of Anne Hudson. Medieval Church Studies 4. Turnhout: Brepols, 2005. [Contents: Introduction / Helen Barr with Ann M. Hutchison -- Friar Richard 'Of both sexes' / H. L. Spencer -- Dr. Peter Partridge and MS Digby 98 / Ralph Hanna -- Wyclif's Postilla and his sermons / Pamela Gradon -- The compilation(s) of two late medieval devotional manuscripts / E. A. Jones -- London, British Library, Additional MS 37049: a spiritual encyclopedia / Douglas Gray -- Thomas Moston and the teaching of Wyclif's logic in Oxford, c.1410 / Jeremy Catto -- The mole in the vineyard: Wyclif at Syon in the fifteenth century / Vincent Gillespie -- 'Cum excuterem puluerem et blattis': John Bale, John Leland, and the Chronicon Tinemutensis coenobii / James P. Carley -- The alpha and omega of the Middle English Bible / Conrad Lindberg -- Lollard book producers in London in 1414 / Maureen Jurkowski -- 'Respondet Waltherus Bryth . . .': Walter Brut in debate on women priests / Alastair Minnis -- Bishop Reginald Pecock and the idea of 'Lollardy' / Kantik Ghosh -- 'Deep is the heart of man, and inscrutable': signs of heresy in medieval Languedoc / Peter Biller -- The audience and framers of the Twelve conclusions of the Lollards / Wendy Scase -- Text and controversy: in defence of St. Birgitta of Sweden / Roger Ellis -- The Acta of the Constance trial of Master Jerome of Prague / Frantisek Smahel -- Shading the grey area: determining heresy in Middle English texts / Jill C. Havens -- The chastising of God's children: a neglected text / Annie Sutherland -- Wycliffite spirituality / Fiona Somerset -- Saving satire after Arundel's Constitutions: John Audelay's 'Marcol and Solomon' / James Simpson -- The aftermath / Helen Barr with Ann M. Hutchison -- A bibliography of the published writings of Anne Hudson / Guy Trudel.]

Boreczky, Elemér. John Wyclif's Discourse on Dominion in Community. Studies in the History of Christian Traditions 139. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2008.

Bosse, M. C. A., and J. P. Hornbeck, II, eds. Wycliffite Controversies. Medieval Church Studies 23. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011. [Publisher's description: "The philosophical and theological ideas of John Wyclif, their dissemination among clerical and lay audiences, and the movement of religious dissent associated with his name all provoked sharp controversies in late medieval England. This volume brings together the very latest scholarship on Wyclif and Wycliffism, with its contributors exploring in interdisciplinary fashion the historical, literary, and theological resonances of the Wycliffi te controversies. Far from adhering to the traditional binary divide between 'orthodoxy' and 'heresy' as a tool for explaining the religious turmoil of the late fourteenth, fifteenth, and early sixteenth centuries, essays here explore the construction and rhetorical use of those terms, collectively producing a more nuanced account of the religious history of pre-Reformation England. Topics include the use of religious lyrics and tables of lessons as indirect rebuttals of Wycliffite claims, and more."]

Bostick, Curtis V. The Antichrist and the Lollards: Apocalypticism in Late Medieval and Reformation England. Studies in Medieval and Reformation Thought 70. Leiden and Boston: E. J. Brill, 1998.

Cole, Andrew. Literature and Heresy in the Age of Chaucer. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 71. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. [Publisher's description: "After the late fourteenth century, English literature was fundamentally shaped by the heresy of John Wyclif and his followers. This study demonstrates how Geoffrey Chaucer, William Langland, John Clanvowe, Margery Kempe, Thomas Hoccleve and John Lydgate, far from eschewing Wycliffism out of fear of censorship or partisan distaste, viewed Wycliffite ideas as a distinctly new intellectual resource. Andrew Cole offers the only complete historical account of the first official condemnation of Wycliffism--the Blackfriars council of 1382--and the fullest study of 'lollardy' as a social and literary construct. Drawing on literary criticism, history, theology and law, he presents not only a fresh perspective on late medieval literature, but also an invaluable rethinking of the Wycliffite heresy. Literature and Heresy restores Wycliffism to its proper place as the most significant context for late medieval English writing, and thus for the origins of English literary history."
     Contents: The invention of heresy. The Blackfriars Council, London, 1382 -- The late fourteenth century: canonizing Wycliffism. The invention of "lollardy": William Langland; The reinvention of "lollardy": William Langland and his contemporaries; Intermezzo: Wycliffism is not "lollardy"; Geoffrey Chaucer's Wycliffite text -- The early fifteenth century: heretics and eucharists. Thomas Hoccleve's heretics; John Lydgate's eucharists -- Feeling Wycliffite. Margery Kempe's "lollard" shame -- Epilogue. Heresy, Wycliffism, and English literary history.]

Cooper, William, ed. The Wycliffe New Testament, 1388: An Edition in Modern Spelling, with an Introduction, the Original Prologues, and the Epistle to the Laodiceans. London: British Library, in association with the Tyndale Society, 2002. [Publisher's description: "Anyone who is unfamiliar with the history of the English Bible may assume that John Wycliffe actually translated the Bible that is named after him. He didn't, although he probably helped in the production of the first attempt. It was translated by followers of his, and the text of this volume, known as Wycliffe B, appeared in 1388, four years after Wycliffe's death. But John Wycliffe's preaching and writing certainly inspired the translating of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English, and the impact of the translation was so great that within a decade of publication a law was passed condemning anyone caught reading it to death.
     "Despite this, the Wycliffe Bible was read by thousands, and even after the advent of printing, handwritten copies of it were still cherished and read. What caused it to fall into disuse was not just its high cost compared to the new printed Bibles, but the great changes in the English language from 1400 onwards. The Victorians produced an old-spelling edition of it under Forshall and Madden in 1850, but the four volumes are a daunting prospect for the modern reader, even when a copy may be found. Now the British Library, in association with the Tyndale Society, is pleased to present an affordable, compact edition of the Wycliffe New Testament, rendered into modern spelling and punctuation, so that readers can enjoy reading this remarkable text for themselves."]

Copeland, Rita. "William Thorpe and his Lollard Community: Intellectual Labor and the Representation of Dissent." In Bodies and Disciplines: Intersections of Literature and History in Fifteenth-Century England. Ed. Barbara A. Hanawalt and David Wallace. Medieval Cultures 9. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. Pp. 199-221. [[labour]]

Cross, Claire. "'Great Reasoners in Scripture': The Activities of Women Lollards, 1380-1530." In Medieval Women: Dedicated and Presented to Professor Rosalind M. T. Hill on the Occasion of her Seventieth Birthday. Ed. Derek Baker. Studies in Church History, Subsidia 1. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, for the Ecclesiastical History Society, 1978. Pp. 359-380.

Daly, L[owrie] J[ohn], S.J. The Political Theory of John Wyclif. Jesuit Studies. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1962. [Contents: Chap. 1: "Wyclif's Intellectual Heredity"; Chap. 2: "A Century of Questions"; Chap. 3: "Wyclif and Civil Society"; Chap. 4: "The Monarchical Form of Government"; Chap. 5: "Wyclif and Nationalism."
     Chap. 1 considers medieval political theory as it influenced Wyflif. There are brief considerations of Augustinian political thought and how Aristotle's Politics influenced the thirteenth-century thinking of Aquinas and others. Daly gives an introduction to John of Salisbury (whose Policraticus celebrates the King as God's vicar on earth, but which also provides the first medieval declaration that tyrranicide can be justified [5]), Robert Grosseteste (who declares that the pope is supreme, but when the Holy See abuses its power one can refuse obedience [6]), Roger Bacon, John of Paris (who considers questions of spiritual dominion and the temporalities of the Church, much as Wyclif was to do later [11]), Giles of Rome, Marsilius of Padua, and William of Ockham. Chap. 2 is an introduction to the "questions" being debated in Wyclif's time, including the political turmoils in England and the war between England and France during the reign of Edward III. Daly also presents here a brief biography of Wyclif. Chap. 3 is on Wyclif's teachings about the role of the theologian in the state (as best counselor to kings), on "dominion" and the "two swords" (spiritual and temporal), and on the idea of a Christian state. Wyclif was very conservative except in arguing that the corruption of the clergy should be checked by a strong royal intervention in the Church (i.e., he is unusual in declaring that the Church should submit to secular correction). The earthly possessions, the "temporalities," of the clergy are gifts from the State and should be withdrawn by the State if the clergy are corrupt or undeserving. The Crown should have control over the temporalities even of the clergy; the spiritual "dominion" of the Church is limited to spiritual matters. Corrupt clergy should be chastened or removed by the State. Wyclif's "radicalism," then, is limited to giving the State some power over the Church. In a later work (De civili dominio, Vol. 2; see Daly, pp. 143-144), Wyclif had to concede that the argument worked both ways: if the temporal ruler was corrupt, the ecclesiastical power (i.e., the pope) should have the power to chasten or remove. Chap. 4 summarizes Wyclif's writings on monarchy and the duties of the king. Pp. 114-116 describes Wyclif's understanding of the three estates as a house: the clergy is the roof, protecting the lower parts from worldliness and sin; the secular lords are the walls of the house, defending it from outside attack; the lower classes are the foundation, supporting the kingdom in all earthly concerns. The principal duty of the king is to ensure that the estates work in harmony to their mutual benefit. On the king's relation to law, Wyclif declares that it would be absurd to think that the maker of a law is subject to that law, but this is not permission for a king to be lawless: the king may not be subject to the laws that he makes, but he is subject to the law of God. Chap. 5 is on "nationalism" understood in the special sense "of the growth of centralization in the power of the king; the development of authority from regional to that of a large geographical unit populated by men and women who share some unity of language and custom; and the possession of a consciousness of that unity as opposed to the unity of other peoples and other lands" (132). In this sense, Wyclif contributes to "nationalism" in his support of royal perogative, and in his despair in the Empire and other attempts to unite European Christendom. He declares England's king to be independent of the Emperor, and gestures towards an idea (which Henry VIII would enact) that England's Church should be independent of Rome. Daly also summarizes here Wyclif's teaching on war and the limited circumstances under which a war can be a "just" war (in essence, when a war is "charitable," it is justifiable, but Wyclif does not see this as an absurdity: aggression can be "charitable" if it is for the purpose of correcting injustices and abuses, suppressing heresy, or bringing about conversions); however, he is emphatic on the point that Edward III's invasion of France and attempt to enforce his claim to the French crown was unjustifiable and "stupid" (150). On this point, Daly notes, Wyclif will have lost sympathy with John of Gaunt and the royal court, who otherwise was his strong protector and ally.]

Deanesly, Margaret. The Lollard Bible and Other Medieval Biblical Versions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1920.

Evans, G[illian] R[osemary], ed. The Medieval Theologians. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2001.

Farr, William. John Wyclif as Legal Reformer. Studies in the History of Christian Thought 10. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1974. [A revision of the author's thesis, University of Washington.]

Forde, Simon N. "Social Outlook and Preaching in a Wycliffite 'Sermones Dominicales' Collection." In Church and Chronicle in the Middle Ages: Essays Presented to John Taylor. Ed. Ian Wood and G. A. Loud. London and Rio Grande, OH: Hambledon Press, 1991. Pp. 179-191.

Gairdner, James. Lollardy and the Reformation in England: An Historical Survey. 4 vols. London: Macmillan, 1908-1913.

Georgianna, Linda. "The Protestant Chaucer." In Chaucer's Religious Tales. Ed. C. David Benson, and Elizabeth Robertson. Chaucer Studies 15. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1990. Pp. 55-69. [On the extent to which ideas of Chaucer as a Wycliffite continue to influence current critical assessments of his work.]

Ghosh, Kantik. "Eliding the Interpreter: John Wyclif and Scriptural Truth." New Medieval Literatures 2 (1998): 205-224.

Ghosh, Kantik. The Wycliffite Heresy: Authority and the Interpretation of Texts. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 45. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. [Contents: Introduction -- John Wyclif and the truth of sacred scripture -- William Woodford's Anti-Wycliffite hermeneutics -- Vernacular versions of the Bible and 'authority' -- The English Wycliffite sermons: 'thinking in alternatives'? -- Nicholas Love and the Lollards -- Thomas Netter and John Wyclif: hermeneutic confreres -- Afterword: Lollardy and late-Medieval intellectuality.]

Havens, Jill C. "'As Englishe is comoun langage to oure puple': The Lollards and their Imagined 'English' Community." In Imagining a Medieval English Nation. Ed. Kathy Lavezzo. Medieval Cultures 37. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. Pp. 96-128.

Heath, Peter. Church and Realm, 1272-1461: Conflict and Collaboration in an Age of Crises. Fontana History of England. London: Fontana, 1988. [Includes a section on Wyclif.]

Hornbeck, J. Patrick, II. What is a Lollard?: Dissent and Belief in Late Medieval England. Oxford Theological Monographs. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. [Contents: Introduction: Family resemblances -- Salvation -- The Eucharist -- Lay marriage and clerical celibacy -- Priesthood and its discontents -- The papacy.]

Hudson, Anne. "Dangerous Fictions: Indulgences in the Thought of Wyclif and his Followers." In Promissory Notes on the Treasury of Merits: Indulgences in Late Medieval Europe. Ed. Robert N[orman] Swanson. Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition 5. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2006. Pp. 197-214.

Hudson, Anne. "John Purvey: A Reconsideration of the Evidence for his Life and Writings." Viator 12 (1981): 355-380. [See also Jurkowski, Maureen. "New Light on John Purvey."]

Hudson, Anne. "Laicus litteratus: The Paradox of Lollardy." In Heresy and Literacy, 1000-1530. Ed. Peter Biller and Anne Hudson. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 23. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Pp. 222-236.

Hudson, Anne. "Lollard Book Production." In Book Production and Publishing in Britain, 1375-1475. Ed. Jeremy Griffiths and Derek Pearsall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Pp. 125-142.

Hudson, Anne. "A Lollard Sect Vocabulary?" In So Meny People, Longages, and Tonges: Philological Essays in Scots and Mediaeval English Presented to Angus McIntosh. Ed. M. Benskin and M. L. Samuels. Edinburgh: Middle English Dialect Project, 1981. Pp. 15-30. [Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books, pp. 164-180.]

Hudson, Anne. Lollards and their Books. London, and Ronceverte, WV: Hambledon Press, 1985. [Publisher's description: "The history of the Lollard movement is intimately concerned with their writings and literacy. Anne Hudson's work in this field is the most important modern contribution to the subject. This collection of articles makes indispensable reading for anyone interested in the history or the literature of the period."
     Contents: "Contributions to a History of Wycliffite Writings," pp. 1-12; "A Lollard Compilation and the Dissemination of Wycliffite Thought," pp. 13-29; "A Lollard Compilation in England and Bohemia," pp. 31-42; "A Neglected Wycliffite Text," pp. 43-65; "The Debate on Bible Translation, Oxford 1401," pp. 67-84; "John Purvey: A Reconsideration of the Evidence for his Life and Writings," pp. 85-110; "A Lollard Mass," pp. 111-123; "The Examination of Lollards," pp. 125-140; "Lollardy: The English Heresy?," pp. 141-163; "A Lollard Sect Vocabulary?," pp. 165-180; "Some Aspects of Lollard Book Production," pp. 181-191; "A Lollard Quaternion," pp. 193-200; "The Expurgation of a Lollard Sermon-Cycle," pp. 201-215; "Observations on a Northerner's Vocabulary," pp. 217-226; "'No Newe Thyng': The Printing of Medieval Texts in the Early Reformation Period," pp. 227-248; "Appendix: Additions and Modifications to a Bibliography of English Wycliffite Writings," pp. 249-252.]

Hudson, Anne. "Lollardy: The English Heresy?" Studies in Church History 18 (1982): 261-283. [Rpt. in her Lollards and their Books. London, and Ronceverte, WV: Hambledon Press, 1985. Pp. 141-163.]

Hudson, Anne. The Premature Reformation: Wycliffite Texts and Lollard History. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.

Hudson, Anne, ed. Selections from English Wycliffite Writings. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Hudson, Anne. Studies in the Transmission of Wyclif's Writings. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS907. Aldershot, Hants., and Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Variorum, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Wyclif's ideas caused a major upheaval both in the country of his birth and in the Bohemian area of central Europe; that upheaval affected theological, ecclesiastical and political developments from the late 14th to the early 16th centuries. Some of those ideas were transmitted orally through Wyclif's university teaching in Oxford, and in his preaching in London and Lutterworth, but the main medium through which his message was disseminated was the written word, using the universal western language of Latin.
     "The papers in this collection look at aspects of that dissemination, from the organization and revision of Wyclif's works to form a summa of his ideas, the techniques devised to identify and make accessible his multifarious writings, the attempts of the orthodox clerical establishment to destroy them, through to the fortunes of his texts in the Reformation period; manuscripts written in England and those copied abroad, mostly in Bohemia, are considered. Although most of the papers have been published previously, a new edition of the important Hussite catalogue of Wyclif's writings is provided, and three lengthy sections contribute new material and additions and corrections to previous listings of Wyclif manuscripts.
     Contents: Wyclif's works and their dissemination; From Oxford to Prague: the writings of John Wyclif and his English followers in Bohemia; The Hussite catalogue of Wyclif's works; Cross-referencing in Wyclif's Latin works; The development of Wyclif's Summa de Theologie; Wyclif's Latin sermons: questions of form, date and audience (with appendix); Accessus ad auctorem: the case of John Wyclif; Trial and error: Wyclif's works in Cambridge,Trinity College MS B.16.2; Wyclif and the North: the evidence from Durham; Peculiaris regis clericus: Wyclif and the issue of authority; poor preachers, poor men: views of poverty in Wyclif and his followers; The king and erring clergy: a Wycliffite contribution; Notes of an early 15th-century research assistant and the emergence of the 267 articles against Wyclif; Which Wyche? The framing of the Lollard heretic and/or saint; Wyclif texts in 15th-century London; The survival of Wyclif's works in England and Bohemia.]

Hudson, Anne. "Wyclif and the English Language." In Wyclif in his Times. Ed. Anthony Kenny. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Pp. 85-103.

Hudson, Anne, and Michael Wilks, eds. From Ockham to Wyclif. Studies in Church History, Subsidia 5. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, for the Ecclesiastical History Society, 1987. [Papers presented at a conference held at the Queen's College, Oxford, Apr. 15-19, 1985.]

Hudson, Anne, and Pamela Gradon, eds. English Wycliffite Sermons. 3 vols. Oxford English Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983-1990.

Hurley, M. "Scriptura sola: Wyclif and his Critics." Traditio 16 (1960): 275-352.

Ives, D. V. "A Man of Religion." Modern Language Review 27 (1932): 144-148. [Ives argues that the poor Parson of the Canterbury Tales is John Wyclif himself. While this claim is dubious, Ives's collection of evidence showing that the "Parson's Tale" is "Wycliffite" is valuable.]

Jurkowski, Maureen. "New Light on John Purvey." English Historical Review 110 (1995): 1180-1190. [See also Hudson, Anne. "John Purvey: A Reconsideration of the Evidence for his Life and Writings."
     Abstract: "An examination of new evidence from Public Record Office sources on the life and work of John Purvey. Anne Hudson's important study of Purvey did much to deflate his previous reputation as a prolific author of works such as the Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible and the Lollard Disendowment Bill. An inventory of books found at Purvey's residence heightens the possibility that he was involved in the production of some or all of these works, while evidence of his participation in the Oldcastle revolt lends circumstantial support to the case for his authorship of the Disendowment Bill."]

Justice, Steven. "Lollardy." Chap. 25 of The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Ed. David Wallace. New Cambridge History of English Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. 662-689.

Kaminsky, Howard. "Wyclifism as Ideology of Revolution." Church History 32 (1963): 57-74. [Argues that Wyclif's politics are revolutionary.]

Kenny, Anthony. Wyclif. Past Masters. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Kenny, Anthony, ed. Wyclif in his Times. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. [Contents: Wyclif, the Bible, and transubstantiation / Maurice Keen -- The realism of the De universalibus / Anthony Kenny -- Continua, indivisibles, and change in Wyclif's Logic of scripture / Norman Kretzmann -- Wycliffism in Oxford 1381-1411; Wyclif and the English language / Anne Hudson -- Wyclif and Hus: a doctrinal comparison / Gordon Leff -- The influence of Wyclif / Maurice Keen -- The accursed memory: the Counter-Reformation reputation of John Wyclif / Anthony Kenny.]

Lahey, Stephen E. John Wyclif. Great Medieval Thinkers. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. [Publisher's description: "This work draws on recent scholarship situating Wyclif in his 14th-century milieu to present a survey of his thought and writings as a coherent theological position arising from Oxford's 'Golden Age' of theology."
     Contents: Wyclif's life and work -- The Oxford context of Wyclif's thought -- Wyclif in Oxford: logic, metaphysics -- Denying transubstantiation: physics, Eucharist and apostasy -- The logic of scripture -- Predestination and the church -- Dominium as foundation of Wyclif's political and ecclesiological vision.]

Lahey, Stephen E. Philosophy and Politics in the Thought of John Wyclif. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, 4th ser. 54. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. [Publisher's description: "John Wyclif was the fourteenth-century English thinker responsible for the first English Bible, and for the Lollard movement which was persecuted widely for its attempts to reform the church through empowerment of the laity. Wyclif had also been an Oxford philosopher, and was in the service of John of Gaunt, the powerful duke of Lancaster. In several of Wyclif's formal, Latin works he proposed that the king ought to take control of all church property and power in the kingdom--a vision close to what Henry VIII was to realise 150 years later. This book argues that Wyclif's political programme was based on a coherent philosophical vision ultimately consistent with his other reformative ideas, identifying for the first time a consistency between his realist metaphysics and his political and ecclesiological theory."
     Contents: The historiography of Wyclif's dominium theory; Why dominium?; Wyclif's realism and divine dominium; Proprietas in Wyclif's theory of dominium; Iurisdictio in civil dominium; On kingship; Conclusion.]

Larsen, Andrew E. "Are All Lollards Lollards?" In Lollards and their Influence in Late Medieval England. Ed. Fiona Somerset, Jill C. Havens, and Derrick G. Pitard. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2003. Pp. 59-72.

Lawton, D[avid] A. "Lollardy and the Piers Plowman Tradition." Modern Language Review 76 (1981): 780-793. [[Includes some consideration of "Pierce the Plowman's Creed."]]

Levy, Ian Christopher, ed. A Companion to John Wyclif, Late Medieval Theologian. Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition 4. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2006. [Contents: Introduction: a companion to John Wyclif / Ian Christopher Levy -- The Latin writings of John Wyclif -- John Wyclif, c. 1331-1384 / Andrew E. Larsen -- Wyclif's logic and metaphysics / Alessandro D. Conti -- Wyclif's trinitarian and christological theology / Stephen E. Lahey -- Wyclif's ecclesiology and political thought / Takashi Shogimen -- Wyclif and the sacraments / Stephen Penn -- Wyclif and the Christian life / Ian Christopher Levy -- Wyclif and the English Bible / Mary Dove -- The opponents of John Wyclif / Mishtooni Bose -- Conclusion / Ian Christopher Levy.]

Levy, Ian Christopher. "John Wyclif and the Primitive Papacy." Viator 38 (2007): 159-189. [Abstract: "John Wyclif envisioned an ideal Church that could be created in his own day, based on the model of the earliest apostolic community depicted in the New Testament. The Church of the late fourteenth century would come to resemble the ecclesia primitiva, a poor communion of fellow workers marked by charity and humility. Within this holy fellowship there would be a place for the papacy, but it would no longer resemble the monarchy it had ascended to in the later Middle Ages. Instead, the pope would relate to his fellow bishops as St Peter had to the other apostles. His fellow Christians would recognize this man as their true pope, for he would be the person most closely resembling the apostolic martyrs and thus prove a genuine disciple of Christ. Wyclif actually bears comparison to two other fourteenth-century critics: Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham. Like Ockham, Wyclif believed that the papacy was established by Christ, although not as it exists in its present form. Yet, unlike Ockham, but similar to Marsilius, he did not concede to the papacy the plenitude of power. In order to gain a more complete understanding of Wyclif's views one must study his place within the exegetical tradition of such important biblical passages as Matthew 16.18-19 and Galatians 2.11-14."]

Lutton, Robert. Lollardy and Orthodox Religion in Pre-Reformation England: Reconstructing Piety. Royal Historical Society Studies in History, ns 50. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press / Boydell and Brewer, for the Royal Historical Society, 2006. [Originally presented as the author's thesis (Ph.D.), University of Kent. Publisher's description: "The author examines the pious practices and dispositions of families and individuals in relation to the orthodox institutions of parish, chapel and guild, and the beliefs and activities of Wycliffite heretics. He takes issue with portrayals of orthodox religion as buoyant and harmonious, and demonstrates that late medieval piety was increasingly diverse and the parish community far from stable or unified. By investigating the generation of family wealth and changing attitudes to its disposal through inheritance and pious giving in the important Lollard centre of Tenterden in Kent, he suggests that rapid economic development and social change created the conditions for a significant cultural shift. This study contends that in certain parts of England by the early sixteenth century piety was subject to dramatic changes which anticipated the Reformation."
     Contents: Method and theory in the reconstruction of piety in late medieval England; Family pieties and urban identity; Boundaries, identities and symbols: piety at Smal Hythe, Tenterden; The social origins of parsimonious piety; Religious dissent and heterodox pieties; Epilogue: late medieval piety.]

McFarlane, K[enneth] B[ruce]. Lancastrian Kings and Lollard Knights. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.

McFarlane, K[enneth] B[ruce]. Wycliffe and the Beginnings of English Nonconformity. Teach Yourself History. London: English Universities Press, 1952. [Rpt. as Wycliffe and English Nonconformity (London: Penguin Books, 1972). See pp. 86-94 on Wyclif's response to the English Rising of 1381, on his condemnation in 1382, and on the earliest Wycliffites and the beginnings of Lollardy as a popular movement. Also includes a section on Sir John Oldcastle and the Oldcastle Rebellion of 1414 (Chap. 6: "Oldcastle and Defeat," pp. 160-185).]

McKisak, May. "Learning, Lollardy, and Literature." Chap. 16 of her The Fourteenth Century, 1307-1399. Oxford History of England 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959. Pp. 499-532. [[Lollards, John Wyclif (Wycliffe), Geoffrey Chaucer, John Gower, William Langland]]

McNiven, Peter. Heresy and Politics in the Reign of Henry IV: The Burning of John Badby. Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press / Boydell and Brewer, 1987.

McSheffrey, Shannon. Gender and Heresy: Women and Men in Lollard Communities, 1420-1530. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 1995. [Publisher's description: "McSheffrey studies the communities of the late medieval English heretics, the Lollards, and examines the archival and printed sources to analyse the activities, relationships, anbd beliefs of the individuals who made up these groups, to present unexpected conclusions about the precise ways in which gender shaped participation within the movement, and suggests that challenges to orthodoxy instigated by the Lollards did not lead to questioning of the dominant medieval gender categories."]

Rex, Richard. The Lollards. Social History in Perspective. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. [Publisher's description: "This reassessment of the success and significance of John Wyclif and the Lollards examines recent trends in scholarship. Rex challenges the view that Lollardy was a cause of the Reformation, arguing instead that the movement had far less importance. An initial discussion of heresy in medieval England is followed by a detailed look at Wyclif's theological development, particularly during the 1370s. The rest of the study examines the brief period of successful uprisings and the 'long latter phase . . . of stagnation and survival' with a final discussion of the relationship of the Lollard movement to the Reformation."]

Richardson, H. G. "John Oldcastle in Hiding, August-October 1417." English Historical Review 55 (1940): 432-438.

Solopova, Elizabeth, and Stuart D. Lee. "John Wyclif and Lollardy." In Key Concepts in Medieval Literature. Palgrave Key Concepts. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. Pp. 161-165.

Somerset, Fiona, ed. Four Wycliffite Dialogues. Early English Text Society OS 333. Oxford: Oxford University Press, for the Early English Text Society, 2009. [Contents: Dialogue between Jon and Richard; Dialogue between a friar and a secular; Dialogue between Reson and Gabbyng; Dialogue between a clerk and a knight.]

Somerset, Fiona, Jill C. Havens, and Derrick G. Pitard, eds. Lollards and Their Influence in Late Medieval England. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2003. [Publisher's description: "Who were the Lollards? What did Lollards believe? What can the manuscript record of Lollard works teach us about the textual dissemination of Lollard beliefs and the audience for Lollard writings? What did Lollards have in common with other reformist or dissident thinkers in late medieval England, and how were their views distinctive? These questions have been fundamental to the modern study of Lollardy (also known as Wycliffism). The essays in this book reveal their broader implications for the study of English literature and history through a series of closely focused studies that demonstrate the wide-ranging influence of Lollard writings and ideas on later medieval English culture. Introductions to previous scholarship, and an extensive Bibliography of printed resources for the study of Wyclif and Wycliffites, provide an entry to scholarship for those new to the field.
     Contents: "Heu! quanta desolatio Angliae praestatur": A Wycliffite libel and the naming of heretics, Oxford 1382 / Wendy Scase -- William Langland and the invention of Lollardy / Andrew Cole -- Are all Lollards Lollards? / Andrew E. Larsen -- Lollardy in Oxfordshire and Northamptonshire: The two Thomas Compworths / Maureen Jurkowski -- Lollards and the cross / Margaret Aston -- Walter Brut's theology of the sacrament of the altar / David Aers -- Here, there, and everywhere?: Wycliffite conceptions of the Eucharist and Chaucer's "other" Lollard joke / Fiona Somerset -- English biblical texts before Lollardy and their fate / Ralph Hanna -- Lollardy and the legal document / Emily Steiner -- Franciscans, Lollards, and reform / Lawrence M. Clopper -- Wycliffite representations of the third estate / Helen Barr -- Reginald Pecock's vernacular voice / Mishtooni Bose -- Wycliff, Lollards, and historians, 1384-1984 / Geoffrey Martin.]

Thompson, John A. F. The Later Lollards, 1414-1520. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965.

Van Dussen, Michael. "Conveying Heresy: A 'Certayne Student' and the Lollard-Hussite Fellowship." Viator 38 (2007): 217-234. [Abstract: "Lollard-Hussite relations in the early fifteenth century cannot accurately be described in terms of English initiation and Bohemian reception. Evidence from a series of Anglo-Czech epistolary exchanges and from later accounts of the correspondence indicates that a mutually beneficial fellowship existed. Documents pertaining to the correspondence reveal a keen interest in Bohemian affairs on the part of English Lollards, and a level of bilateral communication that extends beyond textual exchange to more personal levels of interaction. Central to this fellowship were the efforts of the Bohemian student Mikulás Faulfis as courier. This study proposes that he made as many as three trips to England, and that in his role as intermediary he was largely responsible for enabling the exchange of tidings and texts. His death in 1411 may also have contributed (among other causes) to the ensuing halt in correspondence between English and Czech reformers."]

Walsham, Alexandra. "Wyclif's Well: Lollardy, Landscape and Memory in Post-Reformation England." In The Extraordinary and the Everyday in Early Modern England: Essays in Celebration of the Work of Bernard Capp. Ed. Angela McShane and Garthine Walker. Basingstoke, Hants., and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Pp. 142-160

Watson, Nicholas. "Censorship and Cultural Change in Late Medieval England: Vernacular Theology, the Oxford Translation Debate, and Arundel's 'Constitutions' of 1409." Speculum 70 (1995): 822-864. [[John Wyclif (Wycliffe); Archbishop Arundel]]

Watson, Nicholas. "Lollardy: The Anglo-Norman Heresy?" In Language and Culture in Medieval Britain: The French of England, c.1100-c.1500. Ed. Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, et al. Woodbridge, Suffolk: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2009. Pp. 334-346. ["Watson deliberately echoes Hudson's article 'Lollardy: the English Heresy' in his title to provoke consideration of how many popular vernacular English religious treatises are indebted to Anglo-Norman origins, as the descendants into popular religious culture of, for instance, the Somme le Roi can attest--one among many devotional, literary, and biblical texts Watson cites. Given all of this, Watson asks for further consideration of how later medieval English religious controversies descend from the translation of Anglo-Norman texts and practices" [lollardsociety.org bibliography].]

Waugh, W. T. "Sir John Oldcastle." English Historical Review 20 (1905): 434-456, and 637-658. [[Lollard revolt of 1413.]]

Wilks, Michael. "Predestination, Property and Power: Wyclif's Theory of Dominion and Grace." Studies in Church History 2 (1965): 220-236. [Argues, against Kaminsky and others, that Wyclif's political theories were not revolutionary, but reinforced the power of the king, not the power of the people.]

Wilks, Michael. Wyclif: Political Ideas and Practice. Ed. Anne Hudson. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2000. [Papers by Michael Wilks, mostly published between 1965 and 1999, selected and introduced by Anne Hudson.]

Wycliffe, John. The English Works of Wyclif Hitherto Unprinted. Early English Text Society, Original Series 74. London: Trübner and Co., for the Early English Text Society, 1880. [[John Wyclif]]

Wycliffe, John. "On Civil Lordship (Selections: Book 1, Chaps. 1-10, with Introduction)." In Cambridge Translations of Medieval Philosophical Texts, Vol. 2: Ethics and Political Philosophy. Ed. Arthur Stephen McGrade, John Kilcullen, and Matthew Kempshall. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Pp. 587-654. [This is Wyclif's consideration of the nature of the State and its rulers. One of the interesting features of the work is that, at the end of Book 1, Wyclif outlines the Biblical basis for Christian communism: since, as he has argued, only the righteous person can own any worldly goods (the unrighteous have forfeited their rights to property), and since every righteous person in a state of grace is, like prelapsarian Adam, the lord of all creation, therefore all Christians share in a universal lordship over worldly goods, and all worldly goods are owned in common by all righteous Christians. [kingship; John Wyclif]]

Wycliffe, John. Select English Writings. Ed. Herbert E. Winn. Pref. H. B. Workman. London: Oxford University Press, 1929. [Winn includes extracts (pp. 100-104) from Wyclif's "Of servants and lords," which was written probably in the summer of 1381 as a response to the English Rising of June of that year. Wyclif commends good and uncomplaining service, though he is opposed to enforced serfdom. He declares that those who argue for complete social equality are heretics. At the same time, however, he goes on at some length about the duties of lords towards those who serve them: lords are to avoid extortions; lords are to aid those in their service to live in rest, peace, and charity; lords are to fear the judgment of God, who has promised to protect the poor and the powerless against the powerful. Lords, Wyclif says, are frequently guilty of acts of injustice, and they tend to consume that which the poor produce; further, the lawyers and the merchants aid and abet such oppressions, and should also heed the warnings. Also of interest is the passage on the faults of the trade guilds, which Wyclif says work against the common good (pp. 104-105). [John Wyclif]]

Wycliffe, John. Tractatus de blasphemia; Now First Edited from the Vienna MS. 4515, With Critical and Historical Notes. Ed. Michael Henry Dziewicki. Wyclif's Latin Works. London: Trübner and Co., for the Wyclif Society, 1893. [This work was probably written in the summer of 1381, since Chap. 13 outlines Wyclif's response to the English Rising of June of that year, including a plea to the king to be merciful to the rebels (suggesting that the king's response to the rebellion was not yet fully formed). This is the third part of a trilogy on Simony, Apostasy, and Blasphemy, which together constitute one of Wyclif's last major writings. Attempting to divert official attention away from his controversial (and soon to be declared heretical) opinions on the Eucharist, Wyclif in his last writings "concentrated on matters likely to appeal to a patriotic audience[:] the exclusion of the clergy from the government's service, the prohibition of all payments to Rome, the confiscation of the benefices of absentee cardinals and the use of the church's endowments to save people from direct taxation" (McFarlane, Wycliffe and English Nonconformity, p. 92). Wyclif's discussion of blasphemy, then, focuses upon the Church's abuse of its sacramental authority and its involvement in temporal affairs and accumulation of worldly goods. His attack upon the Church becomes quite vitriolic; for instance, he explains the word "Cardinal" as an acronym for "Captain of the Apostates of the Realm of the Devil, Impudent and Nefarious Ally of Lucifer."
     Chap. 13 (pp. 188-203) is specifically upon the Church's responsibility for the English Rising. He begins by insisting that, of course, the rebels are blameworthy, but they were desperate and aggrieved. Yes, they murdered Archbishop Sudbury without fair trial, but Archbishop Sudbury had accepted an appointment as England's Chancellor, thus mixing affairs of Church and State, and could no longer be anything but a traitor both to his King and to his Pope. His loyalties were divided, and therefore he was, just as the rebels claimed, a traitor, and he deserved his fate; a form of justice was enacted upon him, though the particular form which justice took was regretable. More generally, Wyclif identifies the primary cause of the English Rising as the wealth which the Church has accumulated. Much of the wealth of the kingdom was being consumed in the war with France or being sent to Rome; even more was being horded, unused, by the monasteries (the monks consume without producing [in Langland's terms, they are "wasters," not "winners"], which in no way serves the common good). If the monks and clergy had volunteered to cover the costs of the poll taxes for the poor, there would have been no revolt; if the Church voluntarily disendowed itself of its worldly goods (the accumulation and management of which distracts it from its spiritual purpose), distributed its wealth and ceased from robbing the poor, poverty in England could be eliminated. Indeed, if the king were to take the worldly wealth of the monasteries, he could use the proceeds to purchase from the lords of the realm the freedom of every serf in England, thus relieving the people's grievances as well as ensuring that there would never be a repetition of the Rising of 1381 (p. 199). Further, in recognition that both the first and the second estates bear responsibility for provoking the rebellion of the third, the king should be restrained and merciful in his punishment of the rebels: leave vengeance to God, and, instead, work to relieve the distresses which drove the commons to rebellion.
     The theme of the Church's temporalities and the necessity of relieving the Church of them is one which runs throughout Wyclif's works, and is taken up by the later Lollards, who even brought before Parliament in the early fifteenth century a bill to this effect (an extract from which is reproduced as the final item in Selections from English Wycliffite Writings). "Wyclif's views on dominion appear to have been formulated early in his career. He held that only those who were in a state of grace had true dominion. A deliquent church could therefore have no temporal authority. This concept inevitably became linked with the wider question of the endowment of the church, the wealth of the clergy, and the view that the church should live in evangelical poverty. This latter view, by no means new in the late fourteenth century, finds frequent expression in the works of Wyclif and in the vernacular writings deriving from these" (Wyclif and His Followers: An Exhibition to Mark the 600th Anniversary of the Death of John Wyclif, December 1984 to April 1985 [Oxford: Bodleian Library, 1984], p. 16).
     [Unfortunately, there is no English translation to date of De blasphemia and its thirteenth chapter, but the argument is summarized in English in the margins of Dziewicki's edition, and more fully outlined in his Introduction (pp. xxxiii-xxxiv).]]

Wycliffe, John. Tractatvs de civili dominio. Ed. Reginald Lane Poole, et al. Wyclif's Latin Works 2. London: Trübner and Co., for the Wyclif Society, 1885-1904. [This is Wyclif's consideration of the nature of the State and its rulers. One of the interesting features of the work is that, at the end of Book 1, Wyclif outlines the Biblical basis for Christian communism: since, as he has argued, only the righteous person can own any worldly goods (the unrighteous have forfeited their rights to property), and since every righteous person in a state of grace is, like prelapsarian Adam, the lord of all creation, therefore all Christians share in a universal lordship over worldly goods, and all worldly goods are owned in common by all righteous Christians. [kingship; John Wyclif]]

H.i. Political Dissent (Medieval and Early Modern)

Azinfar, Fatemeh. "Doubt, Dissent and Skepticism in the Literary Tradition of the Medieval Period." Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1999. [DAI 60 (1999-2000): 2017A. Abstract: "If by the Renaissance we mean a rebirth of civilization, culture, thought, literature, art and music--then Europe experienced its first renewal during the late Middle Ages. As this new historical transition began and philosophical searchings and artistic creations once again found their way back to social practices, a sense of uneasiness about religious and sacred arguments began to surface. To legitimize rationality--which is an active search for solutions--means sanctioning the right to examination and minimizing the weight of theological and official dialogues. The religious world view created in the Bible, theorized by thinkers such as Augustine, and further codified by Aquinas, is a monolithic structure from which doubt, dissent and skepticism are excluded. But to expand one's knowledge of the world and improve one's social circumstance necessitate an active pursuit of alternative methods and arguments which allows the restructuring of existing conditions. In the following thesis I will trace the reason for the existence of the conflict between sacred and profane arguments, and the changes this division brought about in a few notable Medieval text."]

Beer, Barrett L. Rebellion and Riot: Popular Disorder in England During the Reign of Edward VI. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1982.

Beer, Max. Social Struggles in the Middle Ages. Trans. H. J. Stenning. New York: International, 1929.

Benn, Tony. "Positive Dissent." In his Fighting Back: Speaking Out for Socialism in the Eighties. London [etc.]: Hutchinson, 1988. Pp. 34-45. [Extracts from a speech to the Free Church Federal Council, March 1984 (75).
     A brief history of English Radicalism, including some comments on the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, with a particular emphasis on the Christian elements of early reform movements.]

Biller, Peter, and Anne Hudson, eds. Heresy and Literacy, 1000-1530. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 23. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. [Contents: "Heresy and Literacy: Earlier History of the Theme," by Peter Biller; "Literacy and the Making of Heresy c.1000-c.1150," by R. I. Moore; "Wisdom from the East: The Reception by the Cathers of Eastern Dualist Texts," by Bernard Hamilton; "The Cathars of Languedoc and Written Materials," by Peter Biller; "Italian Catharism and Written Culture," by Lorenzo Paolini; "Heresy and Literacy: Evidence of the Thirteenth-Century Exempla," by Aaron Gurevich; "The Literacy of Waldensianism from Valdes to c.1400," by Alexander Patschovsky; "The Waldensian Books," by Anne Brenon; "Waldensians in the Dauphine (1400-1530): From Dissidence in Texts to Dissidence in Practice," by Pierette Paravy; "Were the Waldensians More Literate than Their Contemporaries (1460-1560)?" by Gabriel Audisio; "Writing and Resistance among Beguins of Languedoc and Catalonia," by Robert E. Lerner; "Religious Reading Amongst the Laity in France in the Fifteenth Century," by Genevieve Hasenohr; "Laicus litteratus: The Paradox of Lollardy," by Anne Hudson; "Literacy and Heresy in Hussite Bohemia," by Frantisek Smahel; "Heterodoxy, Literacy and Print in the Early German Reformation," by Bob Scribner; "Literacy, Heresy, History and Orthodoxy: Perspectives and Permutations for the Later Middle Ages," by R. N. Swanson.]

Blamires, Alcuin. "Crisis and Dissent." In A Companion to Chaucer. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Pp. 133-148.

Bradstock, Andrew, ed. Winstanley and the Diggers, 1649-1999. A special issue of Prose Studies 23 (2000). [A collection of 10 essays on George Winstanley, the Diggers, the occupation of St. George's Hill in 1649, and the continuing influence of the Digger movement to the present time.]

Brockway, Fenner. Britain's First Socialists: The Levellers, Agitators, and Diggers of the English Revolution. London: Quartet Books, 1980.

Clark, Linda, ed. Identity and Insurgency in the Late Middle Ages. The Fifteenth Century 6. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2006. [Most of the essays are based on papers given at a conference held in September 2004 at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, London.
     Contents: The British Isles imagined / Anthony Goodman -- Ethnic identity and political language in the King of England's dominions: a fourteenth-century perspective / Andrew Ruddick -- 'Thai war callit knightis and bere the name and the honour of that hye ordre': Scottish knighthood in the fifteenth century / Katie Stevenson -- Violence and peacemaking in the English Marches towards Scotland, c. 1425-1440 / Jackson W. Armstrong -- 'Let's kill all the lawyers': did fifteenth-century peasants employ lawyers when they conveyed customary land? / Matthew Tompkins -- Identifiable motives for election to Parliament in the Reign of Henry VI: the operation of public and private factors / Simon Payling -- Deconstructing Cade's rebellion: discourse and politics in the mid-fifteenth century / David Grummitt -- Lydgate's poem to Thomas Chaucer: a reassessment of its diplomatic and literary contexts / Jacquelyn Fernholz and Jenni Nuttall -- Lollardy in Coventry and the revolt of 1431 / Maureen Jurkowski -- Julian and her sisters: female piety in late medieval Norwich / Carole Hill.]

Clement, C[hristopher] J[ohn]. Religious Radicalism in England, 1535-1565. Rutherford Studies, Series 1: Historical Theology. Carlisle: Paternoster Press, for Rutherford House, 1997. [A revision of the author's Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, 1980.]

Colburn, Forrest D., ed. Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. Armonk, NY, and London: M. E. Sharpe, 1989. [A collection of essays based on James C. Scott's ideas about "Weapons of the Weak" (including a new essay by Scott).]

Copeland, Rita, ed. Criticism and Dissent in the Middle Ages. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. [Contents: "Introduction: Dissenting Critical Practices," by Rita Copeland; "Rhetoric, Coercion, and the Memory of Violence," by Jody Enders; "Rape and the Pedagogical Rhetoric of Sexual Violence," by Marjorie Curry Woods; "Heloise and the Gendering of the Literate Subject," by Martin Irvine; "The Dissenting Image: A Postcard from Matthew Paris," by Michael Camille; "The Schools Give a License to Poets," by Nicolette Zeeman; "The Science of Politics of Late Medieval Academic Debate," by Janet Coleman; "Desire and the Scriptural Text: Will as Reader in Piers Plowman," by James Simpson; "'Vae octuplex': Lollard Socio-textual Ideology, and Ricardian-Lancastrian Prose Translation," by Ralph Hanna III; "Sacrum Signum: Sacramentality and Dissent in York's Theatre of Corpus Christi," by Sarah Beckwith; "Inquisition, Speech, and Writing: A Case from Late Medieval Norwich," by Steven Justice.]

Copeland, Rita. Pedagogy, Intellectuals, and Dissent in the Later Middle Ages: Lollardy and Ideas of Learning. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 44. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Cornwall, Julian. Revolt of the Peasantry, 1549. London and Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1977. [On Kett's Rebellion in 1549.]

D'Alton, Craig William. "The Suppression of Heresy in Early Henrician England." Ph.D. thesis, University of Melbourne, 1999.

Davis, Natalie Zemon. "Women on Top: Symbolic Sexual Inversion and Political Disorder in Early Modern Europe." In The Reversible World: Symbolic Inversion in Art and Society. Ed. Barbara A. Babcock. Symbol, Myth, and Ritual Series. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1978. Pp. 147-190. [Papers from the "Forms of Symbolic Inversion" Symposium, Toronto, 1972. On gender roles and their inversion in late medieval and early modern Europe, including an idea that women's supposed tendency towards "hysteria" and lack of self-control could be used (including by cross-dressing men) to "explain" rebellious actions. P. 179: among various other examples, Davis mentions that, in 1450-1451, in the wake of Jack Cade's rebellion, "the Queen of Fairies was abroad in Kent and Essex; . . . a troop of black-faced husbandmen, 'servants of the Queen of Fairies,' broke into the Duke of Buckingham's park and took his bucks and does."]

Dow, F. D. Radicalism in the English Revolution, 1640-1660. Historical Association Studies. Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell, 1985.

"ExLibris: English Dissenters." URL: <http://www.exlibris.org/nonconform/engdis/index.html> (URL correct as of 1 Sept. 2011). [Provides descriptions of early modern nonconformist sects. If you are unsure of the difference between a Ranter and a Quaker (and it might be hard to tell them apart since, according to this site, both were known to sit around the tavern in the nude to protest the sin of clothing), between a Baptist and an Anabaptist, a Leveller and a Digger, or a Muggletonian and a Reevonian, this site might be of some use to you. It includes an article on Lollards.]

Faith, Rosamond. "The Class Struggle in Fourteenth-Century England." In The People's History and Socialist Theory. Ed. Raphael Samuel. London, Boston, and Henley: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981. Pp. 50-60. [An essay on class issues in late medieval England, using the example of the village of Park, one of the manors held by the abbey of St. Albans; the history of the village, up to and including the Rising of 1381, is discussed.]

Faith, Rosamond. "The 'Great Rumour' of 1377 and Peasant Ideology." In The English Rising of 1381. Ed. R[odney] H[oward] Hilton, and T[revor] H[enry] Aston. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Pp. 43-73. [A study of events of 1377 as a foreshadowing of 1381 and as indicative of the "ideology" of the peasantry.]

Goodich, Michael, ed. Other Middle Ages: Witnesses at the Margins of Medieval Society. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998. [Publisher's description: "The fascinating cast of characters on the margins of medieval Europe, including the visionaries and sexual dissidents, the suicidal and psychologically unbalanced, the lepers and converts, reveal the fears of a people for whom life was made both meaningful and terrifying by the sacred. After centuries of historical silence, these and other disenfranchised members of the medieval public have been given a voice by Michael Goodich in a unique collection of texts from the mid-eleventh through the fourteenth centuries. Translated from their original Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic, these texts, many of them first-person narratives or testimonies, give insight into those figures who made medieval society uneasy."]

Greenblatt, Stephen. "Murdering Peasants: Status, Genre, and the Representation of Rebellion." Representations 1 (1983): 1-29.

Haller, William, and Godfrey Davies, eds. The Leveller Tracts, 1647-1653. [New York]: Columbia University Press in cooperation with Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, 1944. [Rpt.: Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1964.]

Harvey, I. M. W. Jack Cade's Rebellion of 1450. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. [[Kentish occupation of London; the "Harvest of Heads"; Jack Cade; John Mortimer]]

Hayes, T[homas] Wilson. Winstanley the Digger: A Literary Analysis of Radical Ideas in the English Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979. [[Gerrard Winstanley, seventeenth-century radical]]

Hicks, Michael, ed. Revolution and Consumption in Late Medieval England. The Fifteenth Century. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001. [Publisher's description: "The essays in this volume focus on the sources and resources of political power, on consumption (royal and lay, conspicuous and everyday) on political revolution and on economic regulation in the later Middle Ages. Topics range from the diet of the nobility in the fifteenth century to the knightly household of Richard II and the peace commissions, while particular case studies, of Middlesex, Cambridge, Durham Cathedral and Winchester, shed new light on regional economies through an examination of the patterns of consumption, retailing, and marketing."]

Hill, Christopher. The English Bible and the Seventeenth-Century Revolution. London: Allen Lane; New York Penguin Press, 1993.

Hill, Christopher. "From Lollards to Levellers." In Rebels and their Causes: Essays in Honour of A. L. Morton. Ed. Maurice Cornforth. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1978. Pp. 49-67.

Hill, Christopher. Liberty Against the Law: Some Seventeenth-Century Controversies. London and New York: Allen Lane / Penguin, 1996. [Publisher's description: "In the plays and popular folklore of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are many expressions of liberty against the law. Taking this literary theme as his starting point, Christopher Hill examines how seventeenth-century society and its laws looked to the mass of the landless and lawless classes." Section 2, "Lawlessness," includes chapters on vagabonds, the poor, Robin Hood, forest and game laws (and poachers), smugglers, pirates, highwaymen, and "Gypsies."]

Hill, Christopher. The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution. London: Maurice Temple Smith, 1972. [Rpt. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1975.
     Contents: Introduction; "The Parchment and the Fire"; "Masterless Men"; "Agitators and Officers"; "The North and West"; "A Nation of Prophets"; "Levellers and True Levellers"; "Sin and Hell"; "Seekers and Ranters"; "Ranters and Quakers"; "Samuel Fisher and the Bible"; "John Warr and the Law"; "The Island of Great Bedlam"; "Mechanic Preachers and the Mechanical Philosophy"; "Base Impudent Kisses"; "Life Against Death"; "The World Restored"; Conclusion; Appendix: "Hobbes and Winstanley: Reason and Politics"; Appendix: "Milton and Bunyan: Dialogue with the Radicals.]

Hobsbawm, E[ric] J. Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries. 2nd ed. New York: Praeger, 1963. [On social conflict, peasant uprisings, and social bandits; includes some consideration of Robin Hood as a hero of the peasant classes.]

Holmes, George Andrew. Europe: Hierarchy and Revolt, 1320-1450. 2nd ed. Blackwell Classic Histories of Europe. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000.

Jarrett, Bede. Mediaeval Socialism. The People's Books 79. London: T. C. and E. C. Jack; New York: Dodge Publishing Co., 1914.

Kaufman, Alexander L. The Historical Literature of the Jack Cade Rebellion. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009. [Publisher's description: "Accounts of Jack Cade's 1450 Rebellion--an uprising of some 30,000 middle-class citizens, protesting Henry VI's policies, and resulting in hundreds of deaths as well as the leaders' execution--form the dominant entry in a group of quasi-historical documents referred to as the London chronicles of the Fifteenth Century. However, each chronicle is inherently different and highly subjective. In the first study of the primary documents related to the Cade Rebellion, Alexander L. Kaufman shows that the chroniclers produced multiple representations of the event rather than a single, unified narrative. Aided by contemporary theories of historiography and historical representation, Kaufman scrutinizes the differing representations and distinguishes the writers' objectiveness, their underrated literary skills, and their ideological positions on the rebellion and fifteenth-century politics. He demonstrates how the use of figurative language is related to writing about trauma, and how descriptions of Cade's procession through London are a violent parody of midsummer festivals. In an exploration of authenticity in the descriptions of Cade, Kaufman also examines the characterization and plot devices that push Cade towards the realm of myth, showing that representations of Cade are influenced by popular fifteenth-century stories of Robin Hood."
     Contents: Introduction; Ideologies of representation; 'Men calle hyt in Kente the harvyste of hedys': figurative language and Jack Cade's Rebellion; Jack Cade's carnivalesque Midsummer celebration; John Payn and the case of the purloined apparel; The characterization of Jack Cade; Jack Cade and the specter of Robin Hood.]

Kunzle, David. "World Upside Down: The Iconography of a European Broadsheet Type." In The Reversible World: Symbolic Inversion in Art and Society. Ed. Barbara A. Babcock. Symbol, Myth, and Ritual Series. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1978. Pp. 39-94. [Papers from the "Forms of Symbolic Inversion" Symposium, Toronto, 1972. Kunzle discusses broadsheets showing images of the "inverted" world, common in the seventeenth century, as a satirical commentary upon the times.]

Leff, Gordon. Heresy in the Later Middle Ages: The Relation of Heterodoxy to Dissent, c.1250-c.1450. 2 vols. Manchester: Manchester University Press; New York: Barnes and Noble, 1967.

Leff, Gordon. "Heresy in the Middle Ages." In Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas. Ed. Philip P. Wiener. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973 [c. 1968]. 2: 416-424.

Lyle, Helen M. The Rebellion of Jack Cade, 1450. Historical Association (Great Britain), General Series G 16. London: G. Philip, for the Historical Association, 1950. [[Kentish occupation of London; the "Harvest of Heads"; John Mortimer]]

Manning, Roger B[urrow]. Village Revolts: Social Protest and Popular Disturbances in England, 1509-1640. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Moore, R[obert] I[an]. The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950-1250. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987.

Moore, R[obert] I[an]. The Origins of European Dissent. Medieval Academy Reprints for Teaching [MART] 30. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, in association with the Medieval Academy of America, 1994.

Mullett, Michael A. Popular Culture and Popular Protest in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe. London and New York: Croom Helm, 1987.

Nederman, Cary J. Worlds of Difference: European Discourses of Toleration, c.1100-c.1550. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000.

Nederman, Cary J., and John Christian Laursen, eds. Difference and Dissent: Theories of Toleration in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1996. [Contents: Difference and dissent: introduction / Cary J. Nederman and John Christian Laursen -- Liberty, community, and toleration: freedom and function in medieval political thought / Cary J. Nederman -- Toleration in the theology and social thought of John Wyclif / Stephen Lahey -- Respect, interdependence, virtue: a medieval theory of toleration in the works of Christine de Pizan / Kate Langdon Forhan -- "Turks and heathen are our kin": the notion of tolerance in the works of Hans Denck and Sebastian Franck / E. J. Furcha -- Spanish Thomism and the American Indians: Vitoria and Las Casas on the toleration of cultural difference / Paul J. Cornish -- Bodin's pluralistic theory of toleration / Gary Remer -- Thomas Hobbes: religious toleration or religious indifference? / Glenn Burgess -- Samuel Pufendorf's concept of toleration / Simone Zurbuchen -- Spinoza on toleration: arming the state and reining in the magistrate / John Christian Laursen -- Force, metaphor, and persuasion in Locke's A Letter concerning toleration / William Walker.]

Newman, Francis X., ed. Social Unrest in the Late Middle Ages: Papers of the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 39. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1986.

Öberg, Magnus, and Kaare Strøm, eds. Resources, Governance and Civil Conflict. Routledge-ECPR Studies in European Political Science 50. London and New York: Routledge-ECPR, 2008. [Contents: Part I. Introducing Civil Conflict -- Introduction / Magnus Öberg and Kaare Strøm -- Civil Conflict in the Contemporary World / Kristine Eck, Bethany Lacina, and Magnus Öberg -- Part II. Causes and Dynamics -- Insights from Macro Studies of the Risk of Civil War / Bethany Lacina -- Civil Wars and Interstate Disputes / Kristian Skrede Gleditsch and Idean Salehyan -- Robin Hood or Al Capone?: Natural Resources and Conflict in India's Naxalite Insurgency / William Noël Ivey -- Government Restructuring and Reallocation of Resources in the face of Ethno-Nationalist Insurgency in the Basque Country (1979-2005) / Enric Martínez-Herrera -- Political Marginalization and Economic Exclusion in the Making of Insurgencies in Sudan / Aleksi Ylönen -- Military Intervention, Democratization, and Post-conflict Political Stability / Scott Gates and Hävard Strand -- Part III. Termination and Post-Conflict Stability -- Enforcing Alone: Collective Action in Ethnic Conflicts Settlement / Theodora-Ismene Gizelis -- From Bullets to Ballots: Using the People as Arbitrators to Settle Civil Wars / Margareta Sollenberg -- Democracy after War: Causes and Consequences of the 1948 Civil War in Costa / Rica Fernando F. Sánchez -- Democracies, Disengagement and Deals: Exploring the Effect of Different Types of Mediators in Civil Conflict / Isak Svensson -- Rebels on the Outside: Signatories Signaling Commitment to Durable Peace / Desirée Nilsson -- Part IV. Conclusions -- Conclusions Magnus Öberg and Kaare Strøm.]

Richards, Jeffrey. Sex, Dissidents, and Damnation: Minority Groups in the Middle Ages. London and New York: Routledge, 1991. [Contents: "The Medieval Context"; "Sex in the Middle Ages"; "Heretics"; "Witches"; "Jews"; "Prostitutes"; "Homosexuals"; "Lepers."]

Robertson, Kellie Paige. "'Sethe that Babyl was Ybuld': Translation and Dissent in Later Medieval England." Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1997. [DAI 58 (1997-1998): 4645A. Abstract: "Debates over translation in medieval Britain occurred at the crossroads of Latin and the insular vernaculars; it was here that writers (ecclesiastic and secular) argued about not only the proper relation of past to present, but of linguistic to national identity, of sacred to secular power. This dissertation looks at medieval writers in whose works we find a conflict between the practice and the representation of translation, seeking to resituate these translations within their social contexts. Beginning with Geoffrey Monmouth in the twelfth century, writers exploited the translation topos as a means of commenting on a current state of affairs. Geoffrey's claim to translate from Celtic into Latin (his reversal of the tide of translatio studii) also allowed him to revise the received boundaries of both literary tradition and insular historiography.
     "In the fourteenth century, Wycliffite-inspired debate over the translation of the Vulgate into English also influenced the production of historical and theological translations (as is witnessed by the works of John Trevisa). When read alongside contemporary polemic on the subject of translation, Trevisa's writings illuminate how English was emerging as a public language at this time in part through the equation of English with the 'common profit.' The strategies through which English began to assert itself as a fit medium for intellectual work in late medieval Britain were also reflected in the court poetry of the time. Chaucer's continual return to the translation topos--most conspicuously, his spurious claim to be translating from a Latin original in Troilus and Criseyde--gains new vitality when read against this contemporary debate over scriptural translation. Chaucer's revisions to the Legend of Good Women in the mid-1390s similarly speak to this controversy, arguing as they do for the validity of vernacular translations in general at a time when English was being stigmatized as 'pestilential' by contemporary Latin theologians who voiced suspicions about the vernacular as a medium for the spread of heresay. This context also yields fresh interpretations of other late medieval writers, including John Gower and Thomas Hoccleve."]

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Dissent and Order in the Middle Ages: The Search for Legitimate Authority. Twayne Studies in Intellectual and Cultural History 3. Boston: Twayne, 1992.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Dissent and Reform in the Early Middle Ages. Publications of the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies 1. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1965.

Russell, Jeffrey B[urton], ed. Religious Dissent in the Middle Ages. Major Issues in History. New York: Wiley, 1971.

Sauer, Elizabeth. "Paper-contestations" and Textual Communities in England, 1640-1675. Studies in Book and Print Culture. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005. [Publisher's description: "The mass production and dissemination of printed materials were unparalleled in England during the 1640s and 50s. While theatrical performance traditionally defined literary culture, print steadily gained ground, becoming more prevalent and enabling the formation of various networks of writers, readers, and consumers of books.
     "In conjunction with an evolving print culture, seventeenth-century England experienced a rise of political instability and religious dissent, the closing of the theatres, and the emergence of a middle class. Elizabeth Sauer examines how this played out in the nation's book and print industry with an emphasis on performative writings, their materiality, reception, and their extra-judicial function. 'Paper-contestations' and Textual Communities in England challenges traditional readings of literary history, offers new insights into drama and its transgression of boundaries, and proposes a fresh approach to the politics of consensus and contestation that animated seventeenth-century culture and that distinguishes current scholarly debates about this period."]

Scott, James C. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.

Scott, James C. "Everyday Forms of Resistance." In Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. Ed. Forrest D. Colburn. Armonk, NY, and London: M. E. Sharpe, 1989. Pp. 3-33.

Scott, James C. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1985. [This is a study of "everyday resistance" among the peasants of Malaysia ("foot dragging, dissimulation, feigned ignorance, false compliance, manipulation, flight, slander, theft, arson, sabotage, and isolated incidents of violence, including murder, passed off as crime. These forms of struggle stop well short of outright collective defiance, a strategy usually suicidal for the weak" [Forrest Colburn's summary, from his Introduction to Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance, p. ix]). Scott develops these ideas further and more generally in his later book, Domination and the Arts of Resistance (1990), in which he introduces the idea of "hidden transcripts" (the subtextual meaning of noncompliant actions). See also the collection of essays Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance, ed. Forrest D. Colburn (1989).]

Sharp, Andrew, ed. The English Levellers. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. [Contents: "On the 150th page": an untitled broadsheet of August 1645 / John Lilburne -- Toleration justified and persecution condemned (29 Jan. 1646) / William Walwyn -- Postscript to The freeman's freedom vindicated (16 June 1646) / John Lilburne -- A remonstrance of many thousand citizens (7 July 1646) / Richard Overton and William Walwyn -- An arrow against all tyrants (12 Oct. 1646) / Richard Overton -- Gold tried in the fire (4 June 1647) / William Walwyn -- An agreement of the people for a firm and present peace upon grounds of common right and freedom (28 Oct. 1647) -- Extract from the debates at the General Council of the Army, Putney (29 Oct. 1647) / Members of the New Model Army and civilian Levellers -- The petition of 11 September 1648 / John Lilburne and others -- England's new chains discovered (26 Feb. 1649) / John Lilburne -- A manifestation (14 April 1649) / William Walwyn, and on behalf of John Lilburne, Thomas Prince and Richard Overton -- An agreement of the free people of England (1 May 1649) / John Lilburne, William Walwyn, Thomas Prince and Richard Overton -- The young men's and the apprentices' outcry (29 Aug. 1649) / John Lilburne.]

Sharpes, Donald K. Outcasts and Heretics: Profiles in Independent Thought and Courage. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007. [Contents: Modern outcasts -- Great souls of the modern age -- Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1942) -- Martin Luther King (1929-1968) -- Bantu Steven Kiko (1946-1977) -- Ayaan Hirsi Ali (1969- ) -- Twentieth century dissenters -- Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945) -- Kaj Munk (1898-1945) -- World War II German army deserters -- Edith Stein (1891-1942) -- Aung San Suu Kyi (1945- ) -- Authors and outsiders -- American outsiders -- Roger Williams (c. 1603-1683) -- Thomas Paine (1737-1809) -- Cochise (c.1815-1874) -- Red Cloud (1882-1909) -- Skeptical scientists as dissidents -- What Americans believe -- Charles Darwin (1809-1882) -- Natural selection over time -- Evidence about human origins -- Intelligent design -- Witches and other pagans -- Alice Kyteler, medieval Irish witch -- Witches among the Puritans -- Mary Dyer (1611-1660) -- Modern wiccas -- The legacy of religious heresy and dissent -- Pre-Christian dissenters -- Paleolithic beliefs -- Greek mystery religions -- Sources of the literary tradition -- Anaxagoras -- Protagoras -- Empedocles -- Socrates -- Chinese ideologies -- Cicero (106-43 BCE): On the nature of the gods -- The religion of the Romans -- Heretics in the first Christian centuries -- First century Rome -- Apollonius of Tyana, contemporary of Jesus -- Marcion, the heretic -- Tertullian and the montanists -- The proliferation of heresies -- Cyprian of Carthage -- The age of religious dissension -- Emperor Julian -- Nestorius -- Pelagius: original sin and grace -- Boethius -- Heresy in medieval Islam and Christianity -- Islam and the infidels -- Islamic dissidents -- The crusades -- The rise of the military orders and the fall of the Templars -- The crusade against heretics and the Cathars -- Peter Abelard -- Roger Bacon, alchemist -- Heretics condemned -- Late medieval reformers -- John Wycliffe -- John Hus -- Cecco d'Ascoli and astrology -- Marcilius (Marsiglio) of Padua -- Saint Joan (1412-1431) -- William Tyndale -- Girolamo Savonarola -- Renaissance dissenters -- Giordano Bruno -- Thomas More: a man for all seasons -- Johannes Kepler -- Rene Descartes -- Baruch (Benedict) Spinoza -- Voltaire -- Two queens, one princess -- Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots -- Queen Christina of Sweden -- Elisabeth von der Pfalz, princess Palatine -- Enlightenment dissenters -- Denis Diderot -- Philip-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais -- Antoine Laurent Lavoisier -- Jean-Antoine-Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet.]

Slack, Paul, ed. Rebellion, Popular Protest, and the Social Order in Early Modern England. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Smith, Richard Cándida. Utopia and Dissent: Art, Poetry, and Politics in California. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. [On twentieth-century artistic movements in California, particularly as influenced by and a vital part of political activism, including 1950s "beat generation" and 1960s anti-war protests, sexual liberation, drug use, mysticism, questioning of all forms of authority. Though focused on California, the implications of the study extend across North America and Europe.]

Smith, Sally V. "Materializing Resistant Identities among the Medieval Peasantry: An Examination of Dress Accessories from English Rural Settlement Sites." Journal of Material Culture 14 (2009): 309-332.

Spufford, M., ed. The World of Rural Dissenters, 1520-1725. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Strohm, Paul. "Counterfeiters, Lollards, and Lancastrian Unease." New Medieval Literatures 1 (1997): 31-58. ["Discusses the invented confession by the counterfeiter William Carsewell in 1419, and argues that although not literally true, his story encapsulated general truths about the anxieties of Lancastrian kingship, including insurrection, monastic internationalism, treason and blasphemy" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Tutino, John. "Agrarian Life and Rural Rebellion." Chap. 1 of From Insurrection to Revolution in Mexico: Social Bases of Agrarian Violence, 1750-1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. Pp. 3-37. [Although the book is on insurrection in modern Mexico, there are interesting parallels with agrarian rebellion in the later Middle Ages.]

Underdown, David. Revel, Riot, and Rebellion: Popular Politics and Culture in England, 1603-1660. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. [[carnival and rebellion]]

Uppal, R. M. The Theory of Socialism: Ancient and Medieval. Vishveshvaranand Institute Publications 153. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, 1958.

Valente, Claire. The Theory and Practice of Revolt in Medieval England. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2003. [Publisher's description: "Medieval Englishmen were treacherous, rebellious and killed their kings, as their French contemporaries repeatedly noted. In the thirteenth through fifteenth centuries, ten kings faced serious rebellion, in which eight were captured, deposed, and/or murdered. One other king escaped open revolt but encountered vigorous resistance. In this book, Professor Valente argues that the crises of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were crucibles for change; and their examination helps us to understand medieval political culture in general and key developments in later medieval England in particular.
     "The Theory and Practice of Revolt takes a comparative look at these crises, seeking to understand medieval ideas of proper kingship and government, the role of political violence and the changing nature of reform initiatives and the rebellions to which they led. It argues that rebellion was an accepted and to a certain extent legitimate means to restore good kingship throughout the period, but that over time it became increasingly divorced from reform aims, which were satisfied by other means, and transformed by growing lordly dominance, arrogance, and selfishness. Eventually the tradition of legitimate revolt disappeared, to be replaced by both parliament and dynastic civil war. Thus, on the one hand, development of parliament, itself an outgrowth of political crises, reduced the need for and legitimacy of crisis reform. On the other hand, when crises did arise, the idea and practice of the community of the realm, so vibrant in the thirteenth century, broke down under the pressures of new political and socio-economic realities.
     "By exploring violence and ideas of government over a longer period than is normally the case, this work attempts to understand medieval conceptions on their own terms rather than with regard to modern assumptions and to use comparison as a means of explaining events, ideas, and developments."
     Contents: Why study revolt? Theories of resistance 1215-1399; Prelude: 1215-1217, the crisis of Magna Carta; 1258-1265, the community of the Realm; Interlude: 1297-1301, successful reform; 1308-1327, transitions; Interlude: Edward III, the Peasants' Revolt; 1386-1399, personal agendas; Postlude: 1400-1415, Fragmentation and dynastic revolt.]

Walker, Simon. "Rumour, Sedition and Popular Protest in the Reign of Henry IV." Past and Present no. 166 (Feb. 2000): 31-65.

Watts, D. G. "Popular Disorder in Southern England, 1250-1450." In Conflict and Community in Southern England: Essays in the Social History of Rural and Urban Labour from Medieval to Modern Times. Ed. Barry Stapleton. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1992. Pp. 1-15. ["Critical examination of conventional interpretations of Peasants' Revolt and other disorders; questions the view of the south-eastern rising in 1381 as the product of an 'advanced' society" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Waugh, Scott L., and Peter D. Diehl, eds. Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000-1500. Cambridge, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

West, Brad. "Synergies in Deviance: Revisiting the Positive Deviance Debate." Electronic Journal of Sociology 7 (2003). URL: <http://www.sociology.org/content/vol7.4/west.html> (URL correct as of 1 Sept. 2011). [In the 1980s, a concept of "positive deviance" was proposed for sociological research, but was not generally accepted (it appeared to be an oxymoron, for instance). West argues (and marshals evidence from the "classical" sociology of Durkheim, Simmel, and Weber in support of his contention) that the concept of "positive deviance" is a useful one, provided that it is not understood as some sort of opposite of "negative deviance," but as identifying deviant behaviour which has provoked a positive response. For instance, the actual deeds of a hero and a criminal may, in fact, be more or less indistinguishable, but they are valued in radically different ways. [Robin Hood and other social bandits, for instance, like Prometheus, commit "criminal" acts but are considered to be culture heroes. Hagiographical narratives are filled with saints who commit acts of civil disobedience against political authority figures, but they are held to be saints for this, not sinners. West also has a paragraph on the Kray brothers in East London, who were notorious for horrific crimes, but who nonetheless held a certain attraction and fascination for the English public, not least because they adhered to a certain code of honour in their "brotherhood"; the Kray phenomenon proves that Foucault's claim that the "anti-hero" has been eliminated by modern "civilized" discourses of power (Foucault 1975: 69) is not accurate.] Durkheim's concept of the sacred focuses upon the similarities between the "evil power and holy thing," the principal difference between them being the reactions of disgust and veneration which they inspire. (And the taboo against pork in several Semitic cultures is ambiguous: it is not clear whether the taboo is because pork is impure or holy.) Simmel studies the "stranger" as one who is celebrated by the society that he enters, because the stranger brings about a "union of closeness and remoteness" (Simmel 1971: 143), attractive by being simultaneously like and unlike ourselves (Simmel 1950: 217). Weber's concept of the authority of the charismatic individual is also relevant.
     "While the persecuted and martyred hero provides a foundation myth for many societies, this is a genre where clear and explicit boundaries are established. By contrast, the charismatic anti-heroes, referred to above, 'represent no break from a pre-existing order but are critical of it, alienated within it; yet celebrated by it' (West 2002: 139). As such explanation of them, as with other similar forms, needs to be explained as a central part of the existing system where negative and positive deviance often share symbolic form."]

Wolfe, Don Marion, ed. Leveller Manifestoes of the Puritan Revolution. Fwd. Charles A. Beard. London and New York: T. Nelson and Sons, 1944. [Rpt.: New York: Humanities Press; London: Cass, 1967. Includes reproductions of the original title-pages of the manifestoes.]

H.ii. The English Rising of 1381: Primary Sources
[usually known as the "Peasants' Revolt," but this is something of a misnomer since it also involved many townsmen as well as the rural peasantry]

The Anonimalle Chronicle, 1333 to 1381, from a MS. Written at St Mary's Abbey, York. Ed. V. H. Galbraith. Manchester: Manchester University Press; New York: Barnes and Noble, 1970. [Reprint of first edition with corrections. Includes an account of the English Rising of 1381 (pp. 134-151). An English trans. of relevant excerpts appears in Dobson's Peasants' Revolt of 1381.]

Clarke, M. V., and V. H. Galbraith. "The Deposition of Richard II." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 14 (1930): 125-181. [Includes an edition of the Chronicle of Dieulacres Abbey for the years 1381-1403 (in which "Per Plowman" [Piers Plowman] is named as one of the conspirators in the 1381 Rising).]

Dobson, R[ichard] B[arrie], ed. The Peasants' Revolt of 1381. 2nd ed. History in Depth. London: Macmillan, 1983. [(Also available online as an ACLS Humanities electronic book: <http://www.humanitiesebook.org/>.) An anthology of excerpts from chronicles and records giving contemporary accounts of the Rising of 1381, as well as various later interpretations (down to Paine, Engels, and Morris).]

Eulogium (historiarum sive temporis): Chronicon ab orbe condito usque ad annum domini M.CCC.LXVI., a monacho quodam Malmesburiensi exaratum; Accedunt continuatione duae, quarum una ad annum M.CCC.X.III., altera ad annum M.CCC.XC. perducta est. Ed. Frank Scott Haydon. 3 vols. Rerum Britannicarum Medii Ævi Scriptores ("Rolls Series") 9. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts, 1858-1863. [Includes an account of the English Rising of 1381 (3: 351-354). An English trans. of relevant excerpts appears in Dobson's Peasants' Revolt of 1381.]

["Evesham chronicle"; possibly in part the work of Nicholas Herford, Prior of Evesham.] Historia vitae et regni Ricardi Secundi. Ed. George B. Stow, Jr. Haney Foundation Series 21. [Philadelphia]: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977. [Includes an account of the English Rising of 1381 (pp. 61-69). An English trans. of relevant excerpts appears in Dobson's Peasants' Revolt of 1381.]

Froissart, Jean. The Chronicle of Froissart. Trans. Sir John Bourchier, Lord Berners. Intro. William Paton Ker. 6 vols. The Tudor Translations 27-32. London: David Nutt, 1901-1903. [A 17th-century English translation of Froissart's text. See 3: 223-250 for Froissart's account of the English Rising of 1381.]

Froissart, Jean. Chroniques de J. Froissart. Ed. Siméon Luce [et al.]. 15 vols. in 16 [to date]. Paris: Librairie Renouard, for the Société de l'histoire de France, 1869- [on-going]. [See 10: 94-132 for Froissart's account of the English Rising of 1381. An English trans. of relevant excerpts appears in Dobson's Peasants' Revolt of 1381.]

Froissart, Jean. Froissart's Chronicles. Trans. John Jolliffe. London: Harvill Press, 1967. [Rpt. London: Penguin Books, 2001. See pp. 236-252 for Froissart's account of the English Rising of 1381.]

Froissart, Jean. Oeuvres de Froissart: Publiées avec les variantes des divers manuscrits. Ed. M. le baron Kervyn de Lettenhove [et al.]. 25 vols. in 26. 1867-1877; Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag, 1967. [The portion of Froissart's Chronicle which describes the English Rising of 1381 appears in vol. 9: 386-424. An English trans. of relevant excerpts appears in Dobson's Peasants' Revolt of 1381.]

Froissart, Jean. Two illustrations to Froissart's description of the Rising of 1381, from the Bibliothèque nationale: (1) "Richard II of England and the Kentish rebels" [manuscript illustration] (from a fifteenth-century copy of Froissart's "Chronicles": Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, MS FR 2644, fol. 154v). URL: <http://visualiseur.bnf.fr/CadresFenetre?O=COMP-1&I=17&M=imageseule> (URL correct as of 1 Sept. 2011). (2) "The Death of Wat Tyler" [manuscript illustration] (from a fifteenth-century copy of Froissart's "Chronicles": Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, MS FR 2644, fol. 159v). URL: <http://visualiseur.bnf.fr/CadresFenetre?O=COMP-1&I=19&M=imageseule> (URL correct as of 1 Sept. 2011).

Knighton, Henry. Chronicon Henrici Knighton, vel Cnitthon, monachi Leycestrensis. Ed. Joseph Rawson Lumby. 2 vols. Rerum Britannicarum Medii Ævi Scriptores ("Rolls Series") 92. London: H.M.S.O., 1889-1895; [Nendeln?]: Kraus Reprint, 1965. [The Latin text of Knighton's Chronica de eventibus Angliae a tempore regis Edgari usque mortem regis Ricardi Secundi, which includes, among other things, a "royalist" account of the Rising of 1381 (2: 130-151). Also includes an account of Wyclif's condemnation and a history of certain Lollards (2: 151-198). An English trans. of relevant excerpts appears in Dobson's Peasants' Revolt of 1381.]

Knighton, Henry. Knighton's Chronicle, 1337-1396. Ed. and trans. G[eoffrey] H[award] Martin. Oxford Medieval Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. [Latin text with English translation (on facing pages) of Knighton's Chronica de eventibus Angliae a tempore regis Edgari usque mortem regis Ricardi Secundi, which includes, among other things, a "royalist" account of the Rising of 1381.]

London Letter Book "H," fol. 133b. [Includes an account of the Rising of 1381. Cf. Corporation of the City of London. Calendar of Letter-books Preserved among the Archives of the Corporation of the City of London at the Guildhall. Ed. Reginald R. Sharpe. 12 vols. London: J. E. Francis, 1899-1912. Vol. H: 166. Sharpe's Introduction provides a summary of the "Letter Book" account of the events (pp. xix-xxvi). An English translation of the Latin text of the "Letter Book" account of the Rising is printed in Corporation of the City of London. Memorials of London and London Life, in the XIIIth, XIVth, and XVth Centuries, Being a Series of Extracts, Local, Social and Political, from the Early Archives of the City of London, A.D. 1276-1419. Ed. Henry Thomas Riley. 2 vols. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1866. Pp. 449-451. A facsimile of the relevant page from the "Letter Book" is reproduced in Hansen "The Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and the Chronicles," p. 397. An English trans. of relevant excerpts appears in Dobson's Peasants' Revolt of 1381.]

Réville, André. Le soulèvement des travailleurs d'Angeleterre en 1381: Études et documents. Mémoires et documents, Société de l'École des chartes 2. Intro. Charles Petit-Dutaillis. Paris: A. Picard, 1898. [A collection of documents concerning the English Rising of 1381.]

Walsingham, Thomas. The "Chronica maiora" of Thomas Walsingham, 1376-1422. Trans. David Preest. Intro. and notes James G. Clark. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2005. [[The St. Albans Chronicle.] Includes an account of the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 (the English Rising) and its aftermath.]

Walsingham, Thomas. Historia anglicana. Ed. Henry Thomas Riley. 2 vols. Rerum Britannicarum medii aevi scriptores ("Rolls Series") 28.1-2. London: HMSO, 1863-1864. [Latin text; introd. and notes in English. Vol. 1: A.D. 1272-1381; Vol. 2: A.D. 1381-1422. Published as part of a collection of texts under the collective title of Chronica monasterii S. Albani (7 vols. in 12). See 1: 453-484 and 2: 1-41 for Walsingham's account of the English Rising of 1381. An English trans. of relevant excerpts appears in Dobson's Peasants' Revolt of 1381.]

Walsingham, Thomas. The St. Albans Chronicle: The "Chonica Maiora" of Thomas Walsingham. Ed. John Taylor and Wendy R. Childs; trans. Leslie Watkiss. 2 vols. Oxford Medieval Texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003-2011. [Includes an account of the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 (the English Rising) and its aftermath.]

["Westminster chronicle."] Appendix. In Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; Together with the English Translations of John Trevisa and of an Unknown Writer of the Fifteenth Century. Ed. Joseph Rawson Lumby. 9 vols. Rerum Britannicarum Medii Ævi Scriptores ("Rolls Series") 41. London: Longman, 1865-1886. 9: 1-283. [Includes an account of the English Rising of 1381 (pp. 1-10). An English trans. of relevant excerpts appears in Dobson's Peasants' Revolt of 1381.]

H.iii. The English Rising of 1381 ("Peasants' Revolt"): Secondary Sources

Aers, David. "Representations of the 'Third Estate': Social Conflict and its Milieu around 1381." Southern Review 16 (1983): 335-349.

Aston, Margaret. "Corpus Christi and Corpus Regni: Heresy and the Peasants' Revolt." Past and Present no. 143 (May 1994): 3-47. [Abstract: "An examination of the timing of the Peasants' Revolt in 1381. The writer argues that the occurrence of Wat Tyler's insurrection on the feast of Corpus Christi, at a time when veneration of the eucharistic host was being questioned, influenced contemporary judgments about the heresy of the event. She focuses on the part played in the revolt by John Ball, a priest who had frequently been in trouble with the church hierarchy. She shows that some contemporary interpreters of the revolt posited a link between Ball and John Wycliffe, the leader of the Lollards, who believed that worshiping the eucharistic host amounted to idolatry. She concludes that clerical chroniclers believed that the rebels were influenced, through Ball, by Lollard hostility to the feast."]

Barron, Caroline M. Revolt in London: 11th to 15th June 1381. London: Museum of London, 1981. [This is a short pamphlet, but provides an excellent and readable account of the events in London during the English Rising of 1381, provides a "Background Story" in terms of civic political struggles in the period before the Rising which contributed to the general disorder, a good survey of the chronicle and other sources for information on the Rising, and a brief overview of other rebellions in fourteenth-century Europe as part of the context for the English Rising.]

Bird, Brian. Rebel Before his Time: The Story of John Ball and the Peasants' Revolt. Worthing: Churchman, 1987.

Bird, Brian, and David Stephenson. "Who was John Ball?" Essex Archaeology and History 3rd ser. 8 (1977 [for 1976]): 287-288.

Bolton, James L. "London and the Peasants' Revolt." London Journal 7 (1981): 123-124.

Brie, F. W. D. "Wat Tyler and Jack Straw." English Historical Review 21 (1906): 106-111.

Brooks, Nicholas. "The Organization and Achievements of the Peasants of Kent and Essex in 1381." In Studies in Medieval History Presented to R. C. H. Davis. Ed. Henry Mayr-Harting and R. I. Moore. London, and Ronceverte, WV: Hambledon Press, 1985. Pp. 247-270. [Brooks discusses the degree of co-ordination among the rebel bands in the period leading up to the march on London: the events cannot have been as spontaneous as the chroniclers make them out to have been. He also argues that the distances covered in the time indicated cannot have been done on foot, since even trained infantry in top form did not cover such distances so quickly: the "march" on London must have been on horse-back, which again suggests a quite remarkable degree of organization.]

Bush, Michael. "The Risings of the Commons in England, 1381-1549." In Orders and Hierarchies in Late Medieval and Renaissance Europe. Ed. Jeffrey H. Denton. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999. Pp. 109-125. [On the various "risings," from the Peasants' Revolt to the Tudors.]

Crane, Susan. "The Writing Lesson of 1381." In Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Ed. Barbara Hanawalt. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. Pp. 201-221.

Dobson, R[ichard] B[arrie]. "Remembering the Peasants' Revolt 1381-1981." In Essex and the Great Revolt of 1381: Lectures Celebrating the Six Hundredth Anniversary. Ed. W. H. Liddell and R. G. E. Wood. Essex Record Office Publications 84. [Chelmsford, Essex]: Essex Record Office, 1982. Pp. 1-20.

Dunn, Alastair. The Great Rising of 1381: The Peasants' Revolt and England's Failed Revolution. Stroud, Gloucestershire, and Charleston, SC: Tempus, 2002.

Dunn, Alastair. "The Many Roles of Wat Tyler." History Today 51.7 (July 2001): 28-29. [Abstract: "Wat Tyler, the leader of the 1381 Peasants' Revolt, remains recognizable as England's most famous popular leader. Tyler, whose followers wrecked the commercial heart of medieval London and slaughtered many of its mercantile and legal elite, has six London streets named after him. His posthumous fame is based on the apparent failure of his cause. He left no shrine to demolish or cult to suppress, so the transmission of his legacy has been an expression of collective political memory. This legacy passed down through the tributaries of political discourse rather than the mainstream of high culture. The image of Tyler as a lasting symbol of popular resistance can also be located in a peculiarly English attachment to rebels, particularly those who fail."]

Dyer, Christopher. "The Rising of 1381 in Suffolk: Its Origins and Participants." Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology 36 (1988): 277-287. [The Peasants' Revolt, as known in Suffolk, was of political, not social, motivation: not a reaction of the people to their impoverishment (their situation was, in fact, improving over what it had been earlier), but an attempt by people who now had some hope of bettering their condition. It was not an overthrowing of the law, but an attempt to oust corrupt officials who were enforcing bad laws: the rebels saw themselves, not as overthrowing, but as replacing the bailiffs etc. Central to the revolt were the Statute of Labourers and the Poll Tax, which led to "a universal sense of grievance" (281). Pp. 281-282 suggest that the Robin Hood stories, first attested in Piers Plowman about this time, may also have played a role in how the rebels saw themselves; there is at least one incident known where the "summer game," in which the roles of lord and peasant are reversed for a time (and with which Robin Hood tales later came to be associated), seem to have gotten out of hand and led to real insurrection (such "topsy-turvy" carnivals did not necessarily "release tension" as the usual explanation for them would suggest). P. 281: the perception that the monks of Bury were in collusion with Sir John Cavendish, Chief Justice of the King's Bench could have set up resonances with the Gest of Robyn Hode "with its story of the outlaws defeating an alliance between a grasping abbot and a corrupt judge." Cavendish was killed in Lakenheath, while fleeing from the rebels: "The villagers assisted in his capture, notably when Katherine Gamen pushed a boat out of reach to prevent his escape. Their hostility to him was presumably not just because of his supposed corrupt alliance with [the abbey of] Bury, or his general reputation, but because they had direct experience of his enforcement of the law" (280). Katherine Gamen not the only female involved in acts of insurrection in Lakenheath: a Margaret Wrighte (several times prosecuted for breaking laws regarding the sale of ale) was also named in the indictments surrounding the revolt of 1381 (a brief account of what is known of her is given in the biographical Appendix, p. 285).
     P. 274: "Manors rarely coincided with villages"; while it was usual for an entire village to be held as a whole by an abbey as overlord, secular lords "tended to hold no more than a fraction of a village." Because the records for church estates tend to be more abundant than those for lay lords, there has been something of a distorted view.]

Dyer, Christopher. "The Social and Economic Background to the Rural Revolt of 1381." In The English Rising of 1381. Ed. R[odney] H[oward] Hilton, and T[revor] H[enry] Aston. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge [etc.]: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Pp. 9-42.

Edwards, R. A. "Henry Despenser: The Fighting Bishop." Church Quarterly Review 159 (January-March 1958): 26-38. ["A paper read at the Norwich Diocesan Clergy School, 1957." On Henry Despenser, Bishop of Norwich, who, among other things, in 1381 led the army which put down the Rising in Norfolk (and executed its leader, Geoffrey Litster, after having heard his confession).]

Eiden, Herbert. "Joint Action Against 'Bad' Lordship: The Peasants' Revolt in Essex and Norfolk." History 83 (Jan. 1998): 5-30. [Abstract: "The writer argues that the 1381 Peasants' Revolt in Essex and Norfolk did not lack coherence and organization. He states that particularly in the case of the Norfolk revolt, a cohesive picture appears as the people's discontent was directed against government officials, justices, and lords of the manor and the rebels were selective in picking their targets. He analyzes structural development in the economic, political, manorial, and cultural sectors as well as the social and economic standing of the protagonists. He notes that in Essex and Norfolk a high proportion of the rebels came from the aspiring ranks of laborers and craftsmen and from the upper and middle levels of the tenantry. He contends that the participation of elites exercised an influence over the coherence and organization of the revolt."]

Eiden, Herbert. "Norfolk, 1382: A Sequel to the Peasants' Revolt." English Historical Review 114 (1999): 370-377. [Abstract: "The writer investigates the veracity of a report by Thomas Walsingham that tells of a planned insurrection in Norfolk in 1382 that was discovered before it happened, resulting in its leaders being executed. Although there is no record of a trial of the alleged conspirators in the King's Bench files nor in the Justices Itinerant files, he does find a document in the Escheator files for Suffolk and Norfolk that is an inquisition into the possessions of ten executed people conducted on 20 October 1382. He finds that this escheator's record does corroborate two essential aspects of Walsingham's account."]

Fenwick, Carolyn, ed. The Poll Taxes of 1377, 1379 and 1381. Records of Social and Economic History (RSEH) ns 27-. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, for the British Academy, 1998- [in progress]. [Two volumes to date: Part 1 (RSEH ns 27; 1998), Bedfordshire-Leicestershire; Part 2 (RSEH ns 29; 2001), Lincolnshire-Westmorland. The poll tax records are published for what they reveal "about individuals, their occupations, and their relationships," providing "an intriguing and detailed picture of late fourteenth-century England."]

Galbraith, V. H. "Thoughts about the Peasants' Revolt." In The Reign of Richard II: Essays in Honour of May McKisack. Ed. F. R. H. DuBoulay, and C. M. Barron. London: Athlone Press / University of London, 1971. Pp. 46-57.

Goldberg, P. J. P. "Urban Identity and the Poll Taxes of 1377, 1379, and 1381." Economic History Review 2nd ser. 43 (1990): 194-216.

Green, Richard Firth. "John Ball's Letters: Literary History and Historical Literature." In Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Ed. Barbara A. Hanawalt. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. Pp. 176-200. ["Sets Ball's Letters in a convincing social and literary context of preaching material, and demonstrates the conventional nature of much of Ball's rhetoric. Transcribes Ball's Letter in his Appendix, p. 195, and the Addresses of the Commons, pp. 193-95" (annotation in Literature of Richard II's Reign and the Peasants' Revolt, ed. James M. Dean [1996]).]

Grieve, Hilda E[lizabeth] P[oole]. The Sleepers and the Shadows: Chelmsford, a Town--Its People and its Past. Maps and plans drawn by John Fulbeck. 2 vols. Essex Record Office Publications 100, 128. Chelmsford: Essex County Council, in association with the Chelmsford Borough Council, 1988-1994. [A local history of Chelmsford, the first volume on medieval and Tudor history. Vol. 1 has a section (about 5 pages) on Thomas Baker of Fobbing, a leader in the rebellion of 1381, executed at Chelmsford on 4 July 1381.]

Hansen, Harriet Merete. "The Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and the Chronicles." Journal of Medieval History 6 (1980): 393-417. [Hansen compares textually eight chronicle accounts of the Rising of 1381 (Froissart, Walsingham, Knighton, the "Anonimalle" chronicle, the "London Letter Book," the "Eulogium historiarum sive temporis," the Evesham chronicle, and the Westminster chronicle), creating a stemma of their connections, and determines that they are mutually interdependent; therefore, one cannot use them to prove or disprove each other.]

Hill, Douglas Arthur, ed. The Peasants' Revolt: A Collection of Contemporary Documents. Jackdaw 36. London, Jonathan Cape, 1966. [15 pieces (in portfolio).]

Hilton, Rodney H[oward]. "Inherent and Derived Ideology in the English Rising of 1381." In Campagnes médiévales: L'homme et son espace; Études offertes à Robert Fossier. Ed. Elisabeth Mornet. Histoire ancienne et médiévale 31. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 1995. Pp. 399-405. ["Discusses ideas developed in the course of struggle as distinct from those imported from elements outside the struggle, such as John Ball's preaching" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Hilton, R[odney] H[oward], and H[yman] Fagan. The English Rising of 1381. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1950. [This is a revised and expanded version of Fagan's Nine Days that Shook England: An Account of the English People's Uprising in 1381 (Left Book Club 101; London: Left Book Club / Victor Gollancz, 1938); Fagan's narrative of the events of the Peasants' Revolt are supplemented with chapters on the background by Hilton.]

Hilton, R[odney] H[oward], and T[revor] H[enry] Aston, eds. The English Rising of 1381. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge [etc.]: Cambridge University Press, 1984. ["The papers published in this volume were, with two exceptions, presented to the annual conference organized by Past and Present in 1981. We were able to expand the unavoidably restricted coverage of the events of 1381 by obtaining two subsquent contributions by R. B. Dobson and A. Harding" (Introduction, 1). Contents: "The Social and Economic Background to the Rural Revolt of 1381," by Christopher Dyer; "The 'Great Rumour' of 1377 and Peasant Ideology," by Rosamond Faith; "The Jacquerie," by Raymond Cazelles; "English Urban Society and the Revolt of 1381," by A. F. Butcher; "The Risings in York, Beverley and Scarborough, 1380-1381," by R. B. Dobson; "Florentine Insurrections, 1342-1385, in Comparative Perspective," by Samuel Cohn, Jr.; "The Revolt against the Justices," by Alan Harding; "Nobles, Commons and the Great Revolt of 1381," by J. A. Tuck.]

Kriehn, George. "Studies in the Sources of the Social Revolt in 1381." American Historical Review 7 (1901-1902): 254-285 and 458-484.

Landsberger, Betty H., and Henry A. Landsberger. "The English Peasant Revolt of 1381." In Rural Protest: Peasant Movements and Social Change. Ed. Henry A. Landsberger. London: Macmillan, 1974. Pp. 95-141.

Leech, Kenneth. "The Theological Basis of the 1381 Rising." The Times [London] 25 July 1981. P. 14. [Leech comments upon John Ball's sermon and his declaration of the equality of all human beings, and sees this as part of the tradition of orthodox medieval Catholicism. There is also a letter to the editor (by Jeremy Goring) in response to Leech's article in The Times 31 July 1981, p. 13.]

Liddell, W. H., and R. G. E. Wood, eds. Essex and the Great Revolt of 1381: Lectures Celebrating the Six Hundredth Anniversary. Essex Record Office Publications 84. [Chelmsford, Essex]: Essex Record Office, 1982. [Contents: "Remembering the Peasants' Revolt, 1381-1981," by R. B. Dobson; "The Causes of the Revolt in Rural Essex," by C. C. Dyer; "The Rebellion and the County Town," by H. E. P. Grieve; "Essex Rebel Bands in London," by A. J. Prescott; "Essex Manorial Records and the Revolt," by R. G. E. Wood; "Gazetteer of Places in Essex Connected with the Revolt."]

Lindsay, Philip, and Reg Groves. The Peasants' Revolt, 1381. London: Hutchinson, 1950.

Marshall, David W. "Monstrous England: Nation and Reform, 1375-1385." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 2007. [DAI 68 (2007-2008): 2937A. Abstract: "The years surrounding the Rising of 1381 witnessed socio-cultural struggles suggesting to authors of the day the fallen-ness of England. That impression had significant effects on the community imagined by writers. As authors such as John Gower and William Langland represented the perceived moral and social decay, they communicated multiple images of the nation simultaneously. One facet is the 'monstrous nation,' in which a people is unified by its immoral predilection for self-destruction; the other facet is the 'reformist nation,' in which texts communicate an ideal image, rooted in the theory of the Three Estates. Religion, therefore, becomes a structuring principle in medieval 'imagined communities.' Chapter One analyzes Gower's use of Nebuchadnezzar's statue in the Vox Clamantis, which Gower reuses in the Confessio Amantis, reading it as an image of a monstrous body politic that shadows the ideal image of community. Gower's adopted role as prophet for the English locates this community within a specifically religious discourse that elevates the ideal image of the nation to one of chosenness by God. Chapter Two argues that in Thomas Walsingham's Historia Anglicana, Henry Knighton's Chronicon and other accounts of the Peasants' Revolt, medieval chroniclers encode the insurgent imagining of community, even as they proclaim the orthodox image set out by Gower, revealing the nation to be a contentious debate rather than a harmonious agreement. Chapter Three uses Post-Colonial theory to address the letters attributed to John Ball, arguing that Ball articulates a distinct image of community for the revolt that is founded upon labor as a conceptual framework. Ball, the chapter claims, expresses an adherence to hierarchical social structures in which estates share an interest in burgeoning market economies. Moreover, he locates that vision within a solidly religious mode that renders him an anti-Gower. The final chapter takes up Piers Plowman to suggest that Langland diagnoses the cause for the inherent fissuring of national identities. Langland's allegory reveals that social discourses hinder the unity of national communities despite the power of individual religious experiences to realign the individual's relations to the community at large."]

Matheson, Lister M. "The Peasants' Revolt through Five Centuries of Rumor and Reporting: Richard Fox, John Stow, and their Successors." Studies in Philology 95 (1998): 121-151. [Abstract: "The sources generally cited for the anecdote of John Tyler of Dartford's murder of a tax collector during the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 are John Stow's Chronicles of England or Annals of England. Until now, Stow's immediate source for the story has survived unnoticed in Woburn Abbey MS 181. This manuscript now permits a general account of the medieval genesis and Elizabethan development of the story, its literary and historical manifestations, and its modern dismissal."]

McKisak, May. "The Good Parliament and the Peasants' Revolt (1371-81)." Chap. 13 of her The Fourteenth Century, 1307-1399. Oxford History of England 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959. Pp. 384-423.

Mollat, Michel, and Philippe Wolff. The Popular Revolutions of the Late Middle Ages. Trans. A. L. Lytton-Sells. Great Revolutions 6. London: Allen and Unwin, 1973. [Trans. of Ongles bleus, Jacques et Ciompi; les révolutions populaires en Europe aux XIV et XV siècles. This helps to put the English Rising of 1381 into a European context.]

Oman, Charles [William] [Chadwick] (Sir). The Great Revolt of 1381. 2nd ed. Ed. E. B. Fryde. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.

Ormrod, W. Mark. "The Peasants' Revolt and the Government of England." Journal of British Studies 29 (1990): 1-30.

Pearsall, Derek. "Interpretative Models for the Peasants' Revolt." In Hermeneutics and Medieval Culture. Ed. Patrick J. Gallacher and Helen Damico. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1989. Pp. 63-70. ["Illustrates differences between contemporary interpretations of the 1381 Rising and later understandings of it" (annotation in Literature of Richard II's Reign and the Peasants' Revolt, ed. James M. Dean [1996]). Includes some consideration of John Gower, Vox Clamantis.]

Pettitt, Thomas. "'Folk Allegory' in the Idiom of John Ball." In "Divers toyes mengled": Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Culture, in Honour of André Lascombes / Études sur la culture européenne au Moyen Age et à la Renaissance. Ed. Michel Bitot, with Roberta Mullini and Peter Happé. Tours: Université François Rabelais, 1996. Pp. 55-68.

Poulsen, Charles. The English Rebels. London: Journeyman Press, 1984.

Powell, Edgar. The Rising in East Anglia in 1381; With an Appendix Containing the Suffolk Poll Tax Lists for that Year. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1896.

Powell, E[dgar], and G[eorge] M[acaulay] Trevelyan, eds. The Peasants' Rising and the Lollards. New York: AMS Press, 1980. [A collection of unpublished documents forming an appendix to England in the Age of Wycliffe. Reprint of the 1899 ed. published by Longmans, Green, London, New York.]

Prescott, Andrew. "London in the Peasants' Revolt: A Portrait Gallery." London Journal 7 (1981): 125-143.

Prescott, Andrew. "Writing about Rebellion: Using the Records of the Peasants' Revolt of 1381." History Workshop Journal: A Socialist and Feminist Journal 45 (1998): 1-27. ["Discusses the use of chronicles and legal and administrative records by historians examining the Peasants' Revolt, with particular reference to Steven Justice, Writing and Rebellion: England in 1381 (Berkeley, 1994)" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Raftis, J[ames] A[mbrose]. "Social Change versus Revolution: New Interpretations of the Peasants' Revolt of 1381." In Social Unrest in the Late Middle Ages: Papers of the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Ed. Francis X. Newman. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 39. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1986. Pp. 3-22.

Rampton, Martha. "The Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and the Written Word." Comitatus 24 (1993): 45-60. ["Examines the importance attributed to the content of written records by elements of the English peasantry" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Ridgard, John. "The Uprising of 1381." In An Historical Atlas of Suffolk. Ed. David Dymond, and Edward Martin. Fwd. Christopher Taylor. Maps drawn by Henry Skinner, et al. 3rd ed. Ipswich: Archaeology Service, Environment and Transport, Suffolk County Council, in conjunction with the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History, 1999. Pp. 90-91 (Map 39). [The map shows the parishes from which rebels were known to have come (based on arrest and execution records). P. 90: Ridgard notes the ambiguous position of the Church, since many of the leaders of the revolt were priests, but Church possessioners, such as Bury Abbey (one of the great manorial landowners of East Anglia), were targets of attack. Further, "[d]espite the tendency to suppress information, the evidence for revolt after 1381 continues to grow. In October 1381, Michael de la Pole in addressing Parliament referred to 'acts of disobedience and rebellion . . . which continue from one day to another' [Note 12: In 1385 de la Pole obtained licence to fortify his castle at Wingfield]. A 'new rebellion' was launched from the Hollesley/Bawdsey area also in 1383, targeting property of the Earl of Norfolk [Note 13: This time at Parham and Framlingham]. Lowestoft was still in a state of rebellion in 1385, expelling the king's ministers and putting them in fear of their lives. In this year reference was also made to 'outlaws in Suffolk lying in wait to kill the sheriff and his bailiffs in the exectution of their duties.' The continuing despair of villeins-by-blood [who were forbidden by law from seeking their freedom] was the obvious motive behind rebellions in 1386 at Norton and Tostock. In 1391, Needham Market erected barricades against a sheriff's posse [Note 14: One of the leaders was John Bette, very active in 1381 in Suffolk, and possibly in Norfolk]. In 1397 Robert Westbrom, no less, was charged with breaking the peace 'from the time of the Rumor until this very day' [Note 15: For example, on Friday after Corpus Christi, 1393]. He had accused jurors of giving 'false' verdicts and had been levying 'fines' on individuals, a fund-raising device earlier used by John Wrawe [Note 16: Against the mayor and burgesses of Thetford, for example]. [John Wrawe, a chaplain from Sudbury, and Robert Westbrom were leaders of the the Suffolk rebels in 1381; Westbrom was crowned "King of Suffolk" in Bury Market after John Wrawe had declined the crown, saying that he already had a hat.] It appears that Westbrom had, until very recently, still been in a position of influence [Note 17: Westbrom was a mercer by occupation, and very probably came from a villein family of Drinkstone]."]

Rollison, David. "The Specter of the Commonalty: Class Struggle and the Commonweal in England before the Atlantic World." William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 63 (2006): 221-252. [On rebellions in England from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries as linked by themes of the "commons" and the "weal" of the nation.]

Ronan, Nick. "1381: Writing in Revolt: Signs of Confederacy in the Chronicle Accounts of the English Rising." Forum for Modern Language Studies 25 (1989): 304-314.

Searle, Eleanor M., and Robert Burghart. "The Defense of England and the Peasants' Revolt." Viator 3 (1973 [for 1972]): 365-388.

Smith, Jeremy, and Iain McLean. "The 1381 Peasants' Revolt: Lessons for 1990's?" Journal of European Economic History 26.1 (Spring 1997): 137-143. [Abstract: "A discussion of the change in the population of England between 1377 and 1381 in response to a poll tax that was levied on the populace at the time to pay for English wars in France. The evidence suggests that the population decline can be explained as an attempt by many to avoid the poll tax. The ability of people to achieve this was positively related to distance from London."]

Stemmler, Theo. "The Peasants' Revolt of 1381 in Contemporary Literature." In Functions of Literature: Essays Presented to Erwin Wolff on His Sixtieth Birthday. Ed. Ulrich Broich, Theo Stemmler, and Gerd Stratmann. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1984. Pp. 21-38.

Strohm, Paul. "A 'Peasants' Revolt'?" In Misconceptions about the Middle Ages. Ed. Stephen J. Harris and Bryon L. Grigsby. Routledge Studies in Medieval Religion and Culture 7. New York and London: Routledge, 2008. Pp. 197-203.

Theiner, Paul. "The Literary Uses of the Peasants' Revolt of 1381." Actes du VIe Congrès de l'Association internationale de Littérature comparée / Proceedings of the 6th Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association. Ed. Michel Cadot, Milan V. Dimic, David Malone, and Miklos Szabolcsi. Stuttgart: Bieber, 1975. Pp. 303-306.

Tillotson, J. H. "Peasant Unrest in the England of Richard II: Some Evidence from Royal Records." Historical Studies 16 (1974-1975): 1-16.

Tout, T[homas] F[rederick]. "The Minority and the Peasants' Revolt, 1377-1382." Chap. 10, Section 1, of Chapters in the Administrative History of Mediaeval England: The Wardrobe, the Chamber, and the Small Seals. University of Manchester Publications 183. Manchester: University of Manchester Press / Longmans, Green and Co., 1928. 3: 323-384. [An account of the early years of the reign of Richard II, including the English Rising of 1381, with particular emphasis upon the role of government administration during and after.]

Tuck, J. A. "Nobles, Commons, and the Great Revolt of 1381." In The English Rising of 1381. Ed. R[odney] H[oward] Hilton, and T[revor] H[enry] Aston. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge [etc.]: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Pp. 194-212.

Webber, Ronald. The Peasants' Revolt: The Uprising in Kent, Essex, East Anglia and London in 1381 During the Reign of King Richard II. Lavenham: T. Dalton, 1980.

Wilkinson, Bertie. "Peasants' Revolt in 1381." Speculum 15 (1940): 12-35.

Wood, Charles Roger. "Narrativity, Allusion and the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 According to Froissart, Chaucer, and Paine." Ph.D. diss., University of Houston, 1994. [DAI 55 (1994-1995): 1572A. Abstract: "The underclass uprising known as the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 is the subject of various narratives and literary allusions. These verbal artifacts thus inform our consciousness of perhaps the most cataclysmic event in English social history. The Chroniques of Froissart is the most popular of the contemporary prose reconstructions of the insurgence, influencing subsequent generations with its forms of emplotment and enfiguration. Chaucer's sole allusion to the uprising in The Canterbury Tales occurs in a simile in a narrative poem that encodes the 1381 rebellion with certain ideological values. Paine's account in The Rights of Man offers a revisionist ideological treatment in response to his adversary Edmund Burke.
     "A rhetorical analysis of the language reconstructing the events of 1381 in these texts provides insight into both how this medieval rebellion enters consciousness as historical fact and how comprehending reality as narrative thus affects worldview. Invoking the theory of Hayden White, this study explores the rhetoric of the selected narrative texts pertaining to the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, and discusses implications for human consciousness."]

Wood, Roger. "'The history is concisely this': Thomas Paine's Account of the Peasants' Revolt." Studies in Medievalism 6 (1994): 5-20.

H.iv. Anti-Thatcher Protests of the 1980s and 90s

Bagguley, Paul. "The Moral Economy of Anti-Poll Tax Protest." In To Make Another World: Studies in Protest and Collective Action. Ed. Colin Barker and Paul Kennedy. Aldershot, and Brookfield, VT: Avebury, 1996. Pp. 7-24.

BBC News. "On This Day" for 31 March: "1990: Violence flares in poll tax demonstration." URL: <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/31/newsid_2530000/2530763.stm> (URL correct as of 1 Sept. 2011).

Burns, Danny. Poll Tax Rebellion. Photographs by Mark Simmons. Stirling, Scotland: AK Press; London: Attack International, 1992. [An account of the various protests against Margaret Thatcher's government and its "Community Charge" / poll tax in the late 1980s.]

Gibson, John. The Politics and Economics of the Poll Tax: Mrs Thatcher's Downfall. Warley, West Midlands: EMAS, 1990.

Hoggett, P., and D. Burns. "The Revenge of the Poor: The Anti-Poll Tax Campaign in Britain." Critical Social Policy 33 (1991): 95-110.

Lavalette, Michael, and Gerry Mooney. "'No poll tax here!': The Tories, Social Policy and the Great Poll Tax Rebellion, 1987-1991." In Class Struggle and Social Welfare. Ed. Michael Lavalette and Gerry Mooney. The State of Welfare. London and New York: Routledge, 2000. Pp. 199-227.

Lavalette, Michael, and Gerry Mooney. "The Poll Tax Struggle in Britain: A Reply to Hoggett and Burns." Critical Social Policy 36 (1992-1993): 96-108.

Paul Ross Photography. "Poll Tax Riots in London" [photographs of Trafalgar Square demonstration and riot, 31 March 1990]. URL: <http://www.caliach.com/paulr/news/polltax/> (URL correct as of 1 Sept. 2011).

Poll Tax Riot: 10 Hours that Shook Trafalgar Square. London: Acab Press, 1990.

Reynolds, Maureen. Uncollectable: The Story of the Poll Tax Revolt. Manchester: Greater Manchester Anti-Poll Tax Federation, 1992.

Seton, Craig. "Poll Tax 'Outlaws' Attack Councillors." The Times [London] 6 March 1990. P. 22. [A report on a protest in Nottingham on 5 March 1990, when demonstrators, dressed as Robin Hood's men and as Maid Marion, broke into council chambers and attacked the councillors with shaving-cream pies, in protest against the Poll Tax.]

Timmins, Nicholas. "Benn Invokes the Ghost of Wat Tyler." The Times [London] 5 May 1981. P. 2. [A report on a Labour Party rally, held at Blackheath for "May Day" in 1981, adopted the slogan (with lapel buttons) "1381 to 1981: Let's finish the job."]

I.i. General Background: Literary

Ackerman, Robert W[illiam]. Backgrounds to Medieval English Literature. Random House Studies in Language and Literature (SLL) 7. New York: Random House, 1966.

Aers, David. Chaucer, Langland and the Creative Imagination. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980.

Aers, David. Community, Gender and Individual Identity: English Writing 1360-1430. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1989. [Contents: Introduction (1-19); "Piers Plowman: Poverty, Work, and Community" (20-72); "The Making of Margery Kempe: Individual and Community" (73-116); "Masculine Identity in the Courtly Community: The Self Loving in Troilus and Criseyde" (117-152); "'In Arthurus day': Community, Virtue. and Individual Identity in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" (153-178). "David Aers explores the treatment of the community, gender and individual identity in English writing between 1360 and 1430, and focuses on Margery Kempe, Langland, Chaucer and the poet of Sir Gawain. He shows how these texts deal with questions about gender, the making of individual indentity and competing versions of community in ways which still speak powerfully in contemporary analysis of gender formation, sexuality and love."]

Aers, David, ed. Medieval Literature and Historical Inquiry: Essays in Honor of Derek Pearsall. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. [Publisher's description: "Critical historicist readings engage with the politics and ethics of selected medieval texts, addressing a wide range of literature and topics of enquiry: Langland, Chaucer, and the Pearl-poet, Malory and the York Corpus Christi plays; chivalric cultures, their forms of identity and mourning; and the politics, ethics and theology of some of the most fascinating writing in late medieval England. Intended as a tribute to Professor Derek Pearsall, and reflecting his major contribution to medieval literary criticism, they are an important addition to the critical and historical study of the period."
     Contents: Nicolette Zeeman, "The Condition of Kynde"; C. David Benson, "Piers Plowman as Poetic Pillory: The Pillory and the Cross"; Elizabeth Fowler, "The Empire and the Waif: Consent and Conflict in the Man of Law's Tale"; David Aers, "Chaucer's Tale of Melibee: Whose Virtues?"; Lynn Staley, "Pearl and the Contingencies of Love and Piety"; Paul Strohm, "John Lydgate, Jacque of Holland, and the Poetics of Complicity"; Lee Patterson, "The Heroic Laconic Style: Reticence and Meaning from Beowulf to the Edwardians"; Christopher Cannon, "Malory's Crime: Chivalric Identity and the Evil Will"; Sarah Beckwith, "Absent Presences: The Theater of Resurrection in York"; "Derek Pearsall's Published Writings."]

Andersen, Jennifer, and Elizabeth Sauer, eds. Books and Readers in Early Modern England. Material Studies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. [Publisher's description: "Books and Readers in Early Modern England examines readers, reading, and publication practices from the Renaissance to the Restoration. The essays draw on an array of documentary evidence--from library catalogs, prefaces, title pages and dedications, marginalia, commonplace books, and letters to ink, paper, and bindings--to explore individual reading habits and experiences in a period of religious dissent, political instability, and cultural transformation.
     "Chapters in the volume cover oral, scribal, and print cultures, examining the emergence of the 'public spheres' of reading practices. Contributors, who include Christopher Grose, Ann Hughes, David Scott Kastan, Kathleen Lynch, William Sherman, and Peter Stallybrass, investigate interactions among publishers, texts, authors, and audience. They discuss the continuity of the written word and habits of mind in the world of print, the formation and differentiation of readerships, and the increasing influence of public opinion. The work demonstrates that early modern publications appeared in a wide variety of forms--from periodical literature to polemical pamphlets--and reflected the radical transformations occurring at the time in the dissemination of knowledge through the written word. These forms were far more ephemeral, and far more widely available, than modern stereotypes of writing from this period suggest."]

Armstrong, Nancy, and Leonard Tennenhouse, eds. The Violence of Representation: Literature and the History of Violence. Essays in Literature and Society. London and New York: Routledge, 1989.

Babcock, Barbara A. "Liberty's a Whore: Inversions, Marginalia and Picaresque Narrative." In The Reversible World: Symbolic Inversion in Art and Society. Ed. Barbara A. Babcock. Symbol, Myth, and Ritual Series. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1978. Pp. 95-116. [Papers from the "Forms of Symbolic Inversion" Symposium, Toronto, 1972. Includes a discussion of Hobsbawm's idea of the "social bandit" in picaresque literature.]

Babcock-Abrahams, Barbara. "'A tolerated margin of mess': The Trickster and his Tales Reconsidered." Journal of the Folklore Institute 11 (1975): 145-186.

Barratt, Alexandra, ed. Women's Writing in Middle English. Longman Annotated Texts. London: Longman, 1992.

Bennett, H[enry] S[tanley]. Chaucer and the Fifteenth Century. Oxford History of English Literature 2.1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1947.

Bennett, J. A. W. Middle English Literature. Ed. and completed by Douglas Gray. Oxford History of English Literature 1.2. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986. [Chap. 1: "Pastoral and Comedy" (incl. "Owl and Nightingale"), 2: "Verse, Didactic and Homiletic" (incl. "Bestiary," "Ormulum," "Cursor Mundi," "Handlyng Synne" [Robert Mannyng of Brunne], "Prick of Conscience," "Parlement of the Thre Ages," "Wynnere and Wastoure," "South English Legendary"), 3: "Layamon", 4: "History in Verse" (chronicles; Brut; Bruce), 5: "Romances" (romance; "King Horn," "Sir Orfeo," "Havelok," "Gamelyn," "Athelston," Arthur and Merlin, "Siege of Jerusalem"), 6: "The Poems of the Gawain Manuscript," 7: "Prose" (Katherine Group, Peterborough Chronicle, Sermons, "Agenbite of Inwit," Julian of Norwich, Wyclif and Lollards, Trevissa, Mandeville), 8: "Lyrics," 9: "Gower," 10: "Langland."]

Bennett, Michael J. "The Court of Richard II and the Promotion of Literature." In Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Ed. Barbara Hanawalt. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. Pp. 3-20.

Bertolet, Craig E. "The Rise of London Literature: Chaucer, Gower, Langland and the Poetics of the City in Late Medieval English Poetry." Ph.D. diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1995. [DAI 56 (1995-1996): 1766A. Abstract: "The extent to which London influenced late fourteenth-century English poetry has been a matter for some debate. Though not enjoying a literary tradition like Florence's, London did play a significant role in the shaping of English poetry. This dissertation demonstrates that a number of economic, social, and political elements came together in the late fourteenth century to provide a moment in English literature where London acquired a significant cultural presence in the poetry of Geoffrey Chaucer and his contemporaries: William Langland and John Gower. Urban poetry is plain in style. It elevates the importance of the community and addresses questions of just price, commodity, and the balancing of one's books. Elements of this paradigm would have been available to these three poets in French literature and, specifically for Chaucer whom we know read them, the works of Dante and Boccaccio. Using the market values of the city, Langland's Piers Plowman becomes as much an exploration of the value of the soul as it is a quest for the soul's redemption. As a result, Langland's poem critiques more than just the moral aspects of his society but the economic and social elements as well. Gower's Confessio Amantis concerns the role of truth in human society; many of the tales show that characters who seek truth prosper, while those who do not perish. Urban poetry for Chaucer expands the possibilities of the debate genre by allowing the incorporation of various speakers from every level of English society. But exchange takes other forms in his poetry, such as in the fabliaux where tricks are repaid in kind so that, by the end of the tale, all books appear to be balanced. In addition to questions of justice, Chaucer also explores the importance of the community to human relations. Those characters who separate from the community or cause others to be separated from it imperil its safety and, if they cannot be reformed, they must be avoided. City poetry declined in England after Chaucer's death, yet the influence of the city continues beyond the fourteenth century to drama and prose fiction."]

Bloomfield, Morton W., and Charles W. Dunn. The Role of the Poet in Early Societies. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1990.

Boitani, Piero, and Anna Torti, eds. Genres, Themes, and Images in English Literature from the Fourteenth to the Fifteenth Century: The J. A. W. Bennett Memorial Lectures, Perugia, 1986. Tübinger Beiträge zur Anglistik 11. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1988.

Breen, Katharine. Imagining an English Reading Public, 1150-1400. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 79. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "This original study explores the importance of the concept of habitus--that is, the set of acquired patterns of thought, behaviour and taste that result from internalising culture or objective social structures--in the medieval imagination. Beginning by examining medieval theories of habitus in a general sense, Katharine Breen goes on to investigate the relationships between habitus, language, and Christian virtue. While most medieval pedagogical theorists regarded the habitus of Latin grammar as the gateway to a generalized habitus of virtue, reformers increasingly experimented with vernacular languages that could fulfill the same function. These new vernacular habits, Breen argues, laid the conceptual foundations for an English reading public. Ranging across texts in Latin and several vernaculars, and including a case study of Piers Plowman, this interdisciplinary study will appeal to readers interested in medieval literature, religion and art history, in addition to those interested in the sociological concept of habitus."
     Contents: The fourteenth-century crisis of habit -- Medieval theories of habitus -- The grammatical paradigm -- A crusading habitus -- Piers Plowman and the formation of an English literary habitus.]

Burnley, [John] David. Courtliness and Literature in Medieval England. Longman Medieval and Renaissance Library. London and New York: Longman, 1998.

Burrow, J. A. Gestures and Looks in Medieval Narrative. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 48. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Burrow, J. A. Ricardian Poetry: Chaucer, Gower, Langland and the Gawain Poet. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971.

Cady, Diane. "Symbolic Economies." In Middle English. Ed. Paul Strohm. Oxford Twenty-First Century Approaches to Literature. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp. 124-141.]

Calin, William. The French Tradition and the Literature of Medieval England. University of Toronto Romance Series. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

Canfield, J. Douglas. Word as Bond in English Literature from the Middle Ages to the Restoration. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.

Cannon, Christopher. "Insurgency." Chap. 2 of his Middle English Literature: A Cultural History. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008. Pp. 40-71. [A consideration of late Middle English literature of dissent, with a focus on the Great Revolt of 1381, Langland's Piers Plowman, etc.]

Cawsey, Kathy. "Shepherds, Regents and Lecherous Widows: The Strategies of Power in Middle English Literature." The AnaChronisT [6] (2000): 29-50. [Available online at <http://users.atw.hu/anachronist/2000Cawsey.htm> (URL correct as of 1 Sept. 2011). Demonstrates that issues of "power" are not limited to explicitly "political" poems in the Middle English period, but are found in a great range of texts, from the mystery plays to love lyrics. The tensions created by socio-economic inequalities were a common theme in Middle English literature generally.]

Chambers, E[dmund] K[erchever] (Sir). The English Folk-Play. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933. [[folk drama; mumming and mummers; popular theatre, drama, plays, playing]]

Chambers, E[dmund] K[erchever] (Sir). The Mediaeval Stage. 2 vols. London: Oxford University Press, 1903. [Contents: Book 1: "Minstrelsy"; Book 2: "Folk Drama"; Book 3: "Religious Drama"; Book 4: "The Interlude;" Appendices. The section on "Folk Drama" is a considerable work in itself (vol. 1, pp. 89-419), and still one of the most thorough introductions to the subject (though dated, since it is now a century since it was written); it includes chapters on the Feast of Fools, the Boy Bishop, May Games, Mumming, etc. [minstrels and minstrelsy; mumming and mummers; carnival; carnivalesque; popular theatre, drama, plays, playing]]

Classen, Albrecht, ed. The Book and the Magic of Reading in the Middle Ages. Medieval Casebooks. London and New York: Routledge, 1999.

Coleman, Janet. Medieval Readers and Writers, 1350-1400. English Literature in History 1. London: Hutchinson; New York: Columbia University Press, 1981. [(Also available online as an ACLS Humanities electronic book: <http://www.humanitiesebook.org/>.)]

Coleman, Joyce. "Aurality." In Middle English. Ed. Paul Strohm. Oxford Twenty-First Century Approaches to Literature. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp. 68-85.

Coleman, Joyce. Public Reading and the Reading Public in Late Medieval England and France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Crassons, Kate. The Claims of Poverty: Literature, Culture, and Ideology in Late Medieval England. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2010. [Contents: Forms of need: the allegorical representation of poverty in Piers Plowman -- Poverty exposed: the evangelical and epistemological ideal of Pierce the Ploughman's crede -- "Clamerous" beggars and "nedi" knights: poverty and Wycliffite reform -- The costs of sanctity: Margery Kempe and the Franciscan imaginary -- Communal identities: performing poverty, charity, and labor in York's Corpus Christi theater -- Nickel and dimed: poverty polemic medieval and modern.]

Davidoff, Judith M. Beginning Well: Framing Fictions in Late Middle English Poetry. Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1988. ["Explores the symbolic effects of narrative patterns in Middle English verse, in relation to medieval assumptions about narrative structures."]

Dinshaw, Carolyn. "Temporalities." In Middle English. Ed. Paul Strohm. Oxford Twenty-First Century Approaches to Literature. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp. 107-123.

Doob, Penelope Reed. The Idea of the Labyrinth from Classical Antiquity through the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Doob, Penelope B. R. Nebuchadnezzar's Children: Conventions of Madness in Middle English Literature. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1974.

Ebin, Lois A. Illuminator, Makar, Vates: Visions of Poetry in the Fifteenth Century. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988. [Discusses views of the poet and his craft from Lydgate to Skelton; considers fifteenth-century poetry to be innovative, not merely imitations of Chaucer.]

Ebin, Lois A. John Lydgate. Twayne's English Authors Series 407. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1985.

Evans, Ruth, Helen Fulton, and David Matthews, eds. Medieval Cultural Studies: Essays in Honour of Stephen Knight. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2006. [Publisher's description: "This collection of newly commissioned essays celebrates the sixty-fifth birthday of Professor Stephen Knight in 2005 by paying tribute to his pioneering work in a discipline we call 'medieval cultural studies.' This is the first book-length study of this relatively new discipline. The contributions are grouped under five main headings: Defining the Field: Medieval Cultural Studies?; Robin Hood; Historical Chaucer; The Cultural Politics of Romance; Cultural Politics/The Politics of Culture. The essays address their subjects--'medievalism'; Robin Hood; fabliaux; medievalist crime fiction; medieval romance; Chaucer; contemporary novels with medieval drama settings; medieval London; skaldic poetry; the crusades--in the broad spirit of the kind of work that used to be done at the Birmingham Centre for Cultural Studies, and which is carried on more widely in cultural studies departments in the US, Australia and the rest of Britain. Distinguished contributors from Australia, North America, England, Scotland and Wales bear witness to Stephen Knight's diverse teaching experiences and research interests, by reflecting on and developing the work of a man who has inaugurated so much innovative thinking about the medieval past and its cultural legacies.
     Contents: "What was Medievalism?: Medieval Studies, Medievalism, and Cultural Studies," David Matthews; "Cultural Studies and Carnal Speech: The Long, Profane Shadow of the Fabliau," Larry Scanlon; "Robin Hood and the Rise of Cultural Studies," Tom Hahn; "Robin Hood and Public Record: The Authority of Writing in the Medieval Outlaw Tradition," W. M. Ormrod; "A Tale of Robin Hood: Robin Hood as Bishop," Helen Cooper; "'We Band of Brothers': Rousing Speeches from Robin Hood to Black Knight," Martha W. Driver; "'God send us a good scheryf thys yere': Oppositional Ideology in the Early Robin Hood Poems," Thomas H. Ohlgren; "'A gay yeman, under a forest side': 'The Friar's Tale' and the Robin Hood Tradition," Helen Phillips; "Cheapside in the Age of Chaucer," Helen Fulton; "Chaucer's Knight and the Northern 'Crusades': The Example of Henry Bolingbroke," Henry Ansgar Kelly; "The Pardoner's 'lewed peple': Apes, Japes and the Pre-History of Mass Culture," Stephanie Trigg; "Bovo Then and Now: An Old Yiddish Romance in its Time and Ours," Sheila Delany; "Sir Orfeo and Bare Life," Ruth Evans; "Chivalric Perspectives in the Middle English Otuel Romances," Diane Speed; "The Cultural Politics of the Skaldic Ekphrasis Poem in Medieval Norway and Iceland," Margaret Clunies Ross; "Medieval Murder--Modern Crime Fiction," Geraldine Barnes; "Explaining the 'Mysteries': Medieval Theatre and Modern Fictions," Margaret Rogerson; "Bibliography of Stephen Knight's writings," Lucy Sussex.]

Fisher, John H. "Wyclif, Langland, Gower, and the Pearl-Poet on the Subject of Aristocracy." In Studies in Medieval Literature in Honor of Professor Albert Croll Baugh. Ed. MacEdward Leach. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1961. Pp. 139-157.

Forest-Hill, Lynn. "Social Comment, Religious Dissent, and Audience Response in the Biblical Plays." Chap. 3 of her Transgressive Language in Medieval English Drama: Signs of Challenge and Change. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2000. Pp. 50-84.

Forest-Hill, Lynn. Transgressive Language in Medieval English Drama: Signs of Challenge and Change. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2000.

Fulton, Helen. "Regions and Communities." In The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English. Ed. Elaine M. Treharne and Greg Walker. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. 515-539. ["Regions" and regionalisms: on the ways in which the country was not "single": England, Scotland, and Wales; Manor and Town; Shire and Parish; linguistic communities.]

Gayk, Shannon, and Kathleen Tonry, eds. Form and Reform: Reading Across the Fifteenth Century. Interventions: New Studies in Medieval Culture. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2011. [Contents: Forms of reading in the Book of Brome / Jessica Brantley -- The style of humanist petitions at Oxford: on Thomas Chaundler and the Epistolae academicae oxon. (registrum F) / Andrew Cole -- Osbern Bokenham's "englische boke": re-forming holy women / Karen A. Winstead -- "Ete this book": literary consumption and poetic invention in John Capgrave's Life of Saint Katherine / Shannon Gayk -- Jesus' voice: dialogue and late medieval readers / Rebecca Krug -- Conception is a blessing: Marian devotion, heresy, and the literary in Skelton's A replycacion / Robert J. Meyer-Lee -- Useless mouths: reformist poetics in Audelay and Skelton / Mishtooni Bose -- Killing authors: Skelton's dreadful Bouge of court / James Simpson.]

Gellrich, Jesse M. Discourse and Dominion in the Fourteenth Century: Oral Contexts of Writing in Philosophy, Politics, and Poetry. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. [Publisher's description: "This wide-ranging study of language and cultural change in fourteenth-century England argues that the influence of oral tradition is much more important to the advance of literary than scholarship has previously recognized. In contrast to the view of orality and literacy as contending forces of opposition, the book maintains that the power of language consists in displacement, the capacity of one channel of language to take the place of the other, to make the source disappear into the copy. Appreciating the interplay between oral and written language makes possible for the first time a way of understanding the high literate achievements of this century in relation to momentous developments in social and political life" [library catalogue notes].
     Contents: Ch. 1: "Vox Literata: On the Uses of Oral and Written Language in the Later Middle Ages"; Ch. 2: "The Voice of the Sign and the Semiology of Dominion in the Work of Ockham"; Ch. 3: "'Real Language' and the Rule of the Book in the Work of Wyclif"; Ch. 4: "Orality and Rhetoric in the Chronicle History of Edward III"; Ch. 5: "The Politics of Literacy in the Reign of Richard II"; Ch. 6: "The Spell of the Ax: Diglossia and History in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight"; Ch. 7: "'Withouten Any Repplicacioun': Discourse and Dominion in the Knight's Tale."]

Giancarlo, Matthew. Parliament and Literature in Late Medieval England. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. [Contents: Parliament and voice in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries -- Parliament, criticism, and complaint in the later fourteenth century -- Property, purchase, parliament: the estates of man in John Gower's Mirour de l'Omme and Cronica tripertita -- "Oure is the voys": Chaucer's parliaments and the mediation of community -- Parliament, Piers Plowman and the reform of the public voice -- Petitioning for show: complaint and the parliamentary voice, 1401-1414.]

Goldie, Matthew Boyd, ed. Middle English Literature: A Historical Sourcebook. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003. [A collection of fourteenth- and fifteenth-century documents to aid students in the study of late medieval literature.
     Contents: "Conventions and Institutions," "Force and Order," "Gender, Sexuality, and Difference," "Images," "Labor and Capital," "Style and Spectacle," "Textualities."]

Gransden, Antonia. Legends, Traditions and History in Medieval England. London: Hambledon, 1992. [Essays on medieval chronicles and their usefulness to modern historians. Includes an essay on the discovery of the bodies of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere in Glastonbury.]

Gray, Douglas. "Fifteenth-Century Lyrics and Carols." In Nation, Court and Culture: New Essays on Fifteenth-Century English Poetry. Ed. Helen Cooney. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2001. Pp. 168-183.

Gray, Douglas. Later Medieval English Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. [Publisher's description: "The remarkable and diverse literature produced in the fascinating later medieval period--one of war, transitions, and challenges--is not as widely known as it deserves to be. In this descriptive guide the pre-eminent scholar of medieval literature Douglas Gray provides the non-specialist reader with an illuminating account of the extensive literature written in English from the death of Chaucer to the early sixteenth century."
     Contents: The world: centres and edges -- Bodies, souls and minds -- Media: image and word -- 'Practical' prose -- Malory and prose romance -- Later prose romance: Caxton to Berners -- Tales, jests, and novelle in prose -- 'Books of ensaumples and doctryne': the prose of moral instruction -- Religious prose I: introduction: Lollards and answers to them; sermons and books of religious instruction -- Religious prose II: mystical and visionary writing; religious narratives; devotional texts; the eve of the reformation -- Hoccleve and Lydgate -- Learned, encyclopedic, and didactic verse -- 'Chaucerian' poems -- Lyrics -- Romances and tales -- Hawes, Barclay, and Skelton -- Introductory -- Verse: Wintoun, Hary, The kingis quair, The quare of jelusy, The buke of the howlat -- Robert Henryson: narratives and romances in verse -- William Dunbar and Gavin Douglas -- Introductory -- Mystery cycles I: Old Testament -- Mystery cycles II: New Testament -- Morality plays and interludes.]

Green, Richard Firth. A Crisis of Truth: Literature and Law in Ricardian England. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.

Green, Richard Firth. Poets and Princepleasers: Literature and the English Court in the Late Middle Ages. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980.

Hall, Kathryn Cushman. "The Medieval Theory of the Sign and its Relationship to The Book of Margery Kempe, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, and Piers Plowman." Ph.D. diss., Syracuse University, 1987. [DAI 49 (1988-1989): 88A. Abstract: "The study of signs has an ancient past and a continuing history throughout the medieval period. Both Augustine and Aquinas, for example, believed that signs were visible manifestations of invisible truths which were finally linked to God. With Ockham we clearly see another concern: signs are a logical shorthand whose meaning is based on man's interaction with temporal and mundane things. While Chapter One of the dissertation traces such a development in the medieval concept of the sign, the other chapters explore its impact in three pieces of late fourteenth-century literature. Chapter Two examines The Book of Margery Kempe, suggesting that the whiteness of Margery's dress functions as a sign for certain traditional medieval values. Margery's use of white violates society's understanding of its meaning, revealing that her society expected signs to function as visible indicators of invisible qualities. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, discussed in Chapter Three, is also concerned with signification. Gawain's pentangle, for example, implies an Augustinian and Thomistic understanding of signification. His sash, on the other hand, has its meaning rooted in the varying experience that individuals have of Gawain's adventure at the Green Chapel, suggesting an Ockhamistic perception of signification. Chapter Four analyzes Piers Plowman, a poem also concerned with signs and their function. Will's search for a stable framework which would allow him a sure interpretation of the signs that crowd his dream is continuous and almost always inadequate; instead, a term's meaning shifts according to Will's experience, suggesting that he too occupies an Ockhamistic world of incertitude." [William Langland]]

Hanawalt, Barbara, ed. Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

Hanna, Ralph, III. London Literature, 1300-1380. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 57. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. [On the literary culture of London in the years before Chaucer, including Anglo-Norman and Latin texts as well as Middle English. The focus of the book is on English romances (esp. those in the Auchinleck Manuscript and MS Laud misc. 622) and on William Langland's Piers Plowman. Publisher's description: "Hanna emphasises the uneasy boundaries legal thought and discourse shared with historical and 'romance' thinking, and shows how the technique of romance, Latin writing associated with administrative culture, and biblical interests underwrote the great pre-Chaucerian London poem, William Langland's Piers Plowman." Includes a section on the Wycliffite Bible translation.
     Contents: English vernacular culture in London before 1380: the evidence -- The 'old' law -- Reading romance in London: the Auchinleck manuscript and Laud misc. 622 -- Pepys 2498: Anglo-Norman audiences and London biblical texts -- Anglo-Norman's imagined end -- 'Lede&yogh; hire to Londoun &yogh;ere lawe is yshewed': Piers Plowman B, London, 1377.]

Hazzell, Dinah. Poverty in Late Middle English Literature: The Meene and the Riche. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2009. [Publisher's description: "Studies of medieval poverty tend to focus on a few works, particularly Piers Plowman and related texts, and on the indigent and rural poor. This book presents a comprehensive view of poverty at different social levels, from aristocrat to pauper, and the way in which poverty is employed as a topos to reflect social and moral concerns. The literary works, primarily from the fourteenth century and set within a cultural/historical context, represent a broad range of authors and genres, including romance, chronicle, satire, complaint, homily, hagiography, treatise, and drama, and include both well- and lesser-known pieces. There is a strong focus on the historical and literary solutions to poverty, as well as factors that influenced the complex and often conflicting attitudes towards the poor."]

Hill-Vásquez, Heather. "Chaucer's Wife of Bath, Hoccleve's Arguing Women, and Lydgate's Hertford Wives: Lay Interpretation and the Figure of the Spinning Woman in Late Medieval England." Florilegium 23.2 (2006): 169-195.

Hopkins, Andrea. The Sinful Knights: A Study of Middle English Penitential Romance. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Howes, Laura L. Place, Space, and Landscape in Medieval Narrative. Tennessee Studies in Literature 43. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2007. [Contents: Landscape and late medieval literature / John M. Ganim; Making space for history / Lisa H. Cooper; A camp wedding / William R. Askins; Adventurous Custance / Lawrence Warner; "The sun shall be turned to darkness and the moon to blood" / Thomas J. Heffernan; Controlling space and secrets in the Lais of Marie de France / Michael Calabrese; Chaucerian gardens and the spirit of play / Kenneth Bleeth; Landscapes of discrimination in converso literature / Gregory B. Kaplan; "Truthe is therinne" / Kari Kalve; Eastward of the garden / Catherine S. Cox; The place of chivalry in the new Trojan court / Sylvia Federico; Before Chaucer's Shipman's Tale / Robert W. Hanning.]

Hynes, William J., and William G. Doty, eds. Mythical Trickster Figures: Contours, Contexts, and Criticisms. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1993. [Contents: "Introducing the Fascinating and Perplexing Trickster Figure," by William J. Hynes and William G. Doty; "Historical Overview of Theoretical Issues: The Problem of the Trickster," by William G. Doty and William J. Hynes; "Mapping the Characteristics of Mythic Tricksters: A Heuristic Guide," by William J. Hynes; "A Lifetime of Trouble-Making: Hermes as Trickster," by William G. Doty; "The Myth of the Trickster: The Necessary Breaker of Taboos," by Laura Makarius; "The Shaman and the Trickster," by Mac Linscott Ricketts; "The Exception Who Proves the Rules: Ananse the Akan Trickster," by Christopher Vecsey; "West African Tricksters: Web of Purpose, Dance of Delight," by Robert D. Pelton; "A Japanese Mythic Trickster Figure: Susa-no-o," by Robert S. Ellwood; "Saint Peter: Apostle Transfigured into Trickster," by William J. Hynes and Thomas J. Steele; "The Moral Imagination of the Kaguru: Some Thoughts on Tricksters, Translation and Comparative Analysis," by T. O. Beidelman; "Inhabiting the Space Between Discourse and Story in Trickster Narratives," by Anne Doueihi; "Inconclusive Conclusions: Tricksters--Metaplayers and Revealers," by William J. Hynes.]

Imbert-Terry, H. M. "The Poetical Contemporaries of Chaucer." In Chaucer Memorial Lectures, 1900: Read before the Royal Society of Literature. Ed. Percy W[illoughby] Ames. London: Asher, 1900. Pp. 1-43.

Ingham, Patricia Clare. Sovereign Fantasies: Arthurian Romance and the Making of Britain. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Jager, Eric. The Tempter's Voice: Language and the Fall in Medieval Literature. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994. [On the centrality of the doctrine of the Fall to medieval literature and culture.]

Jeffrey, David Lyle. "Chaucer and Wyclif: Biblical Hermeneutic and Literary Theory in the XIVth Century." In Chaucer and Scriptural Tradition. Ed. David Lyle Jeffrey. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1984. Pp. 109-140. [[Wycliffe]]

Kane, George. Middle English Literature: A Critical Study of the Romances, the Religious Lyrics, "Piers Plowman." Methuen's Old English Library. London: Methuen, 1951.

Kelen, Sarah Ann. "'Clerkes, Poetes, and Historiographs': Chaucer, Langland, and the Literature of History." Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1996. [DAI 57 (1996-1997): 3928A-3929A. Abstract: "This dissertation argues that both Chaucer and Langland, the two most widely-read 'clerkes' and 'poetes' of fourteenth-century English literature, were, in fact, 'historiographs.' (These terms themselves come from William Caxton's 'Prohemye' to his second edition of the Canterbury Tales, one of the texts discussed in Chapter 3.) Part I of the dissertation offers historiographic readings of these poets' own works--Troilus and Criseyde and Piers Plowman; Part II analyzes the way that the early modern editions of the works of Chaucer and Langland emphasized the historical elements of their poetry.
     "Troilus and Criseyde and Piers Plowman are both interested in history as a process and as a topic of poetry; both address issues of what it means to write history. Piers Plowman does so in the context of its apocalypticism and its meditation on the relationship of earthly, historical communities to the Church which transcends time. Troilus and Criseyde does so in its various discussions of the relationship of a poem to its source texts and of the relationship between literary history and the events it represents.
     "The early modern reception and transmission of Chaucer's poetry and of Piers Plowman (and other works that focus on the figure of the virtuous Plowman) consistently emphasize the antiquity of medieval literature. Early printed editions of works by Chaucer and Langland cast this antiquity as simultaneously a hindrance to interpretation and a mark of authority. Furthermore, for their fifteenth- and sixteenth-century readers and editors, the works of Chaucer and Langland are valuable because, as texts from the past, they necessarily embody and transmit English history. The early modern creation of a canon of English literature is thus produced by historical as much as literary motives."]

Kendrick, Laura. "Medieval Satire." In A Companion to Satire. Ed. Ruben Quintero. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 46. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007. Pp. 52-69.

Kessel-Brown, Deirdre. "The Emotional Landscape of the Forest in the Mediaeval Love Lament." Medium Ævum 59 (1990): 228-247. [Where the garden (the "locus amoenus"--Kessel-Brown uses Curtius's phrase) is the landscape of "lovers' fulfilment," the forest "provides imagery for those unhappy in love" (p. 228).]

Knight, Stephen. "The Social Function of the Middle English Romances." In Medieval Literature: Criticism, Ideology, and History. Ed. David Aers. New York: St. Martin's, 1986. Pp. 99-122.

Knopp, Sherron Elizabeth. "The Figure of the Narrator in Medieval Romance and Dream Vision." Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1975. [DAI 36 (1975-1976): 4471A.]

Kratins, Ojars. "Treason in Middle English Metrical Romances." Philological Quarterly 45 (1966): 668-687.

Lazar, Moshé, and Norris J. Lacy, eds. Poetics of Love in the Middle Ages: Texts and Contexts. Fairfax: George Mason University Press, 1989.

Le Goff, Jacques, and Pierre Vidal-Naquet. "Lévi-Strauss in Broceliande: A Brief Analysis of a Courtly Romance." In The Medieval Imagination. By Jacques Le Goff. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Pp. 107-131. [Orig. published (in French) as "Lévi-Strauss en Brocéliande," Critique no. 325 (June 1974): 541-571; rpt. in Le Goff's L'imaginaire médiéval (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1985). On Chrétien de Troyes's Yvain, and the Arthurian forest as reflecting dichotomies of "nature" and "culture."]

Levy, Bernard S., ed. The Bible in the Middle Ages: Its Influence on Literature and Art. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 89. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1992.

Lewis, C. S. The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition. London: Oxford University Press, 1936.

Little, Katherine C. Confession and Resistance: Defining the Self in Late Medieval England. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006. [Contents: Narratives and self-definition -- Confession and the speaking subject -- Chaucer's parson and the language of self-definition -- The retreat from confession.]

Lowe, Jeremy. Desiring Truth: The Process of Judgment in Fourteenth-Century Art and Literature. Studies in Medieval History and Culture 30. London and New York: Routledge, 2005. [Contents: Sympathetic participation and the Via Positiva -- Visual fascination and two illustrated prayer books -- The multiple modes of The parlement of the thre ages and Piers Plowman -- The cinematic consciousness of the Pearl-poet.]

Machan, Tim William, ed. Medieval Literature: Texts and Interpretations. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 79. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1991.

Mann, Jill, and Maura Nolan, eds. The Text in the Community: Essays on Medieval Works, Manuscripts, Authors, and Readers. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006. [Contents: Versifying the Bible in the Middle Ages / Michael Lapidge -- "He knew Nat Catoun": medieval school-texts and Middle English literature / Jill Mann -- Computing Cynewulf: the Judith-connection / Andy Orchard -- The contexts of Notre Dame / A. S. G. Edwards -- The haunted text: ghostly reflections in The Mirror to Devout People / Vincent Gillespie -- The visual environment of Carthusian texts: decoration and illustration in Notre Dame 67 / Jessica Brantley -- The Knight and the rose: French manuscripts in the Notre Dame library / Maureen Boulton -- The meditations on the life of Christ: an illuminated fourteenth-century Italian manuscript at the University of Notre Dame / Dianne Phillips.]

Margherita, Gayle. The Romance of Origins: Language and Sexual Difference in Middle English Literature. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 1994. [Publisher's description: "An exploration of the intimate relationship between sexual and historical fantasies in such medieval texts as Troilus and Criseyde, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, The Book of Margery Kempe, The Life and the Passion of St. Julian, and several of the secular Harley Lyrics." Includes a section on Margery Kempe.]

Martindale, Charles, ed. Ovid Renewed: Ovidian Influences on Literature and Art from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Masciandaro, Nicola. The Voice of the Hammer: The Meaning of Work in Middle English Literature. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "In The Voice of the Hammer, Nicola Masciandaro examines the Middle English lexicon, accounts of the history of work, and the poetry of Geoffrey Chaucer to reveal that late medieval society understood work as a distinct and problematical field of experience, and that concerns over the relation of work to life were as pressing then as now."
     Contents: "Labour of tonge": the Middle English vocabulary of work -- "Cause & fundacion of alle craftys": imagining work's origins -- "My werk": Chaucer and the subject of swink.]

Mattord, Carola Louise. "Lay Writers and the Politics of Theology in Medieval England from the Twelfth to Fifteenth Centuries." Ph.D. diss., Georgia State University, 2009. [DAI 71 (2010-2011): 1630A. Abstract: "This dissertation is a critical analysis of identity in literature within the historical context of the theopolitical climate in England between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. The narratives under consideration are the Lais of Marie de France, The Canterbury Tales, and The Book of Margery Kempe. A focus on the business of theology and the Church's political influence on identity will highlight these lay writers' artistic shaping of theopolitical ideas into literature. Conducting a literary analysis on the application of theopolitical ideas by these lay writers encourages movement beyond the traditional exegetical interpretation of their narratives and furthers our determination of lay intellectual attitudes toward theology and its political purposes in the development of identity and society."]

Meyer-Lee, Robert J. Poets and Power from Chaucer to Wyatt. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 61. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "In the early fifteenth century, English poets responded to a changed climate of patronage, instituted by Henry IV and successor monarchs, by inventing a new tradition of public and elite poetry. Following Chaucer and others, Hoccleve and Lydgate brought to English verse a new style and subject matter to write about their King, nation, and themselves, and their innovations influenced a continuous line of poets running through and beyond Wyatt. A crucial aspect of this new tradition is its development of ideas and practices associated with the role of poet laureate. Robert J. Meyer-Lee examines the nature and significance of this tradition as it develops from the fourteenth century to Tudor times, tracing its evolution from one author to the next. This study illuminates the relationships between poets and political power and makes plain the tremendous impact this verse has had on the shape of English literary culture."
     Contents: Introduction: Laureates and beggars; Part I. Backgrounds: 1. Laureate poetics; Part II. The First Lancastrian Poets: 2. John Lydgate: the invention of the English laureate; 3. Thomas Hoccleve: beggar laureate; Part III. From Lancaster to Early Tudor: 4. Lydgateanism; 5. The trace of Lydgate: Stephen Hawes, Alexander Barclay, and John Skelton; Epilogue: Sir Thomas Wyatt: anti-laureate.]

Miller, Paul Scott. "The Mediaeval Literary Theory of Satire and its Relevance to the Works of Gower, Langland and Chaucer." Ph.D. thesis, Queen's University of Belfast, 1982. [DAI 51 (1990-1991): 1222A. Abstract: "In this study, 'satire' is not used in any modern sense, but in the classical and mediaeval sense: satire is a specific body of poetry founded in ancient Rome and developed in Western Christendom during the Middle Ages. Indeed, much recent scholarship on Roman satire has rightly taken pains to distinguish between the formal satire of the Roman poets Lucilius, Horace, Persius, and Juvenal on the one hand, and, on the other hand, that variety of post-Renaissance literature named 'satire' for want of a more appropriate literary category. That distinction is preserved here, for it is an objective of this study to investigate, without reference to twentieth-century literary prejudices, the nature of satire in the Middle Ages. There is a fundamental justification for this approach. We are familiar with the boundaries and conventions of classical, renaissance, and modern literary genres thanks to the assiduity of generations of scholars; but little corresponding work has been undertaken on mediaeval literary genres. Once it is known what mediaeval scholars and writers understood by the noun satura ('satire,' sometimes spelt satira or satyra) and the adjective satiricus ('satirical'; used as a substantive to mean 'satirist'), it will be possible to identify mediaeval satirical works. Once sufficient mediaeval satires have been identified, it will be possible to form an estimate of the mediaeval satirical tradition. None of this can be achieved by applying modern generic definitions to mediaeval literature. My purpose in the following pages is threefold. First, by investigating the way in which the classical satires of Horace, Persius, and Juvenal were studied in the schools during the Middle Ages, I hope to reconstruct the mediaeval definition of satire. Second, I propose to identify and classify works which, by reference to prevailing contemporary critical theory, can be shown to be the true mediaeval successors to Roman satire. Third, I intend to apply the findings to the works of three major English poets writing in the second half of the fourteenth century."]

Minnis, A. J., ed. Middle English Poetry: Texts and Traditions; Essays in Honour of Derek Pearsall. York Manuscripts Conferences 5. Woodbridge, Suffolk: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2001.

Minnis, A[lastair] J. Translations of Authority in Medieval English Literature: Valuing the Vernacular. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. [Publisher's description: "Minnis presents the fruits of a long-term engagement with the ways in which crucial ideological issues were deployed in vernacular texts. He addresses the crisis for vernacular translation precipitated by the Lollard heresy, Langland's views on indulgences, Chaucer's tales of suspicious saints and risible relics, and more."
     Contents: Absent glosses: the trouble with middle English hermeneutics -- Looking for a sign: the quest for Nominalism in Ricardian poetry -- Piers's protean pardon: Langland on the letter and spirit of indulgences -- Making bodies: confection and conception in Walter Brut's vernacular theology -- Spiritualizing marriage: Margery Kempe's allegories of female authority -- Chaucer and the relics of vernacular religion.]

Minnis, A. J., and Charlotte C. Morse, Thorlac Turville-Petre, eds. Essays on Ricardian Literature in Honour of J. A. Burrow. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Monsma, Bradley John. "Active Readers, Obverse Tricksters: Trickster Texts and Recreative Reading." In Divine Aporia: Postmodern Conversations about the Other. Ed. John C. Hawley. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 2000. Pp. 153-171.

Nerlich, Michael. Ideology of Adventure: Studies in Modern Consciousness, 1100-1750. Trans. Ruth Crowley. Foreword Wlad Godzich. 2 vols. Theory and History of Literature 42-43. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987. [Originally published as Kritik der Abenteuer-Ideologie. Publisher's description: "Questions the traditional bourgeois notion that human beings are, by nature, adventurers, and instead shows how the notion of adventure changed over time--from the French medieval court down to the expanding capitalist societies of western Europe in the eighteenth century."]

Nuttall, Jenni [Jennifer Anne]. The Creation of Lancastrian Kingship: Literature, Language and Politics in Late Medieval England. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 67. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. [Contents: Household narratives -- Stereotyping Richard and the Ricardian familia -- The dissemination of the Ricardian stereotype -- Politicizing pre-existing languages -- From stereotypes to standards -- Household narratives in Lancastrian poetry -- Credit and love -- Promises, expectations, explanations, and solutions -- A discourse of credit and loyalty -- Credit and fraud in Hoccleve's Regiment -- Lancastrian conversations.]

Owst, Gerald R. Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England: A Neglected Chapter in the History of English Letters and of the English People. 2nd ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1961. [Argues that the satire of Chaucer, Langland, and others owes much to the preaching of the time against the vices of the age.]

Owst, Gerald R. Preaching in Medieval England: An Introduction to Sermon Manuscripts of the Period c.1350-1450. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought. 1926; New York: Russell & Russell, 1965.

Pangilinan, Maria Cristina Santos. "Poetry and London Learning: Chaucer, Gower, Usk, Langland and Hoccleve." Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2009. [DAI 70 (2009-2010): 3867A. Abstract: "Medieval London, unlike medieval Paris, did not have a university. The absence of a dominant local institution that regulated intellectual innovation in a historical moment that sees the collapse of distinctions between clerical and lay presented an opportunity for the poetic appropriation of the academy's disciplines in Latin and in Middle English. 'Poetry and London Learning' presents London as a center of English, intellectual culture, on par with Oxford and Cambridge. I argue that late medieval London poetry constitutes a coherent, innovative intellectual movement. London poets Geoffrey Chaucer, John Gower, Thomas Usk, William Langland, Thomas Hoccleve, and the anonymous Mum and the Soothesegger-poet present poetry as local scholarship that is affiliated with the City and the nearby jurisdictions of Southwark and Westminster rather than the academy. These poets redefine medieval academic disciplines to make them immediately available, comprehensible and useful to a London reading audience. Chaucer narrates the history of alchemy; Gower revises late-medieval historiography; Usk makes a London ethics out of the materials of theology; and Langland narrates a common origin for poetry and natural philosophy. In the process of revising academic disciplines for the City, these poets present poetic, pedagogical narratives that intend to generate models of urban intellectual subject formation.
     "Every chapter describes London, a community and a place experienced differently by each poet, and explains how each poet's specific location, career, and affiliations produced singular revisions of institutional, pedagogic tradition. Each chapter also presents the long histories of the disciplines concerned in order to describe how these poets' contributions become implicated or marginalized in English intellectual history. Hoccleve's invention of Chaucerian science contributed to sixteenth-century antiquarians' claims regarding the genealogy of an ancient urban, poetic scholarly tradition in spite of the continued absence of a university in the City. Gower's idiosyncratic performance of Latin history alienates his poetic production from the longer tradition of historical writing about the City. 'Poetry and London Learning,' therefore, refuses to narrate a history of English poetry periodized by regnal period, but insists upon imagining the place of London's late-medieval poets in the longer history of English scholarship."]

Parkinson, Kathleen, and Martin Priestman, eds. Peasants and Countrymen in Literature: A Symposium Organised by the English Department of the Roehampton Institute in February 1981. London: English Department, Roehampton Institute of Higher Education, 1982. [Contents: Images from a peasant woman's memory / John Berger and Jean Mohr -- Hearing him / John Berger -- Realism and country people / Raman Selden -- Roman agriculture and the European landscape / Jack Hill -- The peasants of Piers Plowman and its audience / Robin Lister -- The politics of pastoral / Roger Sales -- Scott, Burns, and the Scottish peasantry / Ian Carter -- Producing voices / Simon Edwards -- A way-worn ancestry returning / Steve Bamlett -- Van Gogh as painter of peasants / Griselda Pollock.]

Patch, Howard. The Goddess Fortuna in Medieval Literature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1927.

Patterson, Lee, ed. Literary Practice and Social Change in Britain, 1380-1530. New Historicism: Studies in Cultural Politics 8. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Patterson, Lee. Negotiating the Past: The Historical Understanding of Medieval Literature. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

Pearsall, Derek, ed. Chaucer to Spenser: A Critical Reader. Blackwell Critical Readers in Literature. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. [A companion volume to Chaucer to Spenser: An Anthology.]

Piehler, Paul. The Visionary Landscape: A Study of Medieval Allegory. London: Edward Arnold, 1971.

Pinti, Daniel J., ed. Writing after Chaucer: Essential Readings in Chaucer and the Fifteenth Century. Basic Readings in Chaucer and his Times 1; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 2040. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1998.

Plummer, John F. "The Woman's Song in Middle English and its European Backgrounds." In Vox Feminae: Studies in Medieval Woman's Songs. Ed. John F. Plummer. Studies in Medieval Culture 15. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1981. Pp. 135-154.

Powell, Susan, and Jeremy J. Smith, eds. New Perspectives on Middle English Texts: A Festschrift for R. A. Waldron. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2000.

Rayner, Samantha J. Images of Kingship in Chaucer and his Ricardian Contemporaries. Chaucer Studies. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2008. [Publisher's description: "The idea of kingship forms a recurrent theme in the poems of the so-called 'Ricardians,' John Gower, William Langland, the Gawain-poet and Chaucer--unsurprisingly, during a period of considerable turmoil. This book aims to widen understanding of these poets through an examination of the theme in Confessio Amantis, Piers Plowman and the works of the Gawain-poet and then setting these against the works of Geoffrey Chaucer, the most well-known and studied of the Ricardians. It brings the other poets' work into sharper focus, showing that despite a diversity in style and approach, common concerns and attitudes underpin all of the poets under consideration."
     Contents: Gower, The Confessio Amantis; Langland, Piers Plowman; The Gawain-poet; Chaucer, The Dream Poems.]

Rees Jones, Sarah, ed. Learning and Literacy in Medieval England and Abroad. Intro. Derek Pearsall. Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy 3. Turnhout: Brepols, 2003. [Contents: Introduction / Derek Pearsall -- Learning Latin in Anglo-Saxon England: Traditions, Texts and Techniques / Joyce Hill -- "A Man Takes an Ox by the Horn and a Peasant by the Tongue": Literacy, Orality and Inquisition in Medieval Languedoc / John H. Arnold -- Selby Abbey and its Twelfth-Century Historian / Janet Burton -- Did Medieval English Women Read Augustine's Confessiones?: Constructing Feminine Interiority and Literacy in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries / Linda Olson -- Reading, Singing and Understanding: Constructions of the Literacy of Women Religious in Late Medieval England / Katherine Zieman -- The Women Readers in Langland's Earliest Audience: Some Codicological Evidence / Kathryn Kerby-Fulton -- Learning to Be a Man, Learning to Be a Priest in Late Medieval England / P. H. Cullum -- The York Cycle and Instruction on the Sacraments / Pamela M. King -- London Pride: Citizenship and the Fourteenth-Century Custumals of the City of London / Debbie Cannon -- Parochial Libraries in Pre-Reformation England / Stacey Gee.]

Rhodes, James Francis. Poetry Does Theology: Chaucer, Grosseteste, and the Pearl-Poet. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001. [Contents: Poetry and theology. Transforming theological discourse: a theoretical and practical approach -- Theology and humanism in the fourteenth century -- The Nun's Priest's metamorphosis of scholastic discourse -- Grosseteste and Langland. Robert Grosseteste's Le chateau d'amour and late medieval anthropocentrism -- Langland and the Four daughters of God -- The Pearl-poet. "kark and combraunce huge" in Cleanness -- Vision and history in Patience -- The dreamer redeemed: exile and the kingdom in Pearl -- The Bishop's tears: baptism, justification, and the resurrection of the body (politic) in Saint Erkenwald -- Chaucer. Pilgrimage and dtorytelling in the Canterbury tales -- The "greyn" and the "fruit of thilke seed of chastitee": Charity and chastity in the Prioress's tale and the Second nun's tale -- From caritas to love: The reeve's tale and Fragment 1 -- "Com hider, love, to me!" The Pardoner's untransformed discourse.]

Robertson, Kellie. "Authorial Work." In Middle English. Ed. Paul Strohm. Oxford Twenty-First Century Approaches to Literature. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp. 441-458. [Legal and moral discussions of work, working, labour, and their relationship to authorial "labour."]

Saunders, Corinne. "The Affective Body: Love, Virtue and Vision in English Medieval Literature." In The Body and the Arts. Ed. Corinne J. Saunders, Ulrika Maude, and Jane Macnaughton. Basingstoke, Hants., and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Pp. 87-102.

Saunders, Corinne J., ed. A Companion to Medieval Poetry. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 67. Chichester, and Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. [Contents: The World of Anglo-Saxon England / Andy Orchard -- Old English language and the alliterative tradition / Richard Dance -- Old English manuscripts and readers / Rohinin Jayatilaka -- Old English and Latin poetic traditions / Andy Orchard -- Germanic legend and Old English heroic poetry / Hugh Magennis -- Old English biblical and devotional poetry / Daniel Anlezark -- Old English wisdom poetry / David Ashurst -- Old English epic poetry: Beowulf / Daniel Anlezark -- World of medieval England: from the Norman conquest to the fourteenth century / Conor McCarthy -- Middle English language and poetry / Simon Horobin -- Middle English manuscripts and readers / Ralph Hanna -- Legendary history and chronicle: Lazamons's "Brut" and the chronicle tradition / Lucy Perry -- Medieval debate-poetry and "The Owl and the Nightingale" / Neil Cartlidge -- Lyrics, sacred and secular / David Fuller -- Macaronic poetry / Elizabeth Archibald -- Popular romance / Nancy Mason Bradbury -- Arthurian and courtly romance / Rosalind Field -- Alliterative poetry: religion and morality / John Sacttergood -- Alliterative poetry and politics / John Scattergood -- Poet of Pearl, Cleanness and Patience / A. V. C. Schmidt -- Sir Gawain and the Green Knight / Tony Davenport -- Langland's "Piers Plowman" / Lawrence Warner -- Chaucer's "Troilus and Criseyde" / Alcuin Blamires -- Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales" / Corinne Saunders -- Poetry of John Gower / R. F. Yeager -- England in the long fifteenth century / Matthew Woodcock -- Poetic language in the fifteenth century / A. S. G. Edwards -- Manuscript and print: books, readers and writers / Julia Boffey -- Hoccleve and Lydgate / Daniel Wakelin -- Women and writing / C. Annette Grisé -- Medieval Scottish poetry / Douglas Gray -- Courtiers and courtly poetry / Barry Windeatt -- Drama: sacred and secular / Pamela King.]

Scase, Wendy. "Reading Communities." In The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English. Ed. Elaine M. Treharne and Greg Walker. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. 557-573. [The practice of reading aloud together.]

Scattergood, [Vincent] John. "Literary Culture at the Court of Richard II." In English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages. Ed. V[incent] J[ohn] Scattergood, and J. W. Sherborne. Colston Papers. London: Duckworth, 1983. Pp. 29-43. [Rpt. in his Reading the Past: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 1996. Pp. 114-127.]

Scattergood, V[incent] J[ohn]. Politics and Poetry in the Fifteenth Century, 1399-1485. Blandford History Series: History and Literature. London: Blandford Press, 1971. [Chap. 9 includes a section on "London Lickpenny"; Chap. 10 includes a discussion of the Rising of 1381, the Letters of John Ball, and other political works of the late fourteenth century.]

Scattergood, [Vincent] John. Reading the Past: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 1996.

Scattergood, V[incent] J[ohn], and J. W. Sherborne, eds. English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages. Colston Papers. London: Duckworth, 1983.

Schiffhorst, G. J., ed. The Triumph of Patience: Medieval and Renaissance Studies. Orlando: University Presses of Florida, 1978. [Studies in the History of the Idea of Patience, with special reference to Langland (Piers Plowman), to the Gawain-poet and his Patience, to Shakespeare and to Milton.]

Schoff, Rebecca L. Reformations: Three Medieval Authors in Manuscript and Movable Type. Texts and Transitions 4. Turnhout: Brepols, 2007. [Contents: History of the book and authorship in the Late Middle Ages -- Reading, writing, and printing the Canterbury tales -- Editing the books of Margery Kempe -- Printing, writing, and reading Piers Plowman -- Readers as agents of change?]

Shklar, Ruth Sarah Nisse. "Spectacles of Dissent: Heresy, Mysticism and Drama in Late Medieval England." Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1995. [DAI 57 (1996-1997): 1130A-1131A. Abstract: "Spectacles of Dissent: Heresy, Mysticism and Drama in Late Medieval England examines the relationships between heterodox challenges to public institutions in Wycliffite writings and implicitly dissenting political agendas in The Book of Margery Kempe and the York Mystery Plays. Wycliffite attacks on tradition initiate the controversies about the authority of history that inform all of these texts' critical interpretations of personal and collective narratives.
     "Chapter One offers a reading of the antitheatrical polemic in the Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge, an uneasy attempt to shore up the Wycliffites' own valorization of literalistic biblical exegesis by condemning the failed figural hermeneutics and fleshly excesses of Corpus Christi drama. The Tretise represents both the exegetical subtext and the civic ideology of the plays as a carnal literalism, a slide backward in which Christian players reenact rather than redeem their pagan and Jewish cultural origins.
     "Chapter Two takes up William Thorpe's account of his examination for Lollardy. Thorpe aligns a strangely intimate narrative of his own rejection of his parents' property and power with a heretical stance against church property, subverting the familial terms of secular political theories to define Archbishop Arundel's tyranny. He grounds the authority of his subsequent historical apologia for earlier Lollards in a discourse of absolute poverty that yokes authorship to humility and antityrranical resistance.
     "Chapter Three argues that the defendants in the 1428-31 Norwich Lollardy trials develop a distinctive political vocabulary by adopting a parodic relation to the lay spirituality of parish gilds. In their 'schools,' the Lollards appropriate the fraternities' associative style and exploit their potential for sedition while vehemently attacking their mechanisms for forming orthodox identities.
     "Chapter Four considers The Book of Margery Kempe as a disruptive response to attempts by Lancastrian propagandists to construct Lollardy as an infection of the political sphere by women. In the wake of Oldcastle's Rebellion, images circulated of heretics as literate women or men feminized by disobedience. Kempe reworks the gendered terms of such polemics as the basis of a unique type of mystical dissent.
     "Chapter Five argues that the plays of the 'trials of Christ' at the heart of the York Mystery cycle represent attempts by government authorities and gilds to transform biblical history into vernacular civic oratory. Even as these productions seek to counter heresy by creating an urban identity for players and audience, they reveal profound ideological debts to widely-circulated dissenting sermons."]

Silverstein, Theodore. Literate Laughter: Critical Essays in Medieval Narrative and Poetry. Ed. John C. Jacobs. Fwd. by Winthrop Wetherbee. Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt-am-Main, New York, Oxford, Vienna: Peter Lang, 2002. [A collection of previously published essays by Silverstein, including several on Gawain and the Green Knight.]

Simpson, James. "Confessing Literature." English Language Notes 44.1 (Spring, 2006): 121-126. [Reprints an early article that forecast the "religious turn" in criticism. Abstract: "If the 1970s witnessed a politicization of literary studies, the first decade of the present century might be about to witness a confessionalization of literary studies. So politics has been, or soon will be, dethroned by religion as the queen of the sciences in various quarters, both academic and non-academic. Even to put the matter in this way is to imply symmetry between the political and the religious."]

Smalley, Beryl. The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages. 3rd ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983.

Solopova, Elizabeth, and Stuart D. Lee. Key Concepts in Medieval Literature. Palgrave Key Concepts. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Southworth, John. The English Medieval Minstrel. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1990.

Stanbury, Sarah. "Vernacular Nostalgia and The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 44.1 (Spring, 2002): 92-107. [While Wallace and the other authors of the The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature do much to recognize the multilingual and multicultural nature of England in the Middle Ages, Stanbury notes a certain tendency among them (not least, Steven Justice, in his essay on "Lollardy") to see the use of English among medieval writers as a conscious political decision. The English language is associated here with "ethical reform," with "dissent," as if the language itself were "a linguistic Robin Hood." The use of English by Langland and Chaucer shows a "democratizing" trend in vernacularity, as if English itself were a "rebellious vox populi." So, while welcoming the book, and declaring herself to be in sympathy with its "new historicist" methods and aims, she urges some caution in accepting a somewhat glib association between the use of the English language and movements of dissent and reform: the use of English is not inherently "radical."]

Strohm, Paul. Hochon's Arrow: The Social Imagination of Fourteenth-Century Texts. With an appendix by A. J. Prescott. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992. ["Interrogates archival records, chronicles, and literary texts for their truth claims; reads the 1381 rising as an aspect of the carnivalesque. See especially Introduction: 'False Fables and Historical Truth' (pp. 3-10), and chapter 2, '"A Revelle": Chronicle Evidence and the Rebel Voice' (pp. 33-56)" (annotation in Literature of Richard II's Reign and the Peasants' Revolt, ed. James M. Dean [1996]).]

Strohm, Paul, ed. Middle English. Oxford Twenty-First Century Approaches to Literature. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Sturges, Robert S. Medieval Interpretation: Models of Reading in Literary Narrative, 1100-1500. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991.

Summit, Jennifer. Lost Property: The Woman Writer and English Literary History, 1380-1589. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. [Contents: "Following Corinne: Chaucer's Classical Women Writers"; "The City of Ladies in the Library of Gentlemen: Christine de Pizan in England, 1450-1526"; "The Reformation of the Women Writer"; "'A ladies penne': Elizabeth I and the Making of English Poetry."]

Sweeney, Michelle. Magic in Medieval Romance: From Chrétien de Troyes to Geoffrey Chaucer. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2000.

Taylor, Andrew. "Into his Secret Chamber: Reading and Privacy in Late Medieval England." In The Practice and Representation of Reading in England. Ed. James Raven, Helen Small, and Naomi Tadmor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Pp. 41-61. [On "private" forms of reading in the later Middle Ages (such as the meditational techniques incorporated into the Meditationes vitae Christi: reading as a form of prayer, etc.), including an account of Margaret Beaufort's devotional practices and of her collection of devotional texts.]

Treharne, Elaine, ed. Writing Gender and Genre in Medieval Literature: Approaches to Old and Middle English Texts. Essays and Studies ns 55. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, for the English Association, 2002. [Publisher's description: "The essays in this annual English Association volume provide useful examples of how the conventions behind and the expectations evoked by literary modes and genres help to shape what purports to be an entirely essential and/or socially constructed aspect of identity of the 'he,' 'she,' or 'I' of the literary text. Ranging across materials from Old English Biblical poetry and hagiography to the late Middle English romances and fabliaux, the essays are united by a commitment to a variety of traditional scholarly methodologies. But each examines afresh an important aspect of what it means to be man or women, husband, son, mother, daughter, wife, devotee or love in the context of particular kinds of medieval literary texts."]

Treharne, Elaine M., and Greg Walker, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "The study of medieval literature has experienced a revolution in the last two decades, which has reinvigorated many parts of the discipline and changed the shape of the subject in relation to the scholarship of the previous generation. 'New' texts (laws and penitentials, women's writing, drama records), innovative fields and objects of study (the history of the book, the study of space and the body, medieval masculinities), and original ways of studying them (the Sociology of the Text, performance studies) have emerged. This has brought fresh vigour and impetus to medieval studies, and impacted significantly on cognate periods and areas. The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English brings together the insights of these new fields and approaches with those of more familiar texts and methods of study, to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of medieval literature today. It also returns to first principles in posing fundamental questions about the nature, scope, and significance of the discipline, and the directions that it might take in the next decade."
     Contents: "Speaking of the medieval," Elaine Treharne. Part I. Literary production: "Books and manuscripts," A. S. G. Edwards; "Textual copying and transmission," Orietta Da Rold; "The professionalization of writing," Simon Horobin; "Writing, authority, and bureaucracy," Nicholas Perkins; "The impact of print: the perceived worth of the printed book in England, 1476-1575," Elizabeth Evenden. Part II. Literary consumption: "Literature and the cultural elites," Ralph Hanna; "The verse of heroes," Jayne Carroll; "Insular romance," Siân Echard; "A York primer and its alphabet: reading women in a lay household," Nicola Mcdonald; "Performing communities: civic religious drama," John J. McGavin. Part III. Literature, clerical and lay: "Change and continuity: the English sermon before 1250," Bella Millett; "Authorizing female piety," Diane Watt; "Visions and visionaries," Andrew Galloway; "Writing, heresy, and the anticlerical muse," Mishtooni Bose; "Acquiring wisdom: teaching texts and the lore of the people," Daniel Anlezark. Part IV. Literary realities: "The Yorkshire partisans and the literature of popular discontent," Andrew Prescott; "The Gothic turn and twelfth-century English chronicles," Thomas A. Bredehoft; "Anti-social reform: writing rebellion," Stephen Kelly; "Secular medieval drama," Elisabeth Dutton; "Sweit rois- delytsum lyllie: metaphorical and real flowers in medieval verse," Gillian Rudd. Part V. Complex identities: "Authority, constraint, and the writing of the medieval self," Kathryn Kerby-Fulton; "Complex identities: selves and others," Kathy Lavezzo; "The chosen people: spiritual identities," Samantha Zacher; "Individuality," Alcuin Blamires; "Emergent Englishness," Jacqueline Stodnick. Part VI. Literary place, space, and time: "Regions and communities," Helen Fulton; "The city and the text: London literature," Alison Wiggins; "Reading communities," Wendy Scase; "Scottish writing," Elizabeth Elliot; "Places of the imagination: the Gawain-poet," Thorlac Turville-Petre. Part VII. Literary journeys: "Pilgrimages, travel writing, and the medieval exotic," Jeffrey Jerome Cohen; "Britain: originary myths and the stories of peoples," Anke Bernau; "Maps and margins: other lands, other peoples," Alfred Hiatt; "Monsters and the exotic in medieval England," Asa Simon Mittman and Susan M. Kim; "Spiritual quest and social space: texts of hard travel for God on Earth and in the heart," Mary Baine Campbell. Part VIII. Epilogue: "When did 'the medieval' end: retrospection, foresight, and the end(s) of the English Middle Ages," Greg Walker.]

Turner, Marion. "Conflict." In Middle English. Ed. Paul Strohm. Oxford Twenty-First Century Approaches to Literature. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp. 258-273. [Begins with an observation that the most productive period in terms of medieval literature was also the period of greatest conflicts: textuality and literacy are related to contestation of various sorts.]

Turville-Petre, Thorlac. Reading Middle English Literature. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. [Contents: Part 1: The Use of English: "Three Languages"; "The Choice of English"; "Social Register." Part 2: Texts and Manuscripts: "Information from Manuscripts"; "Scribes and their Manuscripts"; "Audiences"; "Authors." Part 3: Literature and Society: "Bond and Free"; "Social Tensions in the Reeve's Tale"; "Ploughing Piers' Half Acre"; "At the Court of King Arthur"; "In Criseyde's Palace." Part 4: History and Romance: "Definitions"; "Monastic History"; "The History of St Erkenwald"; "Englishing Arthur"; "The Fairy World." Part 5: Piety: "From Pecham to Arundel"; "Christ the Lover and God the Unknowable"; "Retelling Biblical Stories"; "The Death of a Child." Part 6: Love and Marriage: "Marriage and Love - and Sex"; "A Lover's Confession"; "Love's Craft"; "'All this Mean I by Love.'"]

Urban, Malte. Fragments: Past and Present in Chaucer and Gower. Bern and Oxford: Peter Lang, 2008.

Veldhoen, N. H. G. E., and H. Aertsen, eds. Companion to Early Middle English Literature. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Free University Press, 1995.

Wallace, David, ed. The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. New Cambridge History of English Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. [Contents: "Old English and its Afterlife," Seth Lerer (7-34); "Anglo-Norman Cultures in England, 1066-1460," Susan Crane (35-60); "Early Middle English," Thomas Hahn (61-91); "National, World and Women's History: Writers and Readers of English in Post-Conquest England," Lesley Johnson and Jocelyn Wogan-Browne (92-121); "Latinitas," Christopher Baswell (122-151); "Romance in England, 1066-1400," Rosalind Field (152-176); "Writing in Wales," Brynley F. Roberts (182-207); "Writing in Ireland," Terence Dolan (208-228); "Writing in Scotland, 1058-1560," R. James Goldstein (229-254); "Writing History in England," Andrew Galloway (255-283); "London Texts and Literate Practice," Sheila Lindenbaum (284-309); "Monastic Productions," Christopher Cannon (316-348); "The Friars and Medieval English Literature," John V. Fleming (349-375); "Classroom and Confession," Marjorie Curry Woods and Rita Copeland (376-406); "Medieval Literature and Law," Richard Firth Green (407-431); "Vox populi and the Literature of 1381," David Aers (432-453); "Englishing the Bible, 1066-1549," David Lawton (454-487); "Alliterative Poetry," Ralph Hanna (488-512); "Piers Plowman," Kathryn Kerby-Fulton (513-538); "The Middle English Mystics," Nicholas Watson (539-565); "Geoffrey Chaucer," Glending Olson (566-588); "John Gower," Winthrop Wetherbee (589-609); "Middle English Lives," Julia Boffey (610-634); "Hoccleve, Lydgate and the Lancastrian Court," Paul Strohm (640-661); "Lollardy," Steven Justice (662-689); "Romance after 1400," Helen Cooper (690-719); "William Caxton," Seth Lerer (720-738); "English Drama: From Ungodly Ludi to Sacred Play," Lawrence M. Clopper (739-766); "The Allegorical Theatre: Moralities, Interludes, and Protestant Drama," John Watkins (767-792); "The Experience of Exclusion: Literature and Politics in the Reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII," Colin Burrow (793-820); "Reformed Literature and Literature Reformed," Brian Cummings (821-851).]

Wasserman, Julian N., and Lois Roney, eds. Sign, Sentence, Discourse: Language in Medieval Thought and Literature. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1989.

Watson, Nicholas. "Cultural Changes." English Language Notes 44.1 (Spring, 2006): 127-137. [Abstract: "This article talks about the partial reconfiguration of Middle English literary studies around the theme of vernacularity, which, like historicism, has acquired hegemonic status. One danger, connected with the word 'vernacular' is that the study of Middle English religious writing as vernacular theology risks assuming a crude narrative of oppositionality, with the vernacular in the role of the plucky underdog."]

Wenzel, Siegfried. "Pestilence and Middle English Literature: Friar John Grimestone's Poems on Death." In The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-Century Plague; Papers of the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Centre for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Ed. Daniel Williman. Intro. Nancy Siraisi. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 13. Binghamton, NY: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1982. Pp. 131-159.

White, Helen. Social Criticism in Popular Religious Literature of the Sixteenth Century. New York: Macmillan, 1944.

White, Paul Whitfield. Drama and Religion in English Provincial Society, 1485-1660. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Paul Whitfield White examines the interplay between theatre and religion in provincial England from the early Tudors to 1660. In challenging the critical narrative of secularization, suppression, and demise, he recasts the history of that drama in the light of fresh sources and recent scholarship."
     Contents: Drama and religion in the English parish -- The parish Robin Hood and religious guilds -- Civic biblical drama in the Age of Reformation -- Theater, religion, and town-gown conflict in Cambridge -- Bishops, recusants, and household theater -- Traveling troupes and regional religion -- From Mankind to Mucedorus.]

White, Richard, ed. King Arthur in Legend and History. Fwd. Allan Massie. London: J. M. Dent, 1997. [An anthology of historical and literary writings, from Gildas to Malory, including French and German as well as English romances, and vernacular as well as Latin chronicles.]

Whitman, Jon. Allegory: The Dynamics of an Ancient and Medieval Technique. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987.

Wilsbacher, Gregory James. "Art and Obligation: Reading, Ethics, and Middle English Poetry." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1998. [DAI 59 (1998-1999): 3448A. Abstract: "This dissertation examines the ethical questions that arise from the study of late medieval culture in the twentieth-century academy. By incorporating recent work in philosophy from Jean-François Lyotard, Emmanuel Levinas, and Jean-Luc Nancy with the study of Middle English literature, I investigate the ethical questions raised through the encounter between literature and history in Chaucer's Legend of Good Women, between critics and medieval poverty in William Langland's fourteenth-century poem, Piers Plowman, and between critics and anti-Semitism in Geoffrey Chaucer's Prioress's Tale. Central to this work is the idea that history is not a stable category, but rather something that can return in uncanny ways to challenge readers ethically. In response to such a challenge--which I argue may provoke a feeling of obligation--readers of medieval literature should explore more fully the impact of the contexts (medieval, modern, and future) in which their reading takes place. By bringing a heightened attention to the complex contexts of reading medieval literature, my dissertation demonstrates that reading medieval texts can provide a place (in classrooms, conference rooms, or journals) in which obligation may happen, and in response to which we as readers are called to do justice. This justice, however, should not come in the form of a quid pro quo, or a payment of a debt. Instead, justice is something that must continually be pursued because one can never know if one's initial response was just."]

Yamamoto, Dorothy. The Boundaries of the Human in Medieval English Literature. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. [Revision of the author's thesis (Ph.D.), Oxford Brookes University. Contents: "Introduction"; "The Bestiary: Establishing Ground Rules"; "Birds: The Ornament of the Air"; "The Fox: Laying Bare Deceit"; "The Heraldic Image"; "Bodies in the Hunt"; "A Reading of The Knight's Tale"; "The Wild Man 1: Figuring Identity"; "The Wild Man 2: The Uncourtly Other"; "Women and the Wild"; "Conclusion." ["monsters"; monstrous races; anthropomorphized animals; bestiary traditions; Aesopic fables]]

Yeager, Robert F., ed. Fifteenth Century Studies: Recent Essays. Hamden: Archon Books, 1985.

Yunck, John A. The Lineage of Lady Meed: The Development of Mediaeval Venality Satire. University of Notre Dame Publications in Mediaeval Studies 17. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame, 1963.

I.ii. Medieval Literary Theory

Allen, Judson Boyce. "Herman the German's Averroistic Aristotle and Medieval Poetic Theory." Mosaic 9.3 (1975-1976): 67-82.

Allen, Judson Boyce. The Friar as Critic: Literary Attitudes in the Later Middle Ages. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971.

Atkins, J. W. H. English Literary Criticism: Medieval. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1943.

Augustine (St.). On Christian Doctrine. Trans. D. W. Robertson, Jr. The Library of Liberal Arts. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958.

Boitani, Piero, and Anna Torti, eds. Poetics: Theory and Practice in Medieval English Literature: J. A. W. Bennett Memorial Lectures, Seventh Series, Perugia, Italy, 1990. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1991. [A series of essays on various "issues relating to medieval poetic theory and practice," with particular emphasis on Geoffrey Chaucer, "discussing such aspects as his appropriation of the reader's role to the symbolism of his landscape."]

Collins, Patrick J. "Typology, Criticism and Medieval Drama: Some Observations on Method." Comparative Drama 10 (1976): 298-313.

Copeland, Rita. Rhetoric, Hermeneutics and Translation in the Middle Ages: Academic Traditions and Vernacular Texts. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 11. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Copeland, Rita, and Ineke Sluiter, eds. Medieval Grammar and Rhetoric: Language Arts and Literary Theory, AD 300-1475. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. [Publisher's description: "Medieval Grammar and Rhetoric: Language Arts and Literary Theory, AD 300-1475 contributes to two fields, the history of the language arts and the history of literary theory. It brings together essential sources in the disciplines of grammar and rhetoric which were used to understand literary form and language and teach literary composition. Grammar and rhetoric, the language disciplines, formed the basis of any education from antiquity through the Middle Ages, no matter what future career a student would want to pursue. Because literature was also the subject matter of grammatical teaching, and because rhetorical teaching gave great attention to literary form, these were also the disciplines that would prepare students for an understanding of literary language and form. These arts constituted the abiding theoretical toolbox for anyone engaged in a life of letters.
     "The book brings together more than fifty primary texts from the medieval history of grammar and rhetoric, well over half of them never translated into English before. The volume establishes the ancient traditions on which the medieval arts are based, and gives substantial selections from the late antique source texts. All texts are presented in their historical and theoretical contexts, and carefully annotated in order to make them useful to readers, both specialists and non-specialists. For the first time, the long traditions of grammar and rhetoric are presented together in one historical survey, showing how they related to each other, and are placed in a coherent conceptual structure, their contributions to literary theory."
     Contents: Pt. 1. Arts of Language, AD ca. 300-ca. 950 -- Pt. 2. Dossiers on the Ablative Absolute and Etymology -- Pt. 3. Sciences and Curricula of Language in the Twelfth Century -- Pt. 4. Pedagogies of Grammar and Rhetoric, ca. 1150-1280 -- Pt. 5. Professional, Civic, and Scholastic Approaches to the Language Arts, ca. 1225-1272 -- Pt. 6. Receptions of the Traditions: The Language Arts and Poetics in the Later Middle Ages, ca. 1369-ca. 1475.]

Dante Alighieri. "The Four Levels of Interpretation [from The Banquet (Il Convivio)]." In Literary Criticism of Dante Alighieri. Trans. Robert S. Haller. Regents Critics Series. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1973. Pp. 112-114.

Dante Alighieri. "The Letter to Can Grande." In Literary Criticism of Dante Alighieri. Trans. Robert S. Haller. Regents Critics Series. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1973. Pp. 95-111.

De Lubac, Henri. Medieval Exegesis. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1998. [Publisher's description: "Examining the prominent commentators of the Middle Ages and their writings, de Lubac discusses the medieval approach to biblical interpretation and especially the practice of attempting to uncover the allegorical meanings of scripture."]

Eco, Umberto, and Costantino Marmo, eds. On the Medieval Theory of Signs. Trans. Shona Kelly. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1989.

Eden, Kathy. Hermeneutics and the Rhetorical Tradition: Chapters in the Ancient Legacy and its Humanist Reception. Yale Studies in Hermeneutics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Gallacher, Patrick J., and Helen Damico, eds. Hermeneutics and Medieval Culture. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Griffiths, Paul J. Religious Reading: The Place of Reading in the Practice of Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Hugo of St. Victor. Didascalicon. Ed. Charles Henry Buttimer. The Catholic University of America Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Latin 10. Washington, DC: The Catholic University Press, 1939.

McGerr, Rosemarie P. "Medieval Concepts of Literary Closure: Theory and Practice." Exemplaria 1 (1989): 149-179.

Miner, Earl. Literary Uses of Typology from the Late Middle Ages to the Present. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

Minnis, A. J., and A. B. Scott, eds., with David Wallace. Medieval Literary Theory and Criticism c.1100-c.1375: The Commentary Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988. ["The majority of the texts are here translated for the first time; most of the translations have been prepared specially for this edition. The selections are fully annotated and provided with introductions which form a linked series of essays towards the history of medieval literary theory and criticism."]

Parsons, Ben. "'A riotous spray of words': Rethinking the Medieval Theory of Satire." Exemplaria 21 (2009): 105-128.

Paxson, James J. "A Theory of Biblical Typology in the Middle Ages." Exemplaria 3 (1991): 359-383.

Vance, Eugene. Mervelous Signals: Poetics and Sign Theory in the Middle Ages. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

I.iii. The "Alliterative Revival" (or "Survival") of the Fourteenth Century
[relevant particularly for William Langland]

Aertsen, Henk. "The Use of Dialect Words in Middle English Alliterative Poetry." In One Hundred Years of English Studies in Dutch Universities: Seventeen Papers Read at Centenary Conf., Gröningen, 15-16 Jan. 1986. Ed. G. H. V. Bunt, E. S. Kooper, J. L. Mackenzie, and D. R. M. Wildinson. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1987. Pp. 173-185.

Benson, Larry D. "Style." Chap. 3 of his Art and Tradition in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1965. Pp. 110-166.

Burrow, John A., and Hoyt N. Duggan, eds. Medieval Alliterative Poetry: Essays in Honour of Thorlac Turville-Petre. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "This collection of essays celebrates Professor Thorlac Turville-Petre for his scholarly work in late medieval English literature, in particular for his contributions to editorial scholarship and Middle English alliterative poetry."
     Contents: Thorlac Turville-Petre's publications -- The view from Nottingham / Nicola Royan and Judith Jesch -- Langland and the Devotio moderna: a spiritual kinship / Robert Adams -- The new lives of Piers Plowman / John A. Burrow -- Alliterative wombs / Michael Calabrese -- The end of the line / Hoyt N. Duggan -- The Blage manuscript and alliterative verse in the sixteenth century / A.S.G. Edwards -- Alliterative poetry in old Jerusalem: the Siege of Jerusalem and its sources / Andrew Galloway -- Humphrey and the werewolf / Richard F. Green -- The Tree of Charity--again / Ralph Hanna -- Divisions, collaboration and other topics: the table of contents in Cambridge, University Library, MS Gg.4.31 / Judith A. Jefferson -- The poetic character of the C-text of Piers Plowman / Derek Pearsall -- Cleanness and the tradition of biblical versification / Ad Putter -- The alliterative Awntyrs stanza in Older Scots verse / Nicola Royan -- On the road: Langland and some medieval outlaw stories / John Scattergood -- The sacramental significance of blood in Piers Plowman / A. V. C. Schmidt.]

Cable, Thomas. "Standards from the Past: The Conservative Syllable Structure of the Alliterative Revival." Tennessee Studies in Literature 31 (1989): 42-56.

Cable, Thomas. The English Alliterative Tradition. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.

Elliott, Ralph W. V. "Landscape and Rhetoric in Middle English Alliterative Poetry." Melbourne Critical Review 4 (1961): 65-76.

Field, Rosalind. "The Anglo-Norman Background to Alliterative Romance." In Middle English Alliterative Poetry and its Literary Background: Seven Essays. Ed. David E. Lawton. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1982. Pp. 54-69, 136-140.

Foley, John Miles. Oral-Formulaic Theory: A Casebook. Garland Folklore Casebooks 5. New York: Garland, 1989.

Foley, John Miles. The Theory of Oral Composition: History and Methodology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.

Jacobs, Nicholas. "Alliterative Storms: A Topos in Middle English." Speculum 47 (1972): 695-719.

Lawrence, R. F. "The Formulaic Theory and its Application to English Alliterative Poetry." In Essays on Style and Language: Linguistic and Critical Approaches to Literary Style. Ed. Roger Fowler. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966. Pp. 166-183.

Lawton, David E. "Middle English Alliterative Poetry: An Introduction." In Middle English Alliterative Poetry and its Literary Background: Seven Essays. Ed. David E. Lawton. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1982. Pp. 1-19, 125-129.

Levy, Bernard S., and Paul E. Szarmach, ed. The Alliterative Tradition in the Fourteenth-Century. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1981.

McIntosh, Angus. "Early Middle English Alliterative Verse." In Middle English Alliterative Poetry and its Literary Background: Seven Essays. Ed. David E. Lawton. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1982. Pp. 20-33, 129-131. [Primarily on the language and dialectal features.]

Oakden, J[ames] P[arker]. Alliterative Poetry in Middle English. 2 vols. Publications of the University of Manchester 205, English Studies 18, and 236, English Studies 22. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1930-1935. [The first volume includes a subtitle: The Dialectal and Metrical Survey; the second volume is subtitled A Survey of the Traditions. The second volume names the author as Oakden "with assistance from Elizabeth R. Innes."]

Pearsall, Derek. "The Alliterative Revival: Origins and Social Backgrounds." In Middle English Alliterative Poetry and its Literary Background: Seven Essays. Ed. David E. Lawton. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1982. Pp. 34-53, 132-136.

Pearsall, Derek. "The Origins of the Alliterative Revival." In Alliterative Tradition in the Fourteenth Century. Ed. Bernard S. Levy and Paul E. Szarmach. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1981. Pp. 1-24.

Renoir, Alain. A Key to Old Poems: The Oral-Formulaic Approach to the Interpretation of West-Germanic Verse. Foreward by Albert B. Lord. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1988.

Riddy, Felicity. "The Alliterative Revival." In The History of Scottish Literature, I: Origins to 1660 (Mediaeval and Renaissance). Ed. R. D. S. Jack. Gen. ed. Cairns Craig. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1988. Pp. 39-54.

Salter, Elizabeth. "Alliterative Modes and Affiliations in the Fourteenth Century." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 79 (1978): 25-35.

Salter, Elizabeth. "The Alliterative Revival." Modern Philology 64 (1967): 146-150, 233-237.

Sapora, Robert William, Jr. A Theory of Middle English Alliterative Meter with Critical Applications. Speculum Anniversary Monographs 1. Cambridge, MA: Medieval Academy of America, 1977.

Schiff, Randy P. "Alliterative Revivalism: Oppositional Poetics in Late Medieval Britain." Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2005. [DAI 66 (2005-2006): 2941A. Abstract: "The concept of a single 'Alliterative Revival' (the resuscitation of alliterative meter, beginning in the mid-fourteenth century) has come under recent critical scrutiny, with questions both about possible continuity with Old English verse and the historicity of regional cross-connections. Informed by the New Philological focus on the materiality of literary texts, Alliterative Revivalism: Oppositional Poetics in Late Medieval Britain seeks to steer scholarship towards questions of current social practice, rather than continuity, first isolating the influence of a 'Revivialist' literary criticism that has established the literary historical framework for this debate, and then proceeding to isolate regional zones in which late medieval alliterative verse can be fruitfully contextualized. The dissertation begins by tracing key critical interventions that have resulted in the marginalization of alliterative verse within the literary canon, isolating a literary historiographical 'Revivivalism' that has insisted on a monolithic model of a fundamentally provincial 'Alliterative Revival,' thereby obscuring the current social significance of alliterative verse (Chapter 1). My analyses pursue the hypothesis that there is some justice to the view that, in general, alliterative texts feature subjects that are significantly 'other' with respect to regional, ethnic, and socioeconomic identity to those of the powerful Southeast (Chapter 2). Examining the culture of military careerism in the Northwest Midlands and its manifestation in relevant poems, the dissertation then argues that the social and economic influence of the Northeast Midlands must be included in analyses of regional anxieties about militarism (Chapter 3). Turning to anti-imperialist Arthurian texts from the English North and southern Scotland, I maintain that the texts of which I treat need to be conceived as originating out of a trans-national Anglo-Scottish marcher zone (Chapter 4). Exploring the poems of the 'Piers Plowman Tradition,' I then argue for the need to conceive of a Southwest Midlands-London nexus, in which collaborative composition and bibliographical culture fundamentally marks influenced by the work of Langland (Chapter 5)."]

Shepherd, Geoffrey. "The Nature of Alliterative Poetry in Late Medieval England (Read 21 January 1970)." In Middle English Literature: British Academy Gollancz Lectures. Ed. J. A. Burrow. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. Pp. 141-160.

Spearing, A. C. "Alliterative Poetry." Chap. 6 of his Readings in Medieval Poetry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Pp. 134-172.

Spearing, A. C. "The Alliterative Tradition." A Section of Chap. 1 of his The Gawain-Poet: A Critical Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970. Pp. 18-32. [Chap. 1 (pp. 1-40) is entitled "The Poet and his Background" and includes sections entitled "The Poems," "The Milieu," "The Poet's Reading," "The Alliterative Tradition," and "The Poet."]

Turville-Petre, Thorlac. The Alliterative Revival. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1977.

Waldron, R. A. "Oral-Formulaic Technique and Middle English Alliterative Poetry." Speculum 32 (1957): 792-804.

Williams, D. J. "Alliterative Poetry in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries." In The Middle Ages. Ed. W. F. Bolton. The New History of Literature 1. New York: Peter Bedrick, 1986. Pp. 119-167.

Wireker, Nigellus. The Book of Daun Burnel the Ass: Nigellus Wireker's "Speculum stultorum." Trans. Graydon W. Regenos. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1959. ["A Mirror for Fools." A work of Latin satire, in which a donkey travels to Paris, establishes a new religious order, decides to become a bishop, etc. (as can be seen even from this short description, there is a strong element of anticlerical satire here, with complaints against corruption in the Church). It influenced many later writers, including Chaucer, Gower, Langland, and others.]

I.iv. Late Middle English Political Literature

Aers, David. "Vox populi and the Literature of 1381." Chap. 16 of Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Ed. David Wallace. New Cambridge History of English Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. 432-453. ["Analyses references to the Peasants' Revolt in Piers Plowman, Gower's Vox Clamantis and Chaucer" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Astell, Ann W. Political Allegory in Late Medieval England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Carlson, David R. "English Poetry, July-October 1399, and Lancastrian Crime." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 29 (2007): 375-418.

Coleman, Janet. "The Literature of Social Unrest." Chap. 3 of her Medieval Readers and Writers, 1350-1400. English Literature in History 1. London: Hutchinson; New York: Columbia University Press, 1981. Pp. 58-156. [(Also available online as an ACLS Humanities electronic book: <http://www.humanitiesebook.org/>.)]

Delany, Sheila. Medieval Literary Politics: Shapes of Ideology. Cultural Politics. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.

Denton, Jeffrey Howard, ed. Orders and Hierarchies in Late Medieval and Renaissance Europe. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1999.

Embree, Dan. "The King's Ignorance: A Topos for Evil Times." Medium Ævum 54 (1985): 121-126. [On "bad counsel" as a topos of complaint literature. "Advances the idea that the king's ignorance and helplessness in the face of abuses and official corruption is a topos of complaint literature. His discussion includes The Simonie and Truthe, Reste, and Pes ('For drede ofte my lippes I steke')" (annotation in Literature of Richard II's Reign and the Peasants' Revolt, ed. James M. Dean [1996]).]

Ferguson, Arthur B. "The Problem of Counsel." Chap. 3 of his The Articulate Citizen and the English Renaissance. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1965. Pp. 70-90. ["Counsel" in Gower, Langland, Mum and the Sothsegger, etc.]

Green, Richard Firth. "Jack Philipot, John of Gaunt, and a Poem of 1380." Speculum 66 (1991): 330-341. ["On the Times" (Wright's title; IMEV 3113): "Syng y wold, butt, alas!"; redated by Green to 1380 (from Wright's 1388) and connected to the background of the Peasants' Revolt of 1381.]

Hanawalt, Barbara A., and Kathryn L. Reyerson, eds. City and Spectacle in Medieval Europe. Medieval Cultures 6. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

Justice, Steven. Writing and Rebellion: England in 1381. The New Historicism: Studies in Cultural Poetics 27. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1994. [Abstract: "Steven Justice examines the 'Letters of John Ball' to develop his argument that the Peasants' Revolt, although portrayed in the chronicles as hostile toward writing, was more importantly an attempt to appropriate the instruments and powers of documentary culture. This book illustrates the many ways in which English peasants in the 14th century were well accustomed to using the written word. It examines the role played in the Peasants' Revolt by Wyclif's vernacular works and preaching."]

Kaeuper, Richard W. "Vox populi." Chap. 4 of his War, Justice, and Public Order: England and France in the Later Middle Ages. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Pp. 269-380. [Includes a discussion of Gower, Wyclif, Langland, and Middle English political literature generally.]

Kane, George. "Some Fourteenth-Century 'Political' Poems." In Medieval English Religious and Ethical Literature: Essays in Honour of G. H. Russell. Ed. Gregory Kratzmann and James Simpson. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1986. Pp. 82-91. [Argues that the "political" poems of the fourteenth century, including the letters of John Ball, are not works of "protest" or "dissent," but should be seen as conventional "complaints" in the tradition of the literature of the three estates.]

Kelly, Stephen. "Anti-Social Reform: Writing Rebellion." In The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English. Ed. Elaine M. Treharne and Greg Walker. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. 371-383.

Kendall, Ritchie D. The Drama of Dissent: The Radical Poetics of Nonconformity, 1380-1590. Studies in Religion. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Kingsford, Charles Lethbridge. English Historical Literature in the Fifteenth Century, with an Appendix of Chronicles and Historical Pieces Hitherto for the Most Part Unprinted. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.

Kinney, Thomas L. "The Temper of Fourteenth-Century Verse of Complaint." Annuale Mediaevale 7 (1966): 74-89.

Maddicott, J. R. "Poems of Social Protest in Early Fourteenth-Century England." In England in the Fourteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1985 Harlaxton Symposium. Ed. W. M. Ormrod. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press / Boydell and Brewer, 1986. Pp. 130-144. [Contrasts the "political" poems of social protest with earlier, more strictly conventional, complaints and satires. Argues for a clerical origin for much of the political poetry of the period.]

Mathur, Maya. "Piers Plowman and Piers Pickpurse: Early Modern Drama and the Poverty-Property Debate." Ph.D. diss., State University of New York at Buffalo, 2006. [DAI 67 (2006-2007): 2592A. Abstract: "'Piers Plowman and Piers Pickpurse: Early Modern Drama and the Poverty-Property Debate' interrogates how the transition from feudal to capitalist conceptions of property was represented on the Elizabethan and Jacobean stage. In agrarian England, this transitional landscape was most clearly embodied in the struggle over the enclosure of communal land. Focusing on the tension between the tenant or vagrant, who resisted such privatization, and the property owner, who valorized such a move, I argue that fractured social relations were most clearly articulated in comic drama between 1590 and 1610. Accordingly, my project draws attention to the theater's presentation of a wide range of comic characters, which include: peasant-clowns in The Life and Death of Jack Straw and Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, landlords and vagrants in The Merry Wives of Windsor, and capitalist merchants in Thomas Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. The verbal dexterity of these stage-clowns, I suggest, enabled them to protest against social and economic inequality. By juxtaposing dramatic texts with a variety of extra-dramatic materials--commonwealth writing, chronicle history, and rogue pamphlets--my dissertation shows how late-sixteenth and early-seventeenth century comedy resisted a purely market-based understanding of agrarian life."]

Michelsson, Elisabeth. Appropriating King Arthur: The Arthurian Legend in English Drama and Entertainments, 1485-1625. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Studia Anglistica Upsaliensia 109. Uppsala: Uppsala University, 1999. [Ph.D. thesis, Uppsala University, 1999. Explores the political "appropriations" of the Arthurian legend during the Tudor and early Stuart periods, especially in courtly masques and plays.]

Middleton, Anne. "The Idea of Public Poetry in the Reign of Richard II." Speculum 53 (1978): 94-114.

Peck, Russell A. "Social Conscience and the Poets." In Social Unrest in the Late Middle Ages: Papers of the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Ed. Francis X. Newman. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 39. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1986. Pp. 113-148. ["Discusses John Ball's Letters and the blending of Piers Plowman conventions with Chaucerian in protest literature of the early fifteenth century" (annotation in Literature of Richard II's Reign and the Peasants' Revolt, ed. James M. Dean [1996]). [Chaucer, Gower, Langland, Wyclif, Lollards; John Ball; Peasants' Revolt of 1381]]

Pettitt, Thomas. "'Here comes I, Jack Straw': English Folk Drama and Social Revolt." Folklore 95 (1984): 3-20.

A Poem on the Times of Edward II, from a MS. Preserved in the Library of St. Peter's College, Cambridge. Ed. C. Hardwick. London: Richards, for the Percy Society, 1849.

Prescott, Andrew. "The Yorkshire Partisans and the Literature of Popular Discontent." In The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English. Ed. Elaine M. Treharne and Greg Walker. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. 321-351. [On the poem "The Yorkshire Partisans" and evidence of the textual nature of the culture of the lower classes.]

Pugh, Tison. "'Falseness reigns in every flock': Literacy and Eschatological Discourse in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381." Quidditas 21 (2000): 79-103. ["Peasant" literacy is probably, in fact, clerical literacy: the peasant literature of the fourteenth century is probably written by priests, and there is a tradition of radicalism among the lower clerical orders which would explain the sympathy expressed with the lower classes. John Ball, then, is just one of the various radical priests of the fourteenth century. (On the expression of radical ideas in medieval sermons, see G. R. Owst's books on medieval literature and sermons.) Further, the eschatological imagery used in these texts--the talk of divine wrath about to fall, of the predominance of falsehood everywhere, and famine, as signs of the last days--is further evidence of clerical origin. In this light, Pugh offers readings of several pre-1381 poems which call for social reform, the letters of John Ball, and several post-1381 political poems to show the similarities of theme and eschatological image. Even prior to 1381 there was a literary tradition of calls for immediate social reform in order to avoid divine Judgment, soon to fall; in "The Song of the Husbandman," there is even an idea that the divine vengeance could take the form of a rebellion of the oppressed against their oppressors (and "The Song Against the King's Taxes" expresses a fear that, if ever a leader of the commons should arise, vengeance would be swift and terrible). Further, in these early fourteenth-century poems, as in the Rising of 1381, the king is repeatedly exempted from blame, but the "falseness" of his advisors has led to the present plight of the poor.]

Robbins, Rossell Hope. "Dissent in Middle English Literature: The Spirit of (Thirteen) Seventy-Six." Medievalia et Humanistica ns 9 (1979): 25-51.

Scase, Wendy. "'Strange and Wonderful Bills': Bill-Casting and Political Discourse in Late Medieval England." New Medieval Literatures 2 (1998): 225-247. [On political "bills," anonymously produced but widely disseminated; Scase discusses John Ball and his letters (the English Rising of 1381), the use of bills attached to the doors of London houses during Jack Cade's rebellion of 1450, the spread of Lollard ideas.]

Scattergood, V[incent] J[ohn]. "English Society III: Verses of Protest and Revolt." Chap. 10 of Politics and Poetry in the Fifteenth Century, 1399-1485. Blandford History Series: History and Literature. London: Blandford Press, 1971. Pp. 351-377.

Simpson, James. "The Political." 1350-1547: Reform and Cultural Revolution. Oxford English Literary History 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Pp. 191-254. [An account of political writing of the period of the later Middle Ages and early Tudor period.]

Staley, Lynn. Languages of Power in the Age of Richard II. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004. [Publisher's description: "In this book the distinguished medievalist Lynn Staley turns her attention to one of the most dramatic periods in English history, the reign of Richard II, as seen through a range of texts including literary, political, chronicle, and pictorial. Richard II, who ruled from 1377 to 1399, succeeded to the throne as a child after the fifty-year reign of Edward III, and found himself beset throughout his reign by military, political, religious, economic, and social problems that would have tried even the most skilled of statesmen. At the same time, these years saw some of England's most gifted courtly writers, among them Chaucer and Gower, who were keenly attuned to the political machinations erupting around them. In Languages of Power in the Age of Richard II Staley does not so much 'read' literature through history as offer a way of 'reading' history through its refractions in literature. In essence, the text both isolates and traces what is an actual search for a language of power during the reign of Richard II and scrutinizes the ways in which Chaucer and other courtly writers participated in these attempts to articulate the concept of princely power. As one who took it upon himself to comment on the various means by which history is made, Chaucer emerges from Staley's narrative as a poet without peer."
     Contents: Chap. 1: The Hawk on the Wrist and the Fool in the Chimney Corner; Chap. 2: Inheritances and Translations; Chap. 3: Princely Powers; Chap. 4: French Georgics and English Ripostes; Epilogue.]

I.v. The Three Estates and Estates Satire

Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The General Prologue." The Canterbury Tales. In The Riverside Chaucer. 3rd ed. Gen. ed. Larry D. Benson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987. Pp. 23-36. [Representatives of various classes, vocations, and professions meet in a Southwark tavern as each begins a pilgrimage to Canterbury Cathedral; they agree to travel together and have a story-telling competition on the way. In the "General Prologue," each of the "nine and twenty" is described, with strong elements of satire, as Chaucer presents a particular view of contemporary society.]

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Parliament of Fowls. In The Riverside Chaucer. 3rd ed. Gen. ed. Larry D. Benson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987. Pp. 385-394. [The lords and commons of the bird world assemble in a Parliament and debate issues of love.]

Corbett, John. Sir David Lyndsay's "A Satire of the Three Estates." Scotnotes 26. Glasgow: Association for Scottish Literary Studies, 2009.

Duby, Georges. The Three Orders: Feudal Society Imagined. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. Fwd. Thomas N. Bisson. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1980. [Trans. of Les trois ordres ou l'imaginaire du féodalisme (1978).]

Gower, John. Vox clamantis ["The Voice of One Crying"]. In The Complete Works of John Gower. Ed. G. C. Macaulay. 4 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1899-1902. 4: 3-313. [Text in Latin; an English translation appears in The Major Latin Works of John Gower: "The Voice of One Crying," and "The Tripartite Chronicle." Ed. and trans. Eric W. Stockton. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1962. Book 1 includes a description of the Peasants' Revolt. Book 5 is on the faults of the estates. Mohl refers to this as "the most complete classification of feudal society."]

Ladd, Roger A. Antimercantilism in Late Medieval English Literature. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. [Publisher's description: "Antimercantilism in Late Medieval English Literature explores the relationship between ideology and subjectivity surrounding a single class/estate group and its characteristic sins in the context of literary texts influenced by estates satire. This book focuses in depth on both large works by well-known authors and lesser-studied works, including The Canterbury Tales, Piers Plowman, Gower's Mirour de l'Omme, The Book of Margery Kempe, The York Plays, The Libelle of Englyshe Polycye, 'The Childe of Bristowe,' and the Pseudo-Chaucerian 'Tale of Beryn.' Its approach documents the trajectory of antimercantile ideology under the pressures of the major developments made in economic theory and practice in the later Middle Ages."]

Mann, Jill. Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire: The Literature of Social Classes and the General Prologue to the "Canterbury Tales." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

Map, Walter [supposed author]. The Latin Poems Commonly Attributed to Walter Mapes. Ed. Thomas Wright. London: J. B. Nichols and Son, for the Camden Society, 1841. ["De statibus mundi" [Of earthly estates] is a short poem on the idea of the three estates.]

Mohl, Ruth. The Three Estates in Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Columbia University Studies in English and Comparative Literature. New York: Columbia University Press, 1933.

Wimbledon, Thomas. Wimbledon's Sermon, "Redde rationem villicationis tue": A Middle English Sermon of the Fourteenth Century. Ed. Ione Kemp Knight. Duquesne Studies, Philological Series 9. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1967. [A sermon preached at the preaching cross outside St. Paul's Cathedral in London, in 1387 or 1388. Wimbledon takes as his theme one of the parables of the Last Judgment, indicating those being judged are called on to give an account of their stewardship of resources; rather than focusing upon individuals being judged, Wimbledon describes the Three Estates in terms of the resources for which each Estate will be held to account at the Last Judgment. He also makes clear that the end of the world and the Last Judgment are drawing nigh, since the Antichrist is about to be born (in the year 1400).]

I.vi. Anti-Mendicant Satire
[satire directed against the friars]

Scattergood, V[incent] J[ohn]. "Religion and the Clergy." Chap. 7 of Politics and Poetry in the Fifteenth Century, 1399-1485. Blandford History Series, History and Literature. London: Blandford Press, 1971. Pp. 218-263.

Szittya, Penn R. The Antifraternal Tradition in Medieval Literature. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. [Szittya studies the anti-mendicant literature of the late Middle Ages as propoganda which originated in Biblical exegesis, homiletic traditions, etc., and examines its influence on Chaucer, Langland, Wyclif, and others.]

Williams, Arnold. "Chaucer and the Friars." Speculum 28 (1953): 499-513. [[anti-mendicant literature]]

Williams, Arnold. "Relations between the Mendicant Friars and the Regular Clergy in England in the Later Fourteenth Century." Annuale Mediaevale 1 (1960): 22-95. [[anti-mendicant literature]]

I.vii. Outlaw Legends (other than Robin Hood)

Alexander, James W. "Ranulf III of Chester: An Outlaw of Legend?" Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 83 (1982): 152-157. [[outlaws; outlawry]]

Baum, Richard Howard. "The Medieval Outlaw: A Study in Protest." Ph.D. diss., University of Utah, 1972. [DAI 33 (1972-1973): 1673A.]

Bradbury, Nancy Mason. "The Tale of Gamelyn as a Greenwood Outlaw Talking." Southern Folklore 53 (1996): 207-223. [Part of a special issue entitled "Outlaws and Other Medieval Heroes." Rpt. in her Writing Aloud: Storytelling in Late Medieval England. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998. Pp. 23-64.
     Abstract: "The form and social affiliations of Tale of Gamelyn are similar to those of the Robin Hood ballads. Far from affirming the legitimacy and justice of contemporary social relations, Gamelyn and the outlaw tales provide fantasies of outwitting, robbing, and chastising those with institutional power, particularly those with which ordinary people had most experience: local clerics and local secular authorities. Both Gamelyn and the ballad 'Robin Hood and the Monk' call themselves 'talkings,' a generic term that implies oral performance. Considering Gamelyn's close relationship to a tradition of orally transmitted outlaw legends and its self-designation as a 'talking,' it seems reasonable to recognize it as a very rare written survival of the type of late medieval narrative entertainment that was ordinarily transmitted orally." [outlaws; outlawry]]

Burgess, Glyn S. "Fouke Fitz Waryn III and King John: Good Outlaw and Bad King." In Bandit Territories: British Outlaws and their Traditions. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2008. Pp. 73-98.

Burgess, Glyn S. "I kan rymes of Robyn Hood, and Randolf Erl of Chestre." In De sens rassis: Essays in Honor of Rupert T. Pickens. Ed. Keith Busby, Bernard Guidot, and Logan E. Whalen. Intro. Raymond C. La Charité, and Virginia A. La Charité. Faux Titre: Études de langue et littérature françaises 259. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2005. Pp. 51-84.

Burgess, Glyn S., ed. Two Medieval Outlaws: Eustace the Monk and Fouke Fitz Waryn. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2009. [Publisher's description: "Eustace the Monk and Fouke Fitz Waryn belong in the great tradition of medieval outlaws, and aspects of their lives, part-fact, part-fiction, find a reflection in the life of that most famous of all outlaws, Robin Hood. Glyn Burgess puts into modern English the two romances of the thirteenth century which relate their deeds, Li Romans de Witasse le Moine and Fouke le Fitz Waryn. He presents the historical reality of their respective 'heroes', important but neglected figures: both were born around 1170; both broke with their overlords, the Count of Boulogne and King John, at around the same time; and both spent a period as outlaws, during which they toyed with their lords and exacted revenge for the injustice they suffered. Eustace was not only an outlaw and a sea captain, but a pirate and magician; he was one of the most feared men of his day. Fouke's life was dominated by his attempt to take possession of Whittington Castle in Shropshire, to which his family laid claim. Alongside the historical discussion of the lives of the protagonists of the two romances, Glyn Burgess reveals the multiple layers of the romances themselves: historically verifiable facts, information which cannot be proved but rings true, and a wide range of material which is manifestly imaginary, containing stock motifs also found in other romances of the period. His bringing to life of two forgotten outlaws is a fascinating context for his spirited translation of the romances."]

Burgess, Glyn S. "Women in the Fouke le Fitz Waryn." In Por le soie amisté: Essays in Honor of Norris J. Lacy. Ed. Keith Busby, and Catherine M. Jones. Faux Titre: Etudes de langue et littérature françaises 183. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000. Pp. 75-93.

Coggeshall, John M. "Champion of the Poor: The Outlaw as a Formalized Expression of Peasant Alienation." Southern Folklore Quarterly 44 (1980): 23-58. [[outlaws; outlawry]]

Crosland, Jessie. Outlaws in Fact and Fiction. London: Peter Owen, 1959. [[outlaws; outlawry]]

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Portraits of Outlaws, Felons, and Rebels in Late Medieval England." In British Outlaws of Literature and History: Essays on Medieval and Early Modern Figures from Robin Hood to Twm Shon Catty. Ed. Alexander L. Kaufman. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2011. Pp. 45-64.

Hayward, John. "Hereward the Outlaw." Journal of Medieval History 14 (1988): 293-304. [[Hereward the Wake]]

Hobsbawm, E[ric] J. Bandits. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969. [[outlaws; outlawry; Robin Hood]]

Hoffman, Dean A. "'After bale cometh boote': Narrative Symmetry in the Tale of Gamelyn." Studia Neophilologica 60 (1988): 159-166.

Jones, Timothy. "Geoffrey of Monmouth, Fouke le Fitz Waryn, and National Mythology." Studies in Philology 91 (1994): 233-249.

Jones, Timothy S[cott]. "'Oublië ai chevalerie': Tristan, Malory, and the Outlaw-Knight." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 79-90.

Jones, Timothy S. Outlawry in Medieval Literature. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. [Publisher's description: "Drawing on new historicist principles, this book examines literary and historical narratives, legal statutes and records, sermons, lyric poetry, and biblical exegesis circulating in England between the 11th and 16th centuries. Jones theorizes the figure of the outlaw in Medieval England and uncovers the legal, ethical, and social assumptions that underlie the practice of outlawry.
     "Given its limited resources to identify and apprehend suspected criminals, the medieval English legal system depended on the practice of outlawry to enforce participation in the courts. Outlawry in Medieval Literature analyzes the narrative of outlawry defined by legal authority and practice, identifying the assumptions upon which it depends and examining the ways in which a variety of texts dialogically contest this narrative. In particular, this book explores the outlaw story as a literature of borders, engaging with social, political, religious, ethnic and legal conflicts and the identities that they create."
     Contents: Introduction; Law and the Narrative of Outlawry; The Literature of Borders; Reading and Representing Transgression; The Exegesis of Outlawry in the Story of David; Outlawry and Romance.]

Jones, Timothy Scott. "Redemptive Fictions: The Contexts of Outlawry in Medieval English Chronicle and Romance." Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1994. [DAI 55 (1994-1995): 84A. Abstract: "This study seeks to expand our perspective of the medieval outlaw narrative by acknowledging a common tradition of such stories, as previous scholarship has indicated, but more so by investigating the variety of literary contexts created to encompass these narratives. I begin by delineating common perspectives on outlawry in medieval England. These include not only the definition of outlawry in law and legal practice, but also the metaphorical association of the outlaw with wolves and the offspring of Cain. By examining a variety of legal, historical and literary texts, this chapter creates a picture of the common outlaw as a figure more at home with wild beasts than human company. With the second chapter, my attention turns to the heroic outlaws, beginning with Godwin, Earl of Wessex. After tracing the reputation of this nobleman through two centuries of the literature of church and court, I conclude with an analysis of the Vita Edwardi Regis. Notably, this text employs the patristic interpretation of David's flight from Saul in order to identify Godwin, despite his outlawry, as an heroic and loyal supporter of King Edward the Confessor. The third chapter, a look at the life and legends of Hereward Leofricsson, a Saxon nobleman who resisted the Normans in the fens of Ely and forests of Lincolnshire, argues that the subtext of Norse tradition in this narrative suggests both an under-appreciated dimension of medieval English literary culture, and the ability of this tradition to lend moral authority to an ambiguous figure. The fourteenth-century Anglo-Norman romance Fouke le Fitz Waryn redefines the outlawry of a minor nobleman of the Welsh border by appropriating the native Welsh legend of Brutus in order to defend the hero's rebellion, his family's right to a piece of property on the Welsh marches, and Norman manifest destiny in the British isles. From these historically based works, chapter five turns to the question of romance and the ability of this genre to incorporate and organize outlaw narratives. This chapter outlines the structural similarities of romance and outlaw narratives and considers the implications of these similarities for reading the story of Tristan and Isolde, notably its expression in the Middle English Sir Tristrem and Thomas Malory's Morte Darthur."]

Kaeuper, Richard W. "An Historian's Reading of the Tale of Gamelyn." Medium Ævum 52 (1983): 51-62. [Examines petitions to the crown against injustice and argues that Gamelyn mirrors contemporary social conditions. [outlaws; outlawry]]

Kane, Stuart Allan. "Representing the Medieval English Outlaw: Violence, Language, and the Body." Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester, 2005. [DAI 66 (2005-2006): 3295A. Abstract: "This dissertation reevaluates the literary representations of late Medieval organized crime in England, arguing that the romance and ballad traditions do not simply reflect a social concern about the rise of rural crime in fourteenth and fifteenth-century England, as has been traditionally claimed. Rather, these texts express a complex intersection of language, law and the body, linked by violence as a structural and social relation. It assesses the earliest texts (ca. 1375--1475) which represent outlaws and outlawry in English; these are The Tale of Gamelyn, the brief play Robin Hood and the Sheriff, "Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne," A Gest of Robin Hood and Adam Bell, Clim-o-the-Clough, and William of Cloudesley.
     "The majority of studies of these texts approach them in a primarily historicist way, linking the range of textual elements to matters of social history; this dissertation argues that while this approach has been successful, it also limits the range of readings of Middle English outlaw literatures. Taking the pervasive violence in these texts as the core conceptual problem, this study reassesses the terms and techniques by which violence redefines the body, subjectivity and social organization. This study uses a flexible methodology, drawing largely on the social and psychoanalytic theory of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, the cultural critique of Jean Baudrillard, and the social histories of Michel Foucault, as well as using more traditional contextual materials such as literary texts, and historical and legal documentation. Viewing these texts in this interpretive context, this study argues that violence in these texts is a foundational structure which, paradoxically, tends to erase its own foundational nature through its linkages with more conventional social forms such as ethics, law, language, sexuality, necessity and economics. This study concludes that the version of Medieval society represented in these texts expresses violence not only as a legitimate means, but as an essential technique of identity-formation."]

Kaufman, Alexander L., ed. British Outlaws of Literature and History: Essays on Medieval and Early Modern Figures from Robin Hood to Twm Shon Catty. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2011. [Publisher's description: "Exploring the nature of historical and fictional outlaws, these twelve critical essays survey the literary, historical and cultural environments that produced them. Divided into three parts, the text recovers the historical records of real outlaws and the representation of Jews in medieval Britain as possible outlaws, outlaws associated specifically with Wales, and the popular figure of Robin Hood."
     Contents: Introduction. Part I: Outlaws as Outcasts and Outsiders. "English Jews as Outlaws or Outcasts: The Ritual Murder of Little St. Hugh of Lincoln in Matthew Paris's Chronica Majora," Kate McGrath; "Let Her Be Waived: Outlawing Women in Yorkshire, 1293-1294," Jennifer Brewer; "Portraits of Outlaws, Felons, and Rebels in Late Medieval England," Barbara A. Hanawalt. Part II: Wales and the Marches. "Fouke le Fitz Waryn and King John: Rebellion and Reconciliation," Catherine A. Rock; "Fouke le Fitz Waryn: Outlaw or Chivalric Hero?" Kathryn Bedford; "Social Protest and Narrative Technique in Prichard's Twm Shon Catty," Mica Dawn Gould. Part III: The Robin Hood Tradition. "Robin Hood: Outlaw or Exile?" Antha Cotten-Spreckelmeyer; "Histories of Contexts: Form, Argument, and Ideology in A Gest of Robyn Hode," Alexander L. Kaufman; "Popular Devotion and Prosperity Gospel in Early Robin Hood Tales," Crystal Kirgiss; "The Late Medieval Robin Hood Ballads: Economics Revisited," Kimberly A. Macuare Thompson; "'Where shall we rob?': Fantasies of Justice in the Early Robin Hood Ballads," Mark Leahy; "'All the yemandry that ys here': Mankind and Robin Hood," Michelle M. Butler.]

Keen, Maurice H. The Outlaws of Medieval Legend. Studies in Social History. 1961; London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1977. [Contents: "Introduction: Some Recantations" (xiii-xxi); "The Matter of the Greenwood" (1-8); "The Story of Hereward" (9-22); "The Historical Background of the Hereward Legend" (23-38); "The Romance of Fulk Fitzwarin" (39-52); "The Romance of Eustace the Monk" (53-63); "William Wallace and the Scottish Outlaws" (64-77); "The Tale of Gamelyn" (78-94); "The Robin Hood Ballads (I)" (95-115); "The Robin Hood Ballads (II)" (116-127); "The Historical Background of the Robin Hood Ballads" (128-144); "The Outlaw Ballad as an Expression of Peasant Discontent" (145-173); "The Historicity of Robin Hood" (174-190); "The Outlaw in History" (191-207); "Conclusions" (208-218). Appendices: 1. "The Supposed Mythological Origin of the Robin Hood Legend" (219-222); 2. "Sources and Bibliography" (223-225); 3. "Additional Bibliography" (226-227); "Robin Hood in Recent Historical Writing (1977-86): A Postscript" (228-234). [outlaws; outlawry]]

Knight, Stephen. "Outlaw Myths; or, Was Robin Hood Alone in the Woods?" Myth and its Legacy in European Literature. Ed. Neil Thomas and Françoise Le Saux. Durham Modern Languages Series. Durham: University of Durham, 1996. Pp. 39-48.

Kooistra, Paul Gregory. "American Robin Hoods: The Criminal as Social Hero." Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1982. [DAI 43 (1982-1983): 2797A. Abstract: "Heroes express the types of things which people admire. Yet throughout history certain criminals who rob and kill, in clear violation of the law and for personal gain, become social heroes not just in their own time but for following generations. These criminals become fashioned into American Robin Hoods: men who were 'wronged' by the State and driven to a life of crime, good men who broke the law for just reasons and who embodied numerous socially desirable traits. This dissertation examines the phenomenon of the American Robin Hood and offers an explanation of why we make heroes out of criminals. In answering this question, case studies of three of the best known American Robin Hoods--Jesse James, Billy the Kid, and Butch Cassidy--were undertaken. Other figures ranging from Robin Hood to John Dillinger to Charles Manson were also examined. Emphasis has been placed upon the social conditions under which heroic criminals emerge, the factors which contribute to specific lawbreakers being chosen to assume the role of the heroic criminal, and the form taken by legends concerning heroic criminals. The dissertation draws from anthropology, history, criminology, social psychology, and sociology to account for the existence of the heroic criminal."]

Kooistra, Paul [Gregory]. "Criminals as Heroes: Linking Symbol to Structure." Symbolic Interaction 13 (1990): 217-239.

Kooistra, Paul [Gregory]. Criminals as Heroes: Structure, Power, and Identity. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1989.

Lange, Joost de. The Relation and Development of English and Icelandic Outlaw Traditions. Haarlem: Willink, 1935.

Lewin, Linda. "The Oligarchical Limitations of Social Banditry in Brazil: The Case of the 'Good' Thief Antonio Silvino." Past and Present no. 82 (Feb. 1979): 116-146.

Lindner, F. "The Tale of Gamelyn." Englische Studien 2 (1879): 94-114 and 321-343.

McCall, Andrew. "Bandits, Freebooters and Outlaws." Chap. 4 of The Medieval Underworld. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1979. Pp. 82-132. [P. 102: "Typical of so many disaffected individuals or groups in the Middle Ages, neither Robin nor Gamelyn envisages any fundamental changes: on the contrary, all they ask is that the King (who is always quick to recognize their virtues, is ever ready to pardon their misdeeds), be freed from the influence of his evil counsellors and officials; that corrupt Sheriffs or justices, and corrupted juries, be replaced by good men like Sir Ote, Gamelyn and Gamelyn's fellow outlaws."]

Menkin, Edward Z. "Comic Irony and the Sense of Two Audiences in the Tale of Gamelyn." Thoth 10 (1969): 41-53.

Nagy, Joseph Falaky. The Wisdom of the Outlaw: The Boyhood Deeds of Finn in Gaelic Narrative Tradition. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985. [[outlaws; outlawry]]

Nünning, Vera. "A 'Usable Past': Fictions of Memory and British National Identity." Journal for the Study of British Cultures 10 (2003): 27-48. [[[outlaws; relationship to national identity; collective memory]]]

Ohlgren, Thomas H., ed. Medieval Outlaws: Ten Tales in Modern English. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1998.

Osborn, Marijane. "The Real Fulk Fitzwarine's Mythical Monster Fights." In Words and Works: Studies in Medieval English Language and Literature in Honour of Fred C. Robinson. Ed. Peter S. Baker and Nicholas Howe. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998. Pp. 271-292.

Painter, Sidney. "The Sources of Fouke Fitz Warin." Modern Language Notes 50.1 (Jan. 1935): 13-15.

Pensom, Roger. "Inside and Outside: Fact and Fiction in Fouke le Fitz Waryn." Medium Ævum 63 (1994): 53-60.

Phillips, Helen, ed. Bandit Territories: British Outlaws and their Traditions. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2008. [Publisher's description: "This book is unique in that it offers substantial new research and critical interpretations about British outlaw traditions--Robin Hood and other bandit heroes, real and fictitious--and the way they have been imagined and presented in both the Middle Ages and the centuries since. The volume also presents substantial new work on Robin Hood in conjunction with chapters on other outlaw traditions with consideration of how other outlaw traditions have related to Robin Hood. The approach is inter-disciplinary, focusing on the ways in which rogue-heroes have been used by literature, film, and other areas of popular culture and imagination."
     Contents: Helen Phillips, "Bandit Territories and Good Outlaws"; Thomas Hahn and Stephen Knight, "'Exempt me, Sire, for I am afeard of women': Gendering Robin Hood"; David Blamires "Maid Marian in Twentieth-Century Children's Books"; Adrian Price, "Welsh Bandits"; Glyn Burgess, "Fouke Fitz Waryn III and King John: Good Outlaw and Bad King"; Stephen Knight, "Rabbie Hood: The Development of the English Outlaw Myth in Scotland"; Helen Phillips, "Scott and the Outlaws"; Marcus A. J. Smith and Julian N. Wasserman, "Sketches by a Green Crayon: Washington Irving, Robin Hood and the Emerging American Frontier"; Jeffrey Richards, "Robin Hood, King Arthur and Cold War Chivalry"; Laura Blunk, "'And for best supporting hero . . . Little John'"; Allan W. Wright, "'Begone, knave! Robbery is out of fashion hereabouts!': Robin Hood and the Comics Code"; John Beynon, "Robin Hood is Alive and Well in Cityton Prison."]

Piep, Karsten H. "'The Merry Life and Mad Exploits of Captain James Hind,' or How the Popular Press Created Its First Outlaw-Hero in the Wake of the English Revolution." Comitatus 35 (2004): 124-144. [Abstract: "Between 1651 and 1652, no less than sixteen pamphlets hit the streets of London that chronicled the fantastic feats of James Hind, 'notorious highwayman,' making him one of the first outlaw-heroes whose legacy was shaped neither by folk legend nor by 'high' literature, but by England's burgeoning popular press. Read before the backdrop of Civil War, regicide, and Republican rule, then, the pamphleteer's representations of Hind as a champion of the common people highlight the popular press's mounting sway over the political debates of the 1650s. More specifically, in extolling Hind's unlawful deeds so as to foreground persistent societal ills, while transforming Hind into a mouthpiece for a novel brand of populist royalism, the popular press managed to mount a strong challenge to the young republican government, which was already burdened by a general crisis of legitimization."]

Pike, Ruth. "The Reality and Legend of the Spanish Bandit Diego Corrientes." Folklore 99 (1988): 242-247.

Scattergood, [Vincent] John. "The Tale of Gamelyn: The Noble Robber as Provincial Hero." In Readings in Medieval English Romance. Ed. Carol M. Meale. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1994. Pp. 159-194. [Rpt. in his Reading the Past: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 1996. Pp. 81-113.
     [outlaws; outlawry]]

Seal, Graham. The Outlaw Legend: A Cultural Tradition in Britain, America, and Australia. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. [Publisher's description: "Highwaymen, badmen and bushrangers, both mythical and historical, have been part of folklore for centuries. Remembered and recreated through song, stories and film, this cultural tradition has been remarkably resilient across time and place. Graham Seal shows that these famous 'social bandits' share many characteristics, particularly as anti-authority figures, and are best understood within class, ethnic and national struggles. From Robin Hood to outlaws in cyberspace, this book is an important study for folklorists."]

Shannon, E., Jr. "Medieval Law in The Tale of Gamelyn." Speculum 26 (1951): 458-464.

Spraggs, Gillian. Outlaws and Highwaymen: The Cult of the Robber in England from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century. London: Pimlico, 2001. [Publisher's description: "In the modern imagination, the highwayman is a figure on horseback in a three-cornered hat who holds up a mailcoach with pistols. But England has a long legendary history of robber heroes that goes back well before Dick Turpin, even before the earliest ballads of Robin Hood. Eighteenth-century highwaymen like Turpin were absorbed into an already rich tradition of stories and ideas about robbery and robbers. In this lively and informative book, Gillian Spraggs argues for the existence of a distinctively English 'cult of the robber.' Englishmen took pride in the belief that there were more robbers in England than anywhere else in Europe. This was felt to be a credit to the nation, because it demonstrated English toughness and daring. Robbery possessed a potent mystique. For one thing, it was a gentleman's crime. The penniless young gentleman who took a purse on the highway was felt to be showing the courage that he had inherited from his ancestors. As for the lad of common stock who was drawn to the life of a highwayman, he often saw it as a way of rising in the world, by becoming a 'knight of the road.' This is the first authoritative full-length study entirely devoted to the English robbers of history and legend. It draws on street ballads and social commentary, reportage and satire, gossip and high literature, popular anecdotes and criminal biographies in charting the images of the highway robber across eight centuries."
     Contents: "Introduction: The Cult of the Robber"; "Robbery in the Greenwood"; "The Outlaw Dispossessed"; "'I wil be Justice this day'"; "The Robin Hood Tradition"; "Good Fellows and Sworn Brothers"; "Guests at Robin Hood's Table"; "The Rise of the London Underworld"; "Gentlemen Thieves in Velvet Coats"; "Falstaff and the Wild Prince"; "Outlaws in Arcadia"; "The Robber Repentant: Clavell's Recantation"; "Knights of the Road"; "'The profession is grown scandalous'"; "'Why are the Laws levell'd at us?'"; "The Shadow of Tyburn"; "'Dying like a Heroe'"; "'Give me a highwayman': The Age of Nostalgia"; "The Turpin Legend"; "Conclusion"; "Appendix A: The Female Robber"; "Appendix B: Maid Marian"; "Appendix C: Social Bandits."]

I.viii. Visionary Literature and Dream Vision Poetry

Barr, Jessica G. "The Limits of Revelation: Visionary Knowing and the Medieval Dream Vision." Ph.D. diss., Brown University, 2007. [DAI 68 (2007-2008): 2936A. Abstract: "This dissertation examines the epistemology of the vision in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century European literature. Focusing on the process of "visionary knowing"--how knowledge is acquired in a vision, how that knowledge is understood or interpreted, and how it is communicated to a wider audience--I consider the use of the vision as an epistemological tool both in literary dream vision narratives and in mystical texts that purport to describe authentic visions of the divine. I argue that both genres arise out of the same basic presumptions about visionary experience and the epistemological value of the vision. I compare "authentic" visionary texts and several Continental dream visions, in which the vision successfully conveys knowledge, to three fourteenth-century English dream visions-- Pearl, Piers Plowman, and The House of Fame--in which the possibility of acquiring visionary knowledge is uncertain at best. Contrary to what scholars have often assumed and visionaries themselves have asserted, I argue, first, that the vision was not always seen as a transparent means of conveying knowledge to its recipient, and, second, that the reception of a vision was construed as an active experience, requiring the active engagement of the visionary or dreamer's cognitive and volitional faculties in order to succeed. This thesis runs counter to common assumptions regarding the visionary's essentially passive role, and illuminates some of the interpretive problems associated with dream vision poems such as Pearl and Piers Plowman. Ultimately I argue for a more nuanced view of vision literature, in which a variety of cognitive faculties and epistemological modes are often depicted as necessary for the recipient to grasp and comprehend the vision's message."]

Barr, Jessica. Willing to Know God: Dreamers and Visionaries in the Later Middle Ages. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 2010. [Contents: Knowledge and vision in the Middle Ages -- Marguerite d'Oingt: active reading and the language of God -- The will to know: volition and intellect in Gertrude of Helfta -- The vision is not enough: active knowing in Julian of Norwich -- Worldly attachment and visionary resistance in Pearl -- The critique of revelation in Piers Plowman -- Discrediting the vision: the House of Fame -- Knowledge is power: negotiating authority in The book of Margery Kempe.]

Cherniss, Michael D. Boethian Apocalypse: Studies in Middle English Vision Poetry. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1986.

Despres, Denise. Ghostly Sights: Visual Meditation in Late-Medieval Literature. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1989.

Galloway, Andrew. "Visions and Visionaries." In The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English. Ed. Elaine M. Treharne and Greg Walker. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. 256-275.

Gardiner, Eileen, ed. Visions of Heaven and Hell Before Dante. New York: Italica Press, 1989. ["The first collection of medieval visions of heaven and hell in English translation. Presents original translations of several visions and brings together newly edited versions of previously translated ones."
     Includes: "St. Peter's Apocalypse," "St. Paul's Apocalypse," "Furseus' Vision," "Drythelm's Vision," "Wetti's Vision," "St. Brendan's Voyage," "Charles the Fat's Vision," "St. Patrick's Purgatory," "Tundale's," "The Monk of Evesham's," and "Thurkill's Visions."]

Hieatt, Constance B. The Realism of Dream Visions: The Poetic Exploitation of the Dream Experience in Chaucer and his Contemporaries. The Hague: Mouton, 1967.

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn. Books Under Suspicion: Censorship and Tolerance of Revelatory Writing in Late Medieval England. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006. [Contents: Silencing optimism: the criminalizing of alternative salvation histories -- "Through the hiding of books": the codicological evidence for Joachite Franciscanism and censorship in England before and after Wyclif -- Two thirteenth-century condemned books and their revival: Amourian eschatology, antimendicant polemic, and Ricardian literature, 1358-89 -- "Extra fidem scripture": attitudes toward non-biblical vision in Great Schism England and the vogue for Hildegardiana -- Visions from prison: intellectual freedom and the gift of "intellectus spiritualis" -- Urban devotion and female preaching: constraint and encouragement in England and abroad -- The M. N. glosses to Porete's Mirror and the question of insular suspicion -- Forensic vision and intellectual vision: Julian's self-censorship and books of Carthusian transmission -- Two Oxford professors under inquisition I: Ockham, radical salvation theology, and the "creation of doubt" in Langland and Chaucer -- Two Oxford professors under inquisition II: Uthred de Boldon's Visio Clara, Langland, and liberal salvation theology.]

Lettau, Lisa. "Conscious Constructions of Self: Dreams and Visions in the Middle Ages." Ph.D. diss., University of Delaware, 2008. [DAI 69 (2008-2009): 3540A. Abstract: "In this study, I examine dream visions and mystical writings of the late Middle Ages to explore how medieval Christians were defining their individualism and creating a selfhood that encompassed their burgeoning desire for individuality even as they conformed to acceptable social and religious influences. Through Church teaching, medieval Christians understood that humankind had originally been created in the image of God, but that the perfection of humanity as godlike was destroyed in the Fall. In order to develop an identity that could live in the world and yet achieve eternal life, medieval Christians would first have to rectify the seeming disconnect between their physical form and their spiritual one. These visionary works provide the authors' understanding of medieval selfhood either through an attempt to correct the flaw or to accept it as part of humanity.
     "Chapter One introduces my theoretical platform and the critical history of scholarly studies of medieval subjectivity. Chapter Two focuses on the nature of people as physical and spiritual beings in a dream poem, Pearl, by exploring how physical senses inhibit and enhance spiritual understanding. In Chapter Three I examine personal growth and higher understanding in Julian of Norwich's A Vision Showed to a Devout Woman and A Revelation of Love, which describe the revelation she received in a vision from God, and Mum and the Sothsegger, which offers a dream vision episode within the confines of a debate poem. In Chapter Four, Luke's gospel story of Martha and Mary provides a backdrop for examining The Cloud of Unknowing and Piers Plowman in conjunction. By seeking the best form of living, these works develop medieval views on the two options that Jesus has given: active and contemplative. The final chapter ties two seemingly disparate texts together, The Book of Margery Kempe and Chaucer's The Book of the Duchess. Although Kempe emphasizes a personal relationship with God and Chaucer sees selfhood unified through the melding of spirit and body required to produce art, both recognize the importance of written text for inspiring others to wholeness of being."]

Lynch, Kathryn L. The High Medieval Dream Vision: Poetry, Philosophy, and Literary Form. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988. ["A redefinition of the dream vision form which attends to its role in contemporary philosophical debate."]

Newman, Francis Xavier. "Somnium: Medieval Theories of Dreaming and the Form of Vision Poetry." Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1963. [DA 24 (1963-1964): 4680-4681.]

Petroff, Elizabeth Alvilda, eds. Medieval Women's Visionary Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Racicot, William A. "'If we shadows have offended': Reflections of Social Attitudes toward Reform in Late Medieval and Reformation Dream Visions." Ph.D. diss., Duquesne University, 2010. [DAI 71 (2010-2011): 1310A. Abstract: "14th-century dream visions feature intensely personal narrators with attitudes and desires, who agonize over difficult situations, who make errors in judgment. Deeply characterized narrators contribute thematically to these poems, which explore personal subjects like grief and faith. By the 16th century, the form had undergone a thematic transformation from personal narrative to political allegory, losing much of its potency. The narrators use the dream vision structure in order to beg authority figures to forgive the potentially offensive statements made in their work because it was only a dream. Many narrators are ciphers, the eyes and mouthpieces of a theme rather than characters with personalities and goals. They observe situations more than manipulating them. Their dreams focus more on social than personal critique. As British ideology shifted from an internally-oriented belief in patient endurance and a deep-seated belief in hierarchal structures, to a more externally-oriented commitment to Reformation, the function of the dream vision underwent a parallel shift from exploring internal, personal themes toward exploring external, social themes."]

Russell, J. Stephen. "Meaningless Dreams and Meaningful Poems: The Form of the Medieval Dream Vision." Massachusetts Studies in English 7 (1978): 20-32.

Russell, J. Stephen. The English Dream Vision: Anatomy of a Form. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1988.

Seah, Victoria Lees. "Marriage and the Love Vision: The Concept of Marriage in Three Medieval Love Visions as Relating to Courtship and Marriage Conventions of the Period." Ph.D. diss., McGill University, 1977. [DAI 38 (1977-1978): 4151A.]

Smith, Forrest S. Secular and Sacred Visionaries in the Late Middle Ages. Garland Publications in Comparative Literature. New York: Garland, 1988.

Spearing, A. C. Medieval Dream-Poetry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

J. Primary Texts
J.i. Geoffrey Chaucer

Benson, C. David. "Chaucer as Revolutionary." In Selected Essays: International Conference on Representing Revolution 1989. Ed. John Michael Crafton. Carrollton: West Georgia College, 1991. Pp. 9-20.

Bishop, Kathleen A., ed. Standing in the Shadow of the Master?: Chaucerian Influences and Interpretations. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2010. [Contents: Disgraces the name and patronage of his master Chaucer: Echoes and Reflections in Lydgate's Courtly Poetry / William T. Rossiter -- The Scottish Lydgateans / W. H. E. Sweet -- Metatextual Resistance in Henryson's Testament of Cresseid / Sandra M. Hordis -- The Palice of Honour: Gavin Douglas' Renovation of Chaucer's House of Fame / Chelsea Honeyman -- Using Reason to Change Their Worlds: The Tale of Rosiphelee and the Tale of Alceone in John Gower's Confessio Amantis / Ellen S. Bakalian -- Quat is this Fairy Burial Mound?: The Gawain-poet's Green Moment in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight / Sonya Veck -- Not Just Chaucer's England Anymore: Reassessing John Clanvowe's Boke of Cupide / Dana Symons -- Osbern Bokenham Reads the Prologue to the Legend of Good Women: The Life of St. Margaret / Alice Spencer -- To Walke aboute the mase, in certeynte; As a woman that nothing rought: The Maze Motif and Feminine Imagination in The Assembly of Ladies / Alice Spencer -- What things you make of us! Amazons and Kinsmen in Chaucer and Shakespeare / Jim Casey -- Alice on the Couch: A 21st Century Psychoanalytic Interpretation of The Wife of Bath / Karen Mruk -- Chaucer Kowthe in Sondry Londes: The Canterbury Tales in Popular Web Culture / Nancy M. Reale -- So What?: Making Chaucer Matter in the Undergraduate Classroom / Heidi Breuer and Jeff Schoneman.]

Blamires, Alcuin. Chaucer, Ethics, and Gender. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. [Contents: Fellowship and detraction in the architecture of the Canterbury Tales: from "The General Prologue" and "The Knight's Tale" to "The Parson's Prologue" -- Credulity and vision: "The Miller's Tale," "The Merchant's Tale," "The Wife of Bath's Tale" -- Sex and lust: "The Merchant's Tale," "The Reeve's Tale," and other Tales -- The ethics of sufficiency: "The Man of Law's Introduction" and "Tale"; "The Shipman's Tale" -- Liberality: "The Wife of Bath's Prologue" and "Tale" and "The Franklin's Tale" -- Problems of patience: "The Franklin's Tale," "The Clerk's Tale," "The Nun's Priest's Tale" -- Men, women, and moral jurisdiction: "The Friar's Tale," "The Physician's Tale," and the Pardoner -- Proprieties of work and speech: "The Second Nun's Prologue" and "Tale," "The Canon's Yeoman's Prologue" and "Tale," "The Manciple's Prologue" and "Tale," and "The Parson's Prologue."]

Blamires, Alcuin. "Chaucer the Reactionary: Ideology and the 'General Prologue' to The Canterbury Tales." Review of English Studies ns 51 [204] (2000): 523-539. [Abstract: "Chaucer's 'General Prologue' to The Canterbury Tales is more politically charged than is commonly supposed. It formulates ruling ideology after the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 through a tactical distribution of blame for oppression among scapegoats and away from lordship (Knight) and judiciary (Franklin). It identifies a source of manorial exploitation primarily at the level of the Reeve, a peasant foreman whose harshness contrasts with the distant benevolence of his own lord. While the anticlerical dimension of the Prologue's propagandist make-up is well known, readers have missed the full social implication of its uncompromising strategy because of the received myth of a socially unfixed Chaucer whose writing issues from a classlessness straddling different social strata. A clear commitment to aristocratic ideology and disdain for peasant aspiration, however, is visible in the 'General Prologue' and persists in the tales that follow."]

Bowers, John M. "Chaucer after Smithfield: From Postcolonial Writer to Imperialist Author." In The Postcolonial Middle Ages. Ed. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen. New Middle Ages. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. Pp. 53-66.

Brown, Peter, ed. A Companion to Chaucer. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. [Contents: "Afterlife," by Carolyn Collette; "Authority," by Andrew Galloway; "Bodies," by Linda Ehrsam Voigts; "Chivalry," by Derek Brewer; "Christian Ideologies," by Nicholas Watson; "Comedy," by Laura Kendrick; "Contemporary English Writers," by James Simpson; "Crisis and Dissent," by Alcuin Blamires; "France," by Michael Hanly; "Games," by Malcolm Andrew; "Genre," by Caroline D. Eckhardt; "Geography and Travel," by Scott D. Westrem; "Italy," by David Wallace; "Language," by David Burnley; "Life Histories," by Janette Dillon; "London," by Michael Hanrahan; "Love," by Helen Phillips; "Modes of Representation," by Edward Wheatley; "Narrative," by Robert R. Edwards; "Other Thought-Worlds," by Susanna Fein; "Pagan Survivals," by John M. Fyler; "Personal Identity," by Lynn Staley; "Science," by Irma Taavitsainen; "Social Structures," by Robert Swanson; "Style," by John F. Plummer; "Texts," by Tim William Machan; "Translation," by Roger Ellis; "Visualizing," by Sarah Stanbury; "Women," by Nicky Hallett.]

Fehrenbacher, Richard W. "'A yeerd enclosed al aboute': Literature and History in the Nun's Priest's Tale." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 134-148. [Abstract: "A discussion of literature and history in Chaucer's Nun's Priest's Tale. The writer examines the passage toward the end of the tale where, in lines 4583-87, Chaucer directly alludes to the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and to one of its leaders, Jack Straw. He agrees with new readings of this passage that interpret the rhetorical excesses of the Nun's Priest's Tale as an attempt to contain the invocation of a social and historical dimension in this passage. He argues, however, that although the tale repeatedly attempts to escape the realm of the historical by seeking refuge in the realm of the literary, history cannot be banished entirely from literature. He shows how the boundaries between literature and history are continuously compromised and renegotiated in the tale."]

Jordan, Timothy R. "The Concentration of Carnivalesque Themes in the Shared Fabliaux of the Decameron and the Canterbury Tales." M.A. thesis, Indiana State University, 2006.

Knapp, Peggy A[nn]. Chaucer and the Social Contest. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1989.

McCormack, Frances. Chaucer and the Culture of Dissent: The Lollard Context and Subtext of the "Parson's Tale." Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2007. [A revised version of her Ph.D. thesis, Trinity College, Dublin, 2004. Publisher's description: "Chaucer and the Culture of Dissent investigates the links between Chaucer's Parson's Tale and Lollard discourse and ideas. From the moment the Parson is introduced in the General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales suggestions of Lollardy surround him. Chaucer therefore invites (or even dares) his reader to go in search of Lollard codes in the Parson's Tale. This book balances a literary and historical approach to reading Chaucer's Parson's Tale. Here, Frances McCormack considers the evidence of Chaucer's connection to the movement and analyzes the similarities between the Parson's language and Lollard sect vocabulary. She investigates whether Chaucer made use of a Wycliffite version of the Bible in writing the tale, and considers whether the Parson expounds any points of Lollard doctrine."]

Meale, Carol M[argaret]. "Women's Piety and Women's Power: Chaucer's Prioress Reconsidered." Essays on Ricardian Literature in Honour of J. A. Burrow. Ed. A. J. Minnis, et al. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. Pp. 39-60.

Olson, Paul A. The "Canterbury Tales" and the Good Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Pattwell, Niamh. "'The venym of Symony': The Debate on the Eucharist in the Late Fourteenth Century and The Pardoner's Prologue and Tale." In Transmission and Transformation in the Middle Ages. Ed. Kathleen Cawsey and Jason Harris. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2007. Pp. 115-130. [With a focus on the "venym" / poison in the Pardoner's Tale, Pattwell contextualizes the story within late fourteenth-century concerns about corruption in the church (especially Wyclif and Lollard accusations), simony and simoniacal priests, and the corrupting effect ("venym") of a sinful priest serving the eucharist. Pattwell, for instance, sees the apothecary's speech on the effects of his rat poison as a direct inversion of the standard list (found, for instance, in Lydgate's "Virtutes missarum") of the "meeds" of the Mass (taking Mass will save you from sudden death on your way home from Church; the apothecary's poison is guaranteed to cause sudden death, etc.).]

Phillips, Helen, ed. Chaucer and Religion. Christianity and Culture 4. Cambridge and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2010. [Publisher's description: "Chaucer's writings (the Canterbury Tales, lyrics and dream poems, and Troilus) are here freshly examined in relation to the religions, the religious traditions and the religious controversies of his era."
     Contents: Love, marriage, sex, gender / Alcuin Blamires -- Chaucer and the Bible / Graham D. Caie -- Chaucer and Lollardy / Frances M. McCormack -- 'Toward the fen': church and churl in Chaucer's Fabliaux / Stephen Knight -- 'A manner latyn corrupt': Chaucer and the absent religions / Anthony Bale -- The matter of Chaucer: Chaucer and the boundaries of romance / Helen Phillips -- Mary, sanctity and prayers to saints: Chaucer and late-medieval piety / Sherry Reames -- 'Th'ende is every tales strengthe': Contextualizing Chaucerian perspectives on death and judgment / Carl Phelpstead -- Chaucer and the saints: miracles and voices of faith / Laurel Broughton -- Chaucer and the communities of pilgrimage / Dee Dyas -- Classicizing Christianity in Chaucer's dream poems: the Books of the duchess, Book of fame and Parliament of fowls / Stephen Knight -- Morality in the Canterbury tales, Chaucer's lyrics and the Legend of good women / Helen Phillips -- 'To demen by interrogaciouns': accessing the Christian context of the Canterbury tales with enquiry-based learning / Roger Dalrymple -- 'Gladly wolde [they] lerne[?]': US students and the Chaucer class / D. Thomas Hanks Jr -- Teaching teachers: Chaucer, ethics, and romance / David Raybin -- Reflections on teaching Chaucer and religion: the Nun's priest's tale and the Man of law / Gillian Rudd.]

Quinn, Esther Casier. Geoffrey Chaucer and the Poetics of Disguise. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2008. [Contents: Introduction: Telling the truth, but telling it slant -- I. Intimations of what's to come: people, places, events, and poetry -- II. Dream worlds. The book of the Duchess: "Reysed as fro deth to lyve"; The house of fame: Enter the eagle; The parliament of fowls: the goddess Nature as parliamentarian -- III. Pagan worlds. Troy: "kalendes of chaunge"; Rome and "elleswhere"; Toward "Atthenes" -- IV. Moving toward Canterbury. the duke and the judge; "Cherles tales"; Rhyming and royalty; Tales without women; Jaunty rhymes and solemn prose; Tales without endings; Those other tales -- V. Chaucer in a different key: the short poems.]

Russell, J. Stephen. "Is London Burning?: A Chaucerian Allusion to the Rising of 1381." Chaucer Review 30 (1995-1996): 107-109.

Sadlek, Gregory M. "Chaucer in the Dock: Literature, Women, and Medieval Antifeminism." Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Teaching 14.1 (Spring, 2007): 117-131.

Scattergood, [Vincent] John. "Social and Political Issues in Chaucer: An Approach to Lak of Stedfastnesse." Chaucer Review 21 (1986-1987): 469-475. [Rpt. in his Reading the Past: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 1996. Pp. 192-198.]

Strohm, Paul. "Politics and Poetics: Usk and Chaucer in the 1380s." In Literary Practice and Social Change in Britain, 1380-1530. Ed. Lee Patterson. New Historicism: Studies in Cultural Politics 8. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. Pp. 83-112.

Strohm, Paul. Social Chaucer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.

Travis, Peter W. "Chaucer's Trivial Fox Chase and the Peasants' Revolt of 1381." Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 18 (1988): 195-220.

Turner, Marion. Chaucerian Conflict: Languages of Antagonism in Late Fourteenth-Century London. Oxford English Monographs. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. [Contents: Introduction: Chaucerian conflict -- Discursive turbulence: slander, the House of fame, and the Mercers' petition -- Urban treason: Troilus and Criseyde and the 'treasonous aldermen' of 1382 -- Idealism and antagonism: Troynovaunt in the late fourteenth century -- Ricardian communities: Thomas Usk's social fantasies -- Conflicted Compaignyes: the Canterbury fellowship and urban associational form --Conflict resolved?: the language of peace and Chaucer's "Tale of Melibee."]

Wasserman, Julian N. "Both Fixed and Free: Language and Destiny in Chaucer's Knight's Tale and Troilus and Criseyde." In Sign, Sentence, Discourse: Language in Medieval Thought and Literature. Ed. Julian N. Wasserman and Lois Roney. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1989. Pp. 194-222.

Windeatt, Barry A. Chaucer's Dream Poetry: Sources and Analogues. Chaucer Studies 7. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1982.

Woods, William F. Chaucerian Spaces: Spatial Poetics in Chaucer's Opening Tales. SUNY Series in Medieval Studies. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008. [Contents: Dwelling places of chivalry and nature -- Alysoun the housewife -- The solace of open spaces -- Symkyn's place -- Changing places -- The riches of exilic space -- The domestic market -- The exile and her kingdom -- Chaucer's spatial poetics.]

Yeager, R[obert] F., ed. Chaucer and Gower: Difference, Mutuality, Exchange. English Literary Studies, Monograph Series 51. Victoria, BC: English Literary Studies, 1991.

J.i.a. Chaucer, "The Cook's Tale" (with anonymous continuation)

Boyd, David Lorenzo. "Social Texts: Bodley 686 and the Politics of the 'Cook's Tale.'" Huntington Library Quarterly 58 (1996): 81-97.

Casey, Jim. "Unfinished Business: The Termination of the Cook's Tale." Chaucer Review 41 (2006-2007): 185-196.

Crawford, Donna. "Revel and Youth in The Cook's Tale and The Tale of Gamelyn." Archiv für das Studium der Neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 158.2 [243] (2006): 32-43.

Kang, Ji Soo. "The (In)Completeness of the Cook's Tale." Medieval English Studies 5 (1997): 145-170.

Kolve, V. A. "The Cook's Tale and The Man of Law's Introduction: Crossing the Hengwrt/Ellesmere Gap." Chap. 6 of his Chaucer and the Imagery of Narrative: The First Five Canterbury Tales. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1984. Pp. 257-296.

Lynch, Kathryn L. "From Tavern to Pie Shop: The Raw, the Cooked, and the Rotten in Fragment 1 of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales." Exemplaria 19 (2007): 117-138.

Pigg, Daniel F. "Imagining Urban Life and Its Discontents: Chaucer's Cook's Tale and Masculine Identity." In Urban Space in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Age. Ed. Albrecht Classen. Fundamentals of Medieval and Early Modern Culture 4. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2009. Pp. 395-407.

Pinti, Daniel J. "Governing the 'Cook's Tale' in Bodley 686." Chaucer Review 30 (1995-1996): 379-388.

Scattergood, V[incent] J[ohn]. "Perkyn Revelour and the 'Cook's Tale.'" Chaucer Review 19 (1984-1985): 14-23. [Rpt. in his Reading the Past: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 1996. Pp. 183-191.
     Scattergood argues that Perkyn is a recognizable literary type: he is a "revelour" (like the Wife of Bath's fourth husband, or the protagonists of the "Pardoner's Tale") and, perhaps, a "gallaunt." Scattergood also speculates somewhat on what the plot might have been. He concludes with the suggestion that Chaucer may have abandoned the tale because it would have been too much like the "Pardoner's Tale" had he continued.]

Wallace, David. "Chaucer and the Absent City." In Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Ed. Barbara Hanawalt. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. Pp. 59-90. [London per se is not presented in the Canterbury Tales directly (the pilgrimage begins, not in London, but in Southwark). But there are, as in the "Cook's Tale" or the "Canon's Yeoman's Tale," descriptions of city life based upon Chaucer's knowledge of London: the figure of the City in the Canterbury Tales tends to be one of a place of "duplicity and bad faith."]

Woods, William F. "Society and Nature in the Cook's Tale." Papers on Language and Literature 32 (1996): 189-205.

J.i.b. Pseudo-Chaucer, "The Plowman's Tale"

Costomiris, Robert. "The Yoke of Canon: Chaucerian Aspects of The Plowman's Tale." Philological Quarterly 71 (1991): 185-198.

Forni, Kathleen. "The Chaucerian Apocrypha: Did Usk's 'Testament of Love' and the 'Plowman's Tale' Ruin Chaucer's Early Reputation?" Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 98 (1997): 261-272.

Patterson, Paul J. "'All other maisters ben wicked or fals': Chaucer, The Plowman's Tale, and the Pristine English Church." Milton and Melville Review 1.1 (Winter, 2006): 10-20. [Available online: <http://www.miltonandmelville.org/>.]

Wawn, Andrew N. "Chaucer, The Plowman's Tale and Reformation Propaganda: The Testimonies of Thomas Godfray and I Playne Piers." Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library 56.1 (Autumn 1973): 174-192. [Hoccleve's Miracle of the Virgin and Godfray's Plowman's Tale are sometimes attributed to Chaucer's Plowman, the latter for propagandistic purposes. AES 19 (1975-76): 19 (#77).]

Wawn, Andrew N. "Chaucer, Wyclif and the Court of Apollo." English Language Notes 10 (1972): 15-20. [[Wycliffe; "The Plowman's Tale"]]

Wawn, Andrew N. "The Genesis of The Plowman's Tale." Yearbook of English Studies 2 (1972): 21-40.

Wawn, Andrew N. "The Ploughman's Tale." Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham, 1969. [[Plowman's Tale]]

J.ii. John Gower

Allen, Rosamund S. "John Gower and Southwark: The Paradox of the Social Self." In London and Europe in the Later Middle Ages. Ed. Julia Boffey and Pamela King. Westfield Publications in Medieval Studies 9. London: Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, 1995. Pp. 111-147 and three plates between pp. 148 and 149. [Papers from a seminar series held at Queen Mary and Westfield College in 1992-1993.]

Arner, Lynn. "History Lessons from the End of Time: Gower and the English Rising of 1381." Clio 31 (2001-2002): 237-255.

Arner, Lynn Patricia. "Burying the Dead: John Gower and the English Rising of 1381." Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester, 2000. [DAI 61 (2000-2001): 601A. Abstract: "This dissertation investigates how, in the wake of the English Rising of 1381, John Gower's Confessio Amantis addressed the highest ranks of non-ruling urban groups, ranks which produced numerous rebels. Using a methodology in dialogue with British Cultural Studies, this project argues that the Confessio worked to reshape the consciousness of readers from these strata, proposing to alter the ways in which they conceptualized their agency, interests, allies, and overall identities. This is the first study of the Confessio to examine an early readership from non-ruling groups or to consider readers who had participated in or sympathized with the uprising. Chapter One challenges claims that only ruling groups comprised the poem's earliest readership and explains that the upper strata of non-ruling urban groups (roughly, middle-rank guild members, including prosperous retailers and artisans) were in the Confessio's audiences from 1390 to 1425. This chapter examines studies of early Confessio manuscripts and their circulation but focuses primarily on the access of the upper strata of non-ruling urban groups to literacy and on their consumption of texts. Chapter Two argues that the Confessio's rendition of Nebuchadnezzar's dream represents history as a homogeneous mass and as a teleological progression into ruin. Through these contradictory models, the Confessio proposed to alter the terms in which readers understood how history happens, experienced their relation to the past and future, conceptualized their agency and identities, and understood their connections to the uprising and to insurrection in general. The third chapter argues that, through the grace of higher powers, the protagonist undergoes a rite of passage, improving his understanding, morality, and spirituality. The poem offers readers a similar gift, through its learned, textual tradition. The Confessio thus distinguishes informed men from the masses, thereby policing debates about England's problems, while fostering identifications between readers and higher ranks and encouraging contempt for lower ranks. Chapter Four holds that the Confessio's claims about popular insurrection echo the Vox Clamantis. However, the poems' overall approaches to the uprising differ radically, as their strategies were shaped by disparities between England's political terrain in 1381 and in the years immediately thereafter."]

Beidler, Peter G., ed. John Gower's Literary Transformations in the "Confessio Amantis": Original Articles and Translations. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1982. [Essays comparing the tales with their sources.]

Clogan, Paul [Maurice]. "From Complaint to Satire: The Art of the Confessio Amantis." Medievalia et Humanistica ns 4 (1973): 217-222. [[John Gower]]

Coffman, George R. "John Gower in His Most Significant Role." In Elizabethan Studies and Other Essays in Honor of George F. Reynolds. University of Colorado Studies, Series B, #2. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Press, 1945. Pp. 52-61. [Reprinted in Middle English Survey: Critical Essays. Ed. Edward Vasta. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1965. Pp. 217-231.]

Coffman, George R. "John Gower, Mentor for Royalty: Richard II." PMLA 69 (1954): 953-964.

Collins, Marie. "Love, Nature and Law in the Poetry of Gower and Chaucer." In Court and Poet: Selected Proceedings of the International Courtly Literature Society. Ed. Glyn S. Burgess. Arca: Classical and Medieval Texts, Papers and Monographs 5. Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1981. Pp. 113-128.

Dutton, Elisabeth, John Hines and R. F. Yeager, eds. John Gower, Trilingual Poet: Language, Translation, and Tradition. Westfield Medieval Studies 3. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2010. [Contents: Introduction / Elisabeth Dutton -- Gower at source. Southwark Gower: Augustinian agencies in Gower's manuscripts and texts: some prolegomena / Jean-Pascal Pouzet -- Gower looking East. The place of Egypt in Gower's Confessio amantis / Ethan Knapp; Topical and tropological Gower: invoking Armenia in the Confessio amantis / Carolyn P. Collette -- Politics, prophecy and apocalypse. Saving history: Gower's apocalyptic and the new arion / Elliot Kendall; Gower's poetics of the literal / Robert R. Edwards; Romance, popular style and the Confessio amantis: conflict or evasion / George Shuffelton; John Gower: prophet or turncoat? / Nigel Saul; The parliamentary source of Glower's Cronica tripertita and incommensurable styles / David R. Carlson -- Science, law and economy. John Gower's legal advocacy and "In praise of peace" / Candace Barrington; Se-duction and sovereign power in Gower's Confessio amantis book V / Andreea Boboc; The fifteen stars, stones and herbs: book VII of the Confessio amantis and its afterlife / Tamara F. O'Callaghan; "of the parfite medicine": Merita perpetuata in Gower's vernacular alchemy / Stephanie L. Batkie; Inside out in Gower's republic of letters / Karla Taylor; Gower's business: artistic production of cultural capital and the tale of Florent / Brian Gastle -- Sin, love, sex and gender. Genius and sensual reading in the Vox clamantis / Matthew Irvin; Irony v. paradox in the Confessio amantis / Peter Nicholson; Sinning against love in Confessio amantis / J. A. Burrow; The woman's response in John Gower's Cinkante balades / Holly Barbaccia; Rich words: Gower's Rime riche in dramatic action / Kim Zarins; Florent's Mariage sous la potence / Richard F. Green; Why did Gower write the Traitié? / Cathy Hume -- Gower "translated." Rival poets: Gower's Confessio and Chaucer's Legend of good women / John M. Bowers; Reassessing Gower's dream-visions / Andrew Galloway; John Gower's French and his readers / R. F. Yeager; Conjuring Gower in Pericles / Martha Driver.]

Echard, Siân, ed. A Companion to Gower. Cambridge and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2004. [Contents: Introduction: Gower's reputation / Siân Echard -- Iohannes Gower, armiger, poeta: records and memorials of his life and death / John Hines, Nathalie Cohen and Simon Roffey -- London, Southwark, Westminster: Gower's urban contexts / Robert Epstein -- John Gower and London English / Jeremy J. Smith -- The manuscripts and illustrations of Gower's work / Derek Pearsall -- 'This worthy olde writer': Pericles and other Gowers, 1592-1640 / Helen Cooper -- Gower in print / Siân Echard -- John Gower's French / R.F. Yeager -- The Latin works: politics, lament, and praise / A.G. Rigg and Edward S. Moore -- Confessio amantis and the French tradition / Ardis Butterfield -- Classical and Boethian tradition in the Confessio amantis / Winthrop Wetherbee -- Gender and sexuality in Confessio amantis / Diane Watt -- The politics and psychology of governance in Gower: ideas of kingship and real kings / Russell Peck -- Gower's poetic styles / John Burrow -- Appendix: a chronology of Gower criticism / Siân Echard and Julie Lanz.]

Echard, Siân, and Claire Fanger. Latin Verses in the "Confessio Amantis": An Annotated Translation. Preface A. G. Rigg. Medieval Texts and Studies 7. East Lansing, MI: Colleagues Press, 1991. [[John Gower]]

Farnham, Anthony E. "The Art of High Prosaic Seriousness: John Gower as Didactic Raconteur." In The Learned and the Lewd: Studies in Chaucer and Medieval Literature. Ed. Larry D. Benson. Harvard English Studies 5. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974. Pp. 161-173.

Fisher, John H. John Gower: Moral Philosopher and Friend of Chaucer. New York: New York University Press, 1964.

Fison, Peter. "The Poet in John Gower." Essays in Criticism 8 (1958): 16-26.

Gallacher, Patrick. Love, the Word and Mercury: A Reading of Gower's "Confessio Amantis." Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1975. [[John Gower]]

Gower, John. The Complete Works of John Gower. Ed. G. C. Macaulay. 4 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1899-1902.

Gower, John. The English Works of John Gower. Ed. G. C. Macaulay. 2 vols. Early English Text Society, ES 81-82. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the Early English Text Society, 1900-1901.

Gower, John. The Major Latin Works of John Gower: "The Voice of One Crying," and "The Tripartite Chronicle." Ed. and trans. Eric W. Stockton. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1962. [[John Gower, Vox clamantis]]

Gower, John. Mirour de l'Omme. Trans. William Burton Wilson. East Lansing, MI: Colleagues, 1991. [First translation of Gower's major French work into English.]

Gower, John. Poems on Contemporary Events: The "Visio Anglie" (1381) and "Cronica tripertita" (1400). Ed. David R. Carlson, with a verse translation by A. G. Rigg. Studies and Texts 174; British Writers of the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period 2. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2011. [Texts in Latin with English translations.]

Grady, Frank. "The Lancastrian Gower and the Limits of Exemplarity." Speculum 70 (1995): 552-575.

Irvin, Matthew William. "'In propria persona': Artifice, Politics, and Property in John Gower's Confessio Amantis." Ph.D. diss., Duke University, 2009. [DAI 70 (2009-2010): 4672A. Abstract: "This dissertation examines the use of personae, the rhetorical artifices by which an author creates different voices, in John Gower's Confessio Amantis. I argue that the Confessio attempts to expose how discourses of sexual desire alienate subjects from their proper place in the political world, and produce artificial personae that only appear socially engaged. The first three chapters consider the creation of the personae in the context of medieval Aristotelian political thought and the Roman de la Rose tradition. The last three chapters examine the extended discourse of Gower's primary personae in the Confessio Amantis, drawing upon Gower's other works and the history of Gower criticism."]

Ito, Masayoshi. John Gower, the Medieval Poet. Tokyo: Shinozaki Shorin, 1976.

Kendall, Elliot Richard. Lordship and Literature: John Gower and the Politics of the Great Household. Oxford English Monographs. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2008. [Publisher's description: "In a sustained new reading of John Gower's major English poem, Confessio Amantis (1390-3), Elliot Kendall shows how deeply the great household shaped the way Gower and his contemporaries (including Chaucer, Clanvowe, chroniclers, and parliamentary petitioners) imagined their world."
     Contents: The great household and an economics of power -- The political economy in the late fourteenth century -- Service allegory: the great household in Genius's confession -- Courtly love and the lordship of Venus -- Women as household exchange in Genius's tales -- Justice and the affinity -- Retribution as household exchange in Genius's tales -- Total reciprocity and the problem of kingship.]

Kinneavy, Gerald B. "Gower's Confessio Amantis and the Penitentials." Chaucer Review 19 (1984-1985): 144-161. [[John Gower]]

Minnis, A. J., ed. Gower's "Confessio Amantis": Responses and Reassessments. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1983. [A collection of critical essays. [John Gower]]

Mish, Frederick C. The Influence of Ovid on John Gower's "Vox clamantis." University of Minnesota Press, 1973.

Mitchell, J. Allan. "John Gower and John Lydgate: Forms and Norms of Rhetorical Culture." In A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture c.1350-c.1500. Ed. Peter Brown. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 42. Maldon, MA: Blackwell, 2007. Pp. 569-584.

Nicholson, Peter, ed. Gower's "Confessio Amantis": A Critical Anthology. Publications of the John Gower Society 3. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1991. [Eleven essays (from C. S. Lewis, A. J. Minnis, and others) to illustrate modern critical discussion of the poem. [John Gower]]

Nicholson, Peter. An Annotated Index to the Commentary on John Gower's "Confessio Amantis." Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 62. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1989.

Olsen, Alexandra Hennessey. "Between Ernest and Game": The Literary Artistry of the "Confessio Amantis." American University Studies IV, English Language and Literature 110. New York: Peter Lang, 1990. [[John Gower]]

Olsson, Kurt O. John Gower and the Structures of Conversion: A Reading of the "Confessio Amantis." Publications of the John Gower Society 4. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1992.

Olsson, Kurt O. "Natural Law and John Gower's Confessio Amantis." Medievalia et Humanistica ns 11 (1982): 229-261.

Peck, Russell A. Kingship and Common Profit in Gower's "Confessio Amantis." Literary Structures. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1978.

Strohm, Paul. "Form and Social Statement in Confessio Amantis and The Canterbury Tales." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 1 (1979): 17-40. [[John Gower; Geoffrey Chaucer]]

Urban, Malte, ed. John Gower: Manuscripts, Readers, Contexts. Disputatio 13. Turnhout: Brepols, 2009. [Contents: Introduction / Malte Urban -- Manuscripts, material, and translation. John Gower: reader, editor, and geometrician "for Engelondes sake" / Russell A. Peck; Gower's Confessio amantis, the Prick of conscience, and the history of the Latin gloss in Early English literature / Andrew Galloway; Women readers and Pierpont Morgan MS M.126 / Martha Driver; Translating women, translating texts: Gower's "Tale of Tereus" and the Castilian and Portuguese translations of the Confessio amantis / María Bullón-Fernández -- Rhetoric and authority. Gower's Confessio amantis, natural morality, and vernacular ethics / J. Allan Mitchell; Rhetorical Gower: Aristotelianism in the Confessio amantis's treatment of "rethorique" / Georgiana Donavin; Past and present: Gower's use of old books in Vox clamantis / Malte Urban -- London life and texts. "The slyeste of alle": the Lombard problem in John Gower's London / Craig E. Bertolet; Promiscuous contexts: Gower's wife, prostitution, and the Confessio amantis / Eve Salisbury.]

Wetherbee, Winthrop. "John Gower." Chap. 22 of The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Ed. David Wallace. New Cambridge History of English Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. 589-609.

Wickert, Maria. Studies in John Gower. Trans. Robert J. Meindl. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1982. [On Gower's Vox clamantis. Trans. of Studien zu John Gower. Cologne, 1953.]

Yeager, Robert F. "The Body Politic and the Politics of Bodies in the Poetry of John Gower." In The Body and the Soul in Medieval Literature. Ed. Piero Boitani and Anna Torti. The J. A. W. Bennett Memorial Lectures, Tenth Series, Perugia, 1998. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1999. Pp. 145-165. ["Examines the political relevance of representations of the body and the use of the body metaphor in the work of Gower" (International Medieval Bibliography). [Esp. on the Vox clamantis.]]

Yeager, Robert F., ed. John Gower: Recent Readings; Papers Presented at Meetings of the John Gower Society at the International Congress on Medieval Studies at the Western Michigan University, 1983-1988. Studies in Medieval Culture 26. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University, 1989.

Yeager, R[obert] F. John Gower's Poetic: The Search for a New Arion. Publications of the John Gower Society 2. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1990.

Yeager, Robert F., ed. On John Gower: Essays at the Millennium. Studies in Medieval Culture 46. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University, 2007. [Contents: Introduction / R. F. Yeager -- Gower's Mediterranean / Steven F. Kruger -- Rome, Troy, and culture in the Confessio amantis / Winthrop Wetherbee -- Fraud, division, and lies: John Gower and London / Craig E. Bertolet -- Principis umbra: kingship, justice, and pity in John Gower's poetry / Yoshiko Kobayashi -- A bok for King Richardes sake: royal patronage, the Confessio, and the legend of good women / Joyce Coleman -- Violence and the sacrificial poet: Gower, the Vox, and the critics / Eve Salisbury -- From head to foot: syllabic play and metamorphosis in Book I of Gower's Vox clamantis / Kim Zarins -- Gower's Virgil / Michael P. Kuczynski -- Holy fear and poetics in John Gower's Confessio amantis, Book I / Claire Banchich -- When reson torneth into rage: violence in Book III of the Confessio amantis / Georgiana Donavin.]

J.iii. William Langland

Adams, Robert. "The Nature of Need in 'Piers Plowman' XX." Traditio 34 (1978): 273-301.

Adams, Robert. "Some Versions of Apocalypse: Learned and Popular Eschatology in Piers Plowman." In The Popular Literature of Medieval England. Ed. Thomas J. Heffernan. Tennessee Studies in Literature 28. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1985. Pp. 194-236.

Aers, David. "Imagination and Traditional Ideologies in Piers Plowman." In Medieval English Poetry. Ed. Stephanie Trigg. Longman Critical Readers. Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1993. Pp. 47-83. ["Examines ways in which aspects of Langland's poetic imagination cut across and press against the dominant hierarchic ideologies" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Aers, David. "Justice and Wage-Labor after the Black Death: Some Perplexities for William Langland." In The Work of Work: Servitude, Slavery, and Labor in Medieval England. Ed. Allen J. Frantzen and Douglas Moffat. Glasgow: Cruithne Press, 1994. Pp. 169-190. [[labour]]

Aers, David. "Piers Plowman: Poverty, Work, and Community." In his Community, Gender, and Individual Identity: English Writing, 1360-1430. London and New York: Routledge, 1988. Pp. 20-72. [[labour]]

Aers, David. "Piers Plowman" and Christian Allegory. London: Edward Arnold, 1975.

Aers, David. "Piers Plowman and Problems in the Perception of Poverty: A Culture in Transition." Leeds Studies in English ns 14 (1983): 5-25.

Aers, David. "Reading Piers Plowman: Literature, History and Criticism." Literature and History ns 1 (1990): 4-23. [Includes some consideration of "dissent," "heresy," and "sedition" with respect to Langland.]

Alford, John A., ed. A Companion to "Piers Plowman." Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Alford, John A. "Piers Plowman": A Glossary of Legal Diction. Piers Plowman Studies 5. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1988.

Alford, John A., ed. "Piers Plowman": A Guide to the Quotations. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 77. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1991.

Anderson, Judith H. The Growth of a Personal Voice: "Piers Plowman" and the "Faerie Queene." New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.

Baldwin, Anna P. A Guidebook to "Piers Plowman." Basingstoke, Hants., and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. [Publisher's description: "This . . . guide works chronologically through the entire text of 'Piers Plowman' and is designed to be read alongside it. Assuming no previous knowledge, it equips readers to enjoy and analyse the text for themselves by clarifying Langland's thinking, contextualising the religious, political and social issues raised, detailing the genres and sources he is using, and offering alternative critical interpretations at key points."]

Baldwin, Anna P. "The Historical Context." In A Companion to "Piers Plowman." Ed. John A. Alford. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1988. Pp. 67-86. [On the historical background to Piers Plowman.]

Baldwin, Anna P. The Theme of Government in "Piers Plowman." Piers Plowman Studies 1. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1981. [A revised version of her Ph.D. thesis (Cambridge, 1976).]

Barron, Caroline M. "William Langland: A London Poet." In Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Ed. Barbara Hanawalt. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. Pp. 91-109. [William Langland, usually (because of the references in the poem) thought of as living in the area of the Malvern Hills, lived in London, in the Cornhill, and travelled around the city reciting and reworking Piers Plowman.]

Benson, C[arl] David. "Piers Plowman as Poetic Pillory: The Pillory and the Cross." In Medieval Literature and Historical Inquiry: Essays in Honor of Derek Pearsall. Ed. David Aers. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. Pp. 31-54.

Benson, C[arl] David. Public "Piers Plowman": Modern Scholarship and Late Medieval English Culture. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003. ["The fourteenth-century alliterative poem Piers Plowman was widely popular in its own day. The number of its surviving manuscripts ranks just below that of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Although the poem has been the subject of some interesting recent critical scholarship, it continues to be marginalized by medievalists and non-medievalists alike. According to C. David Benson, this is because the tendency of modern criticism has been to read Piers as an autobiography mired in the singular intellectual obsessions of its author or as a recondite exploration of theological and political issues. In Public 'Piers Plowman', Benson returns the poem to the center of late medieval English culture by treating it as a public rather than a personal or elite work.
     "Public Piers Plowman is divided into two parts. The first is an extended essay on what Benson calls the 'Langland myth.' He traces the evolution of Piers scholarship and demonstrates the limitations of treating Piers as a direct expression of the poet's life and intellectual views. Well over a century after its creation, the Langland myth remains dominant in studies of the poem, blocking other potentially fruitful approaches.
     "In the second part Benson offers an alternative history for the poem. Although Piers is usually compared with high art and thought, such as that of Chaucer or scholasticism, Benson approaches it from a broader public context, using representative examples from vernacular writing, parish art, and civic practices. He argues that Piers reached a wide contemporary audience because, far from being an expression of the author's own life and opinions, it was securely rooted in the common culture of its time and place.
     "Public 'Piers Plowman' is an ambitious work that dares to confront a true literary masterpiece. In the process, it makes this great poem more accessible, exciting, and necessary to modern readers."
     Contents: Part One: Piers Plowman and Modern Scholarship; Chap. 1: The History of the Langland Myth; Chap. 2: Beyond the Myth of the Poem: Is There a Text in These Manuscripts?; Chap. 3: Beyond the Myth of the Poet: Looking for Langland in All the Wrong Places; Part Two: Piers Plowman and the Public Culture of Late Medieval England; Chap. 4: Public Writing: Mandeville's Travels and The Book of Margery Kempe; Chap. 5: Public Art: Parish Wall Paintings; Chap. 6: Public Life: London Civic Practices.]

Benson, C. David. "Salvation Theology and Poetry in 'Piers Plowman.'" English Language Notes 44.1 (Spring, 2006): 103-107. [Abstract: "This article presents a response to Nicholas Watson's essay, 'Censorship and Cultural Change in Late-Medieval England: Vernacular Theology, the Oxford Translation Debate, and Arundel's Constitutions of 1409.' It looks closely at William Langland's poem, 'Piers Plowman,' in the light of a follow-up essay by Watson on vernacular theology as it applies to the question of universal salvation, asks whether the term vernacular theology distracts us from the specifically poetic aspects of literature of this period."]

Bishop, Louise. "Hearing God's Voice: Kind Wit's Call to Labor in Piers Plowman." In The Work of Work: Servitude, Slavery, and Labor in Medieval England. Ed. Allen J. Frantzen and Douglas Moffat. Glasgow: Cruithne Press, 1994. Pp. 191-205. [[labour]]

Blanch, Robert J., ed. Style and Symbolism in "Piers Plowman": A Modern Critical Anthology. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1969.

Bloomfield, Morton W. "Piers Plowman" as Fourteenth-Century Apocalypse. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, [1961].

Bowers, John M. Chaucer and Langland: The Antagonistic Tradition. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "Although Geoffrey Chaucer and William Langland together dominate fourteenth-century English literature, their respective masterpieces, The Canterbury Tales and Piers Plowman, could not be more different. While Langland's poem was immediately popular and influential, it was Chaucer who stood at the head of a literary tradition within a generation of his death. John Bowers asks why and how Chaucer, not Langland, was granted this position. His study reveals the political, social, and religious factors that contributed to the formation of a literary canon in fourteenth-century England."
     Contents: The Antagonistic tradition -- Beginnings -- Naming names: "Langland" and "Chaucer" -- Piers Plowman and the impulse to antagonism -- Political corrections: The Canterbury Tales -- The house of Chaucer & Son: the business of Lancastrian Canon-formation -- Piers Plowman, print, and protestantism.]

Bowers, John M. The Crisis of Will in "Piers Plowman." Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1986.

Bowers, John M. "Piers Plowman and the Police: Notes toward a History of the Wycliffite Langland." Yearbook of Langland Studies 6 (1992): 1-50. [Langland and the Peasants' Revolt. "Documents the affiliations between Piers Plowman and texts identified as 'Wycliffite.' Bowers includes an analysis of John Ball's letters" (annotation in Literature of Richard II's Reign and the Peasants' Revolt, ed. James M. Dean [1996]).]

Bowers, John M. "Society, the King, and the Unholy Hermit." Chap. 5 of his The Crisis of Will in "Piers Plowman." Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1986. Pp. 97-128.

Brewer, Charlotte. Editing "Piers Plowman": The Evolution of the Text. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 28. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Brewer, Charlotte. "Piers Plowman: The Poem and the Editors." In The Medieval Text: Editors and Critics; Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Symposium Organized by the Centre for the Study of Vernacular Literature in the Middle Ages, held at Odense University, 20-21 November 1989. Ed. Marianne Børch, Andreas Haarder, and Julia McGrew. Odense: Odense University Press, 1990. Pp. 45-63.

Brosamer, Matthew James. "Medieval Gluttony and Drunkenness: Consuming Sin in Chaucer and Langland." Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1998. [DAI 58 (1997-1998): 4643A. Abstract: "The deadly sin of gluttony, which included drunkenness, in Chaucer's day was unique among sins in that it not only involved and led to each of the other major sins, but was especially amenable to a special mode of troping which allowed it fully to signify, at various metaphorical levels, the entire sinful potential of mankind. This unique property of gluttony is illustrated through a survey of biblical and patristic literature, followed by an analysis of a body of writings of contextual relevance to Chaucer and Langland; these include canon law, penitential and sermon literature, regulae for communities of religious, and such actual source material as the De miseria conditionis humanae of Innocent III and the Summa de vitiis of William Peraldus. This material is brought to bear on the Canterbury Tales and Piers Plowman to show that in these works gluttony is a sin set apart; on various levels both concrete and symbolic it is the beginning and end of sin, and not only leads to other sins but in fact embodies them through the metaphors of consumption and incorporation. Piers Plowman condemns the opulent meals of the rich, consumed at the expense of the poor, but goes on to represent how food and drink become not only occasions of all sin, but part of the symbolic apparatus of sin in itself. Chaucer's depiction of these issues is less unified, but shows a similar view. Many of the pilgrims are described in terms of their relation to food and drink, and often quite unfavorably. Both the Parson and the Pardoner indicate that the primordial sin in Eden was gluttony, and the Parson calls this sin 'the five fingers of the devil's hand.' The way in which images of food and drink permeate depictions of sin in Chaucer underscores the importance of seeing this topic in much larger terms than a simple social phenomena; to sin was to consume."]

Burnley, J. David. "Langland's Clergial Lunatic." In Langland, the Mystics, and the Medieval English Religious Tradition: Essays in Honour of S. S. Hussey. Ed. Helen Phillips. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1990. Pp. 31-38. [Burnley considers the "scene in the Prologue of the B-text in which a lunatic addresses a king, recommending justice to him with promise of heavenly reward" (International Medieval Bibliography). Burnley considers the implied audience of the poem to be one of people concerned with social equality.]

Burrow, J. A. "The Audience of Piers Plowman." Anglia 75 (1957): 373-384. [Rpt. in his Essays in Medieval Literature (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984), pp. 102-116.]

Burrow, J. A. "Lady Meed and the Power of Money." Medium Ævum 74.1 (2005): 113-118. ["Discusses interpretations of this character as a representation of the power of money in William Langland's poem Piers Plowman" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Burrow, J. A. Langland's Fictions. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Burrow, John A. "The New Lives of Piers Plowman." In Medieval Alliterative Poetry: Essays in Honour of Thorlac Turville-Petre. Ed. John A. Burrow and Hoyt N. Duggan. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2010. Pp. 41-52.

Carruthers, Mary J. "Time, Apocalypse, and the Plot of Piers Plowman." In Acts of Interpretation: The Text in its Context: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literatures in Honor of E. Talbot Donaldson. Ed. Mary J. Carruthers and Elizabeth D. Kirk. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1982. Pp. 175-188.

Clopper, Lawrence M. "Langland's Franciscanism." Chaucer Review 25 (1990-1991): 54-75. [Langland's anti-fraternalism has been exaggerated: he complains against bad friars, not all friars, and his indebtedness to Franciscan ideas is considerable. [Anti-mendicant literature.]]

Clopper, Lawrence M. "Must Men and Women Labor?: Langland's Wanderer and the Labor Ordinances." In Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Ed. Barbara Hanawalt. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. Pp. 110-129. [[labour]]

Cole, Andrew. "William Langland and the Invention of Lollardy." In Lollards and their Influence in Late Medieval England. Ed. Fiona Somerset, Jill C. Havens, and Derrick G. Pitard. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2003. Pp. 37-58.

Davis, Rebecca Ann. "Piers Plowman and the Books of Nature." Ph.D. diss., University of Notre Dame, 2006. [DAI 67 (2006-2007): 2570A. Abstract: "This project explores the rich significance of nature or kynde in the fourteenth-century poem Piers Plowman. The value of nature is an essential feature of the cultural controversies that characterize late-medieval England, the tumultuous period during which William Langland wrote and rewrote his poem in its three versions. Evaluations of nature underlie the emergence of the vernacular--the 'kynde langage'--as a medium suitable for religious devotion and literary expression as well as the related development of Wycliffism and the incarnational focus of lay piety, both movements based on the idea that it is possible for individuals to gain extra-institutional, or natural, access to spiritual truths. Langland's remarkable association of God and nature in the figure Kynde explores the promises and the challenges of this emergent vernacularity, which marks more than simply a new language, but an entirely changed attitude toward the value of human enterprise and institutional authority.
     "Through an interdisciplinary approach, I investigate Langland's concept of kynde in relation to earlier and contemporary literary, legal, philosophical, and theological discourses on nature. Although previous scholars have been reluctant to interpret the figure Kynde in relation to the Natura allegories that developed in the twelfth-century Chartrian milieu and remained influential beyond the medieval period, this study argues that Langland's daring conflation of God and nature is best understood as a re-invention of the Latin goddess and her vernacular progeny in light of the shifting, and often uncertain, attitudes toward the value of nature in the late fourteenth century.
     "This dissertation aims to demonstrate that Kynde is neither merely an English stand-in for the Latinate Natura nor an entirely idiosyncratic invention of Langland's uncommon imagination; rather, this study reveals the complexity of cultural pressures and energies, including literary as well as extra-literary discourses and developments, that converge in the figure of Kynde. As such, the concerns of this dissertation extend beyond an interest in Langland's sources to explore how the figure of Kynde responds to late-medieval debates about the relationship of the divine and the material, the value of natural knowledge, and the capacities of human nature itself."]

Davlin, Mary Clemente. "Devotional Postures in Piers Plowman B, with an Appendix on Divine Postures." Chaucer Review 42 (2007-2008): 161-179.

Dodd, Gwilym. "A Parliament Full of Rats?: Piers Plowman and the Good Parliament of 1376." Historical Research 79 [203] (2006): 21-49. [Abstract: "Argues that the disillusionment reflected in Langland's work is a product of the acute anxiety caused by the power vacuum at the top of the political hierarchy" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Dunning, T[homas] P[atrick]. "Piers Plowman": An Interpretation of the A Text. 2nd ed. Rev. T. P. Dolan. Pref. J. A. W. Bennett. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.

Fowler, David C. "Piers the Plowman": Literary Relations of the A and B Texts. University of Washington Publications in Language and Literature 16. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1961.

Fowler, David C. "Star Gazing: Piers Plowman and the Peasants' Revolt [review of Steven Justice, Writing and Rebellion]." Review 18 (1996): 1-30. [Among other things, Fowler argues that John Ball's references to Langland's work probably indicate knowledge of the A-text, since the ideology of the A-text is an "almost perfect match for that of John Ball" (7-8).]

Frank, Robert Worth, Jr. "The 'Hungry Gap,' Crop Failure, and Famine: The Fourteenth-Century Agricultural Crisis and Piers Plowman." The Yearbook of Langland Studies 4 (1990): 87-104.

Frank, Robert W[orth], Jr. "Piers Plowman" and the Scheme of Salvation: An Interpretation of Dowel, Dobet and Dobest. Yale Studies in English 136. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957.

Galloway, Andrew. "Making History Legal: Piers Plowman and the Rebels of Fourteenth-Century England." In William Langland's "Piers Plowman": A Book of Essays. Ed. Kathleen M. Hewett-Smith. Medieval Casebooks 30. New York: Routledge, 2001. Pp. 7-39.

Galloway, Andrew, Stephen Barney, Ralph Hanna III, Traugott Lawler, and Anne Middleton, eds. The Penn Commentary on "Piers Plowman." 5 vols. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006- [in progress]. [Publisher's description: "The first full commentary on Piers Plowman since the late nineteenth century . . . marks a new stage of concentrated yet wide-ranging attention to a text whose repeated revisions and literary and intellectual complexity make it both an elusive object of inquiry and a literary work whose richness has long deserved the capacious and minutely detailed treatment that only a full commentary can allow. Perhaps no poem in English appeals more than Piers Plowman to those readers who understand Yeats's 'fascination with things difficult,' yet The Penn Commentary will enable generations of readers to share in the pleasures and challenges of experiencing, engaging with, and trying to elucidate the difficulties of one of the towering achievements of English literature."]

Gasse, Rosanne. "Dowel, Dobet, and Dobest in Middle English Literature." Florilegium 14 (1995-1996): 171-195.

Gasse, Rosanne Paulette. "The Nature of the Relationship between William Langland's 'Piers Plowman' and the Wycliffite Sect." Ph.D. diss., McMaster University, 1989. [DAI 50 (1989-1990): 3602A. Abstract: "Piers Plowman and the Wycliffite sect both developed out of the spiritual upheaval sweeping fourteenth-century England. They display many similar interests, such as concerns with socio-economic problems, the responsibilities and choices of the individual, and the uses and abuses of wealth and language. Although such similarities exist, analysis of the treatment of these concerns shows that Langland and the Wycliffites do not share a common point of view, even when the concern is of a very general nature. The one exception is the subject of kingship, in which the treatment of Langland's ideals come close to concepts developed by Wyclif.
     "There is tangible evidence that the Lollards were influenced by Piers Plowman and that they interpreted the text as sympathetic to their sect. On the other hand, there is less evidence that Langland was aware of Lollardy's existence. Certain changes from the B-text to the C-text, especially the character of Rechelesnesse, suggest that Langland did know of Lollardy; but, in spite of an early critical view that put Langland within the Wycliffite dissenting tradition, Langland's attitude toward Lollardy is never readily discernible. Nevertheless, analysis of Langland's attitude toward things 'Lollard' in character shows that his reaction to the Wycliffite sect would be conservative and negative. In sum, the comparison of Wycliffite material and Piers Plowman demonstrates the context in which Lollardy and Piers Plowman should be related--a common interest in controversy and spiritual reform, but with insurmountable differences in outlook. It also demonstrates how two groups with contemporary yet very different points of view tried to resolve the major religious, social and economic troubles of late fourteenth-century England."]

Gasse, Rosanne. "Reading Piers Plowman in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries: The Evidence of British Library Cotton Caligula A XI." Fifteenth-Century Studies 35 (2010): 33-49.

Godden, Malcolm. The Making of "Piers Plowman." London: Longman, 1990. [Survey of the versions as an introduction to the complexity of the poem.]

Goldsmith, Margaret E. The Figure of "Piers Plowman": The Image on the Coin. Piers Plowman Studies 2. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1981.

Gradon, Pamela. "Langland and the Ideology of Dissent (The Sir Israel Gollancz Memorial Lecture)." Proceedings of the British Academy 66 (1980): 179-205. [See esp. on Langland's relationship to Wyclif and Lollard ideas.]

Griffiths, Lavinia. Personification in "Piers Plowman." Piers Plowman Studies 3. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1985.

Hanna, Ralph, III. "Will's Work." In Written Work: Langland, Labor, and Authorship. Ed. Steven Justice and Kathryn Kerby-Fulton. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. Pp. 23-66. [Abstract: "Examines the apparent vocation of the dreamer-poet of Piers Plowman, suggesting that he was a hermit" (International Medieval Bibliography). [labour]]

Hanna, Ralph, III. William Langland. Authors of the Middle Ages 3: English Writers of the Late Middle Ages. Aldershot, Hants., and Brookfield, VT: Variorum / Ashgate, 1993. [Biography.]

Harwood, Britton J. "Piers Plowman" and the Problem of Belief. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992.

Hess, Dina Bevin. "'Of beggeris and of bidderis what best be to doone?': The Problem of Poverty in Piers Plowman." Ph.D. diss., University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 2008. [Full text available online: <http://etd.utk.edu/2008/August2008Dissertations/HessDinaBevin.pdf> (URL correct as of 1 Sept. 2011). Abstract: "The purpose of this study is to examine William Langland's continual wrestling with issues of poverty, both voluntary and involuntary, in Piers Plowman. The poem raises a multitude of questions, but to each question a multitude of contradictory answers is proposed, none of which is long permitted to remain unchallenged. The initially bewildering complexity of the representation of poverty found within the poem, however, may be clarified through the recognition of two fundamental underlying themes: caritas and justitia. Langland relies throughout the poem upon well-established tenets of medieval theology; what sets Piers apart is not that the central tenets of the poem's theology are unorthodox, but the indefatigable rigor with which the poet explores their implications for day-to-day life within the temporal world and his adamant rejection of popularly-accepted practices which, when subjected to close scrutiny, are shown to be incompatible with the full scope of Christian teaching. The resulting text is notable both for its complexity and for its unrelenting insistence on the responsibility of both individuals and society to reshape themselves and reform their lives accordingly--an adamant insistence on the necessity for belief to be borne out in action, for the theological ideal to be put into daily practice. With poverty as my focus, then, this study examines the essential role played by Langland's rigorous understanding of divine law as difficult theological, ethical, and social questions are raised throughout the poem. Langland's persistent probing of the issue of poverty leads both Will and the reader far beyond superficial answers, culminating in a deeper understanding of charity, justice, and, ultimately, the path to redemption."]

Hewett-Smith, Kathleen M. "'Nede ne hath no lawe': Poverty and the De-stabilization of Allegory in the Final Visions of Piers Plowman." In William Langland's "Piers Plowman": A Book of Essays. Ed. Kathleen M. Hewett-Smith. Medieval Casebooks 30. New York: Routledge, 2001. Pp. 233-253. [Abstract: "Examines to what extent and in what way circumstantial history, as expressed in the figure of Nede, destabilises the idealising hierarchising power of allegory in the final visions" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Hewett-Smith, Kathleen M., ed. William Langland's "Piers Plowman": A Book of Essays. Medieval Casebooks 30. New York: Routledge, 2001. [Contents: Part 1: Piers Plowman in Context. "Making History Legal: Piers Plowman and the Rebels of Fourteenth-Century England," Andrew Galloway; "The Luxury of Gender: Piers Plowman B.9 and The Merchant's Tale," Joan Baker and Susan Signe Morrison; "Langland's Romances," Stephen H. A. Shepherd; "The Langland Myth," C. David Benson; "The Poetry of Piers Plowman: Langland's Mighty Line," Stephen A. Barney; "Chaucer and Langland as Religious Writers," Mary Clemente Davlin, O.P. Part 2: Through the Lens of Theory. "The Power of Impropriety: Authorial Naming in Piers Plowman," James Simpson; "Measurement and the 'Feminine' in Piers Plowman: A Response to Recent Studies of Langland and Gender," Elizabeth Robertson. Part 3: Allegory Reconsidered. "Inventing the Subject and the Personification of Will in Piers Plowman: Rhetorical, Erotic, and Ideological Origins and Limits in Langland's Allegorical Poetics," James J. Paxson; "'Nede ne hath no lawe': Poverty and the De-stabilization of Allegory in the Final Visions of Piers Plowman," Kathleen M. Hewett-Smith.]

Hudson, Anne. "Piers Plowman and the Peasants' Revolt: A Problem Revisited." Yearbook of Langland Studies 8 (1995): 85-106.

Hussey, S. S. "Langland the Outsider." In Middle English Poetry: Texts and Traditions; Essays in Honour of Derek Pearsall. Ed. A[listair] J. Minnis. York Manuscripts Conferences, Proceedings 5. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, in association with the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of York, 2001. Pp. 129-137.

Hussey, S. S., ed. "Piers Plowman": Critical Approaches. London: Methuen; New York: Barnes and Noble, 1969.

Justice, Steven. "The Genres of Piers Plowman." Viator 19 (1988): 291-306.

Justice, Steven, and Kathryn Kerby-Fulton, eds. Written Work: Langland, Labor and Authorship. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. [[labour]]

Kane, George. "Piers Plowman": The Evidence for Authorship. London: Athlone Press, University of London, 1965.

Karnes, Michelle. "Will's Imagination in Piers Plowman." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 108 (2009): 27-58.

Kaske, Robert E. "The Use of Simple Figures of Speech in Piers Plowman B." Studies in Philology 48 (1951): 571-600.

Kasten, Madeleine. In Search of "Kynde Knowynge": "Piers Plowman" and the Origin of Allegory. Costerus ns 168. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2007. [Published version of her dissertation.]

Kean, P[atricia] M. "Justice, Kingship and the Good Life in the Second Part of Piers Plowman." In "Piers Plowman": Critical Approaches. Ed. S. S. Hussey. London: Methuen; New York: Barnes and Noble, 1969. Pp. 76-110.

Kelen, Sarah A. Langland's Early Modern Identities. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. [Publisher's description: "Langland's Early Modern Identities uses the methodologies of cultural studies and the history of the book to show how editors and readers of the 16th through the early 19th century successively remade Piers Plowman and its author according to their own ideologies of the Middle Ages."
     Contents: The birth of Langland -- A proliferation of Plowmen -- Langland anthologized -- Langland recontextualized -- Fictions of authorship, fictions of English literature.]

Kelly, Stephen. "Piers Plowman." In A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture c.1350-c.1500. Ed. Peter Brown. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 42. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Pp. 537-553.

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn. "Langland and the Bibliographic Ego." In Written Work: Langland, Labor, and Authorship. Ed. Steven Justice and Kathryn Kerby-Fulton. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. Pp. 67-143. [Abstract: "Argues that Langland feared the wrath of his readers after 1381 and that the authorial intrusions in the C-text apologia represent an attempt to negotiate this difficulty" (International Medieval Bibliography). [Peasants' Revolt; English Rising]]

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn. "Langland 'in his Working Clothes'?: Scribe D, Authorial Loose Revision Material, and the Nature of Scribal Intervention." In Middle English Poetry: Texts and Traditions; Essays in Honour of Derek Pearsall. Ed. A[listair] J. Minnis. York Manuscripts Conferences, Proceedings 5. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, in association with the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of York, 2001. Pp. 139-167.

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn. "Piers Plowman." Chap. 19 of The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Ed. David Wallace. New Cambridge History of English Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. 513-538.

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn. Reformist Apocalypticism and "Piers Plowman." Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. [Includes, among other things, a consideration of Wycliffite doctrines of clerical disendowment in relation to Langland. Publisher's description: "This book addresses the need for scholarly attention to the field of alternative, non-Augustinian apocalypticism and its implications for the study of Piers Plowman. Kathryn Kerby-Fulton discusses the major prophets and visionaries of such alternative traditions, who are characterised by their denunciation of clerical abuses, the urging of religious reform, and an ultimate historical optimism. Her book offers an original proposal for the importance of such traditions, particularly as represented in the writings of Hildegard of Bingen, to the understanding of Langland's visionary mode and reformist ideology. Dr Kerby-Fulton also explores the relevance of the prophetic mentality fostered by Joachite thought, and the reactionary response which it triggered in antimendicant eschatology. Above all, this book provides a stimulating challenge to recent assumptions that Langland's views of the course and end of history are wholly conventional, or easily explained by Augustinian eschatology. The outcome of this fresh study of contexts for Piers Plowman suggests that Langland's position in relation to different apocalyptic traditions was at once more sophisticated and more original than scholars have hitherto realised."]

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn. "The Women Readers in Langland's Earliest Audience: Some Codicological Evidence." In Learning and Literacy in Medieval England and Abroad. Ed. Sarah Rees Jones. Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy 3. Turnhout: Brepols, 2003. Pp. 121-134.

Kim, Margaret. "Poverty as the Politics of Transcendence in Piers Plowman." NTU Studies in Language and Literature 22 (2009): 31-55.]

Kruger, Steven F. "Mirrors and the Trajectory of Vision in Piers Plowman." Speculum 66 (1991): 74-95.

Langland, William. [Piers Plowman.] San Marino, Huntington Library, Hm 128 (Hm, Hm2). Ed. Michael Calabrese, Hoyt N. Duggan and Thorlac Turville-Petre. SEENET Series A, Vol. 9: The Piers Plowman Electronic Archive 6. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: Boydell and Brewer, for The Medieval Academy of America and SEENET (Society for Early English and Norse Electronic Texts), 2008. [Publisher's description: "CD-ROM, with full color digital facsimiles and documentary texts of San Marino, Huntington Library MS HM 128 [Hm, Hm2], is the sixth volume of The Piers Plowman Electronic Archive, an international collaborative project devoted to electronic publication of all the medieval and renaissance witnesses to William Langland's Piers Plowman. Hm is a second-generation witness to the B version with extensive erasures [over 1500 instances] and heavily emended with over 700 additions to the original text in contemporary hands. Hyper-textual linkages enable display of the complex relationships of the base text to other B witnesses as well as delineating the individual contributions of the three scribes who wrote and changed this manuscript. There are colour facsimile images of every page in the manuscript, hyper-textually linked to the edited text which is itself presented in four different views: a diplomatic type-facsimile; a scribal text which includes iconic indications of scribal error; a critical text with lapsus calami corrected; and an AllTags view that shows all of the editorial interventions on one screen."
     System requirements: 256 Mb RAM; Windows 98/NT/Me/2000/XP or later; Internet Explorer 6.1 or higher; CD-ROM drive.; Macintosh users require high-end equipment (System 9 or later) running Windows emulation software.]

Langland, William. Piers Plowman: A Facsimile of Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS Douce 104. Intro. Derek Pearsall and Kathleen Scott. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1992.

Langland, William. Piers Plowman: A Parallel-Text Edition of the A, B, C and Z Versions. Ed. A. V. C. Schmidt. 2 vols. London and New York: Longman, 1995-2008. [Publisher's description: ". . . the two-volume work constitutes a major enterprise of textual scholarship and will provide for students of Langland a modern equivalent to Skeat's standard edition of 1886."]

Langland, William. Piers Plowman: The Donaldson Translation, Middle English Text, Sources and Backgrounds, Criticism. Ed. Elizabeth Robertson and Stephen H. A. Shepherd. A Norton Critical Edition. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006.

Langland, William. Piers Plowman: The Z Version. Ed. A. G. Rigg and Charlotte Brewer. Studies and Texts 59. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1983.

Langland, William. The Vision of Piers Plowman: A Critical Edition of the B-Text Based on Trinity College Cambridge MS B.15.17. 2nd ed. Ed. A. V. C. Schmidt. London: Everyman / J. M. Dent; North Clarendon, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1995.

Langland, William. The Vision of William Concerning Piers Plowman, Together with Vita de Dowel, Dobet, et Dobest, secundum Wit et Resoun, by William Langland (1362 A.D.), Edited from the "Vernon" MS., Collated with MS. R.3.14. in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, MSS. Harl. 875 and 6041, the MS. in University College, Oxford, MS. Douce 323, &c. Ed. Walter W. Skeat. Early English Text Society OS 28. London: Oxford University Press, for the Early English Text Society, 1956.

Langland, William. The Vision of William Concerning Piers the Plowman, by William Langland (or Langley), According to the Version Revised and Enlarged by the Author about A.D. 1377. Ed. Walter W. Skeat. 10th ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932.

Langland, William. The Vision of William Concerning Piers the Plowman in Three Parallel Texts, Together with Richard the Redeless, by William Langland (about 1362-1399 A.D.), Edited from Numerous Manuscripts with Preface, Notes, and a Glossary. Ed. Walter W. Skeat. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Langland, William. Will's Visions of Piers Plowman and Do-Well. Ed. George Kane. Revised and corrected edition. Piers Plowman, the Three Versions 1. London: Athlone Press; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. ["Piers Plowman: The A Version." "An edition in the form of Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.14 corrected from other manuscripts, with variant readings."]

Langland, William. Will's Visions of Piers Plowman, Do-Well, Do-Better, and Do-Best. Ed. George Kane and E. Talbot Donaldson. Revised and corrected edition. Piers Plowman, the Three Versions 2. London: Athlone Press; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. ["Piers Plowman: The B Version." "An edition in the form of Trinity College, Cambridge MS B.15.17, corrected and restored from the known evidence, with variant readings."]

Langland, William. Will's Visions of Piers Plowman, Do-Well, Do-Better, and Do-Best. Ed. George Russell and George Kane. Piers Plowman, the Three Versions 3. London: Athlone Press; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. ["Piers Plowman: The C Version." "An edition in the form of Huntington Library MS HM 143, corrected and restored from the known evidence, with variant readings."
     Publisher's description: "This definitive edition of the C Version of Piers Plowman presents the poem in its second, uncompleted revision. Its base is the text in Huntington Library MS 143, corrected and restored from the evidence of all known manuscripts of the C tradition to that of the first fair copy of the poet's revision materials. The correction and restoration are described in an extensive Introduction, and there is a full apparatus of variant readings."]

Lawlor, John. "Piers Plowman": An Essay in Criticism. London: Edward Arnold, 1962.

Lee, Dongchoon. "Church Reformers' Ideas of Warfare and Peace in Fourteenth-Century England: William Langland." Medieval and Early Modern English Studies 14 (2006): 115-137.

Lister, Robin. "The Peasants of Piers Plowman and its Audience." In Peasants and Countrymen in Literature: A Symposium Organised by the English Department of the Roehampton Institute in February 1981. Ed. Kathleen Parkinson and Martin Priestman. London: English Department, Roehampton Institute of Higher Education, 1982. Pp. 71-90.

Little, Katherine C. "'Bokes ynowe': Vernacular Theology and Fourteenth-Century Exhaustion." English Language Notes 44.1 (Spring, 2006): 109-112. [Abstract: "This article explores the representation of vernacular theology in the 14th-century poem 'Piers Plowman' by William Langland. Vernacular theology is a term that links together a wide variety of pastoral, mystical, and devotional texts written in English. As scholars have long noted, the poem suggests a certain unease with or at least hesitation in fully embracing the traditional discourses that inform and shape the poem: whether penitential, academic, exegetical, estates' satire or apocalyptic."]

Little, Katherine. "The 'Other' Past of Pastoral: Langland's Piers Plowman and Spenser's Shepheardes Calender." Exemplaria 21.2 (2009): 160-178.

Mage, Leslie Joan. "Anxiety, Crisis and Social Vision in the Vision of William, Piers the Plowman." Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1995. [DAI 56 (1995-1996): 2250A. Abstract: "This thesis challenges the prevailing 20th-century view that Piers Plowman expresses a conservative outlook. It elucidates Langland's world view through a study of the poem's multiple anxieties: the salvation/damnation dichotomy that informs the poem, the stress attendant on the dreamer-protagonists quest for salvation, and Langland's deep anxiety about the integrity of his craft as a writer. The thesis also provides an in-depth study of the poem's reflection of its socio-political background in Piers's historical period as evidenced by its anxiety about the concomitant weakening of Christian principles, the rise of the money economy, and the corruption pervading Langland's world. The thesis discusses Piers's relation to the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and its influence on politico-religious movements in the three hundred years following completion of the C-text."]

Marshall, Claire. William Langland, "Piers Plowman." Writers and Their Work. Horndon, Tavistock, Devon: Northcote House, 2001.

Martin, P. "Piers Plowman": The Field and the Tower. London: Macmillan, 1979.

Middleton, Anne. "Acts of Vagrancy: The C Version 'Autobiography' and the Statute of 1388." In Written Work: Langland, Labor, and Authorship. Ed. Steven Justice and Kathryn Kerby-Fulton. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. Pp. 208-317. [Abstract: "Argues that the apologia was the last major revision Langland made and that it was inspired originally by the Second Statute of Labourers" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Middleton, Anne. "The Audience and Public of Piers Plowman." In Middle English Alliterative Poetry and Its Literary Background: Seven Essays. Ed. David Lawton. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1982. Pp. 101-123.

Mitchell, A. G. "Lady Meed and the Art of Piers Plowman." In Style and Symbolism in "Piers Plowman": A Modern Critical Anthology. Ed. Robert J. Blanch. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1969. Pp. 174-193.

Murtaugh, Daniel M. "Piers Plowman" and the Image of God. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1978.

Norton-Smith, John. William Langland. Medieval and Renaissance Authors 6. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1983.

Parsons, Ben. "Shearing the Shepherds: Violence and Anticlerical Satire in Langland's Piers Plowman." Medium Ævum 79.2 (2010): 189-206.

Patterson, Lee. "The Logic of Textual Criticism and the Way of Genius: The Kane-Donaldson Piers Plowman in Historical Perspective." In Textual Criticism and Literary Interpretation. Ed. Jerome J. McGann. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Pp. 55-91.

Pearsall, Derek. "Poverty and Poor People in Piers Plowman." In Medieval Studies Presented to George Kane. Ed. Edward D. Kennedy, Ronald Waldron, and Joseph S. Wittig. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1988. Pp. 167-185.

Perry, Sigrid Pohl. "'Trewe wedded libbynge folk': Metaphors of Marriage in Piers Plowman and the Canterbury Tales." Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1981. [DAI 42 (1981-1982): 2125A. Abstract: "Marriage is a common experience which often molds other relationships, so Chaucer and Langland find it a ready vehicle to explore human interaction on other levels. The inward extension of union reflects the integration of the faculties of the mind with the passions of the body--a psychological marriage, and the harmony of the soul with God--a spiritual marriage. In the same way the various elements of society are united to their sovereign in a political marriage through law and affection.
     "These analogies are not original with Chaucer and Langland. The nuptial metaphor has a long history in moral psychology, theology, and political philosophy. To understand just how Langland and Chaucer manipulate the marriage metaphor in its psychological, spiritual, and political dimensions, the dissertation explores some of these traditional uses of the metaphor and compares them with Chaucer's and Langland's treatment. Examples are cited in each chapter from authorities such as St. Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Bernard of Clairvaux, and John of Salisbury. Chapter one also summarizes the important matrimonal laws and customs, the attitudes of both clergy and laity, and the values medieval society placed on marriage.
     "Chapter two analyzes actual marriages in Piers Plowman and the Canterbury Tales. Langland and Chaucer agree about the nature of the marriage bond and its obligations for love and fidelity. Those who seek marriage for any other motives risk disorder and failure. The marriages of Alison, January, Griselda, Melibee and others are examined, insofar as they reflect actual practices, and then compared with Langland's comments about marriage customs.
     "Chapter three focuses on the psychological marriage which has traditionally been expressed by certain pairs such as body and soul, flesh and spirit, and wisdom and prudence. In each of these the part designated as masculine ideally contemplates eternal Truth and takes love as its impulse in choosing right from wrong. Its female helpmate is directed by this and controls temporal affairs by guiding the sensual powers and disciplining the intellectual ones. Covetousness and pride disrupt this harmony and thrust the soul into chaos. The Tale of Melibee and the Clerk's Tale are analyzed at length in this chapter, as are the interactions of such characters in Piers Plowman as Wit, Conscience, Inwit, and Anima.
     "Chapter four explores the traditional Christian concept of the spiritual marriage. The individual soul's response to God in charity is distinct from the communal response of the Church. Chaucer depicts the spiritual marriage most clearly in the Second Nun's Tale, the Clerk's Tale, and the Man of Law's Tale, and Langland both in Will's private search for spiritual harmony and the struggle of the historical community--as represented by Unity, Holy Church, and Piers Plowman--to reach God.
     "Chapter five focuses on how both these poets and earlier authors apply the nuptial metaphor to political contexts. Langland and Chaucer see the need for a true communion between ruler and people that is mutually based in love as well as law, in mercy as well as justice. They emphasize the trust, fidelity, and reciprocal obligations necessary for such union by dramatizing it through the use of the marriage metaphor.
     "Interpretive emphasis does not imply that Chaucer and Langland are purely allegorical poets. They recognized that if a marriage between two people demands equality, love, commitment, and cooperation to achieve harmony, then these other relationships thrive on the same vital qualities. Human characters in traditional situations thus become poignant models for a greater related macrocosm. However, the two poets never exhaust their dramas through rigid analogies; their method rather is to suggest larger meanings in order to remind us of the scope and depth of reality beyond the literal facade they present."]

Raabe, Pamela. Imitating God: The Allegory of Faith in "Piers Plowman" B. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1990.

Ruud, Jay. "Julian of Norwich and Piers Plowman: The Allegory of the Incarnation and Universal Salvation." Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Teaching 13.1 (Spring, 2006): 63-84.

Ryan, Thomas A. "Scripture and the Prudent Ymaginatif." Viator 23 (1992): 215-230. [An analysis of Passus 11 (B-text) of Piers Plowman (William Langland), arguing in support of Gordon Hall Gerould's hypothesis about which portions are part of the main dream and which are dreams within the dream.]

Salter, Elizabeth. "Piers Plowman": An Introduction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962.

Scanlon, Larry. "King, Commons, and Kind Wit: Langland's National Vision and the Rising of 1381." In Imagining a Medieval English Nation. Ed. Kathy Lavezzo. Medieval Cultures 37. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. Pp. 191-233.

Scase, Wendy. "Piers Plowman" and the New Anticlericalism. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. [[Anticlerical literature]]

Scattergood, John. "On the Road: Langland and Some Medieval Outlaw Stories." Medieval Alliterative Poetry: Essays in Honour of Thorlac Turville-Petre. Ed. John A. Burrow and Hoyt N. Duggan. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2010. Pp. 195-211.

Schmidt, A. V. C. The Clerkly Maker: Langland's Poetic Art. Piers Plowman Studies 4. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1987.

Scott, Anne. "Finding Words to Embody Poverty: Continuitues and Discontinuities in Word and Image from Piers Plowman to Twenty-First-Century Australia." Medium Aevum Quotidianum 56 (2007): 47-62.

Scott, Anne M. "Piers Plowman" and the Poor. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2004. [Publisher's description: "This book will be of interest to scholars in the field of medieval literature in general, and Piers Plowman in particular, as well as to cultural historians of poverty. It surveys the medieval understanding of poverty in its many manifestations, reviews modern historians' research into the experience of poverty and poor relief in the late fourteenth century, and shows, by close readings of Piers Plowman, how Langland both responds to and reflects his contemporary culture and ideology. Contrary to previous scholarship, it suggests that Langland never underestimates the realities of material poverty by offering only religious consolation for the poor. For him, care for the poor is the index of how a society shapes itself ethically. This book's subtle and penetrating account of the moral predicaments of both rich and poor is fully and freshly contextualized within accounts of medieval poor relief. This scholarly, compelling and humane study demonstrates that understanding the historical poor and the various religious and secular attitudes to medieval poverty, are crucially important in deepening a reader's understanding of this complex poem."]

Shepherd, Geoffrey. "Poverty in Piers Plowman." In Social Relations and Ideas: Essays in Honour of R. H. Hilton. Ed. T. H. Aston, P. R. Coss, Christopher Dyer, and Joan Thirsk. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge [etc.]: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Pp. 169-189. [On the theme of poverty in Piers Plowman, including some consideration of the revisions which Langland made in the B and C texts as responses to the Peasants' Revolt.]

Simpson, James. "'After Craftes conseil clotheth yow and fede': Langland and London City Politics." In England in the Fourteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1991 Harlaxton Symposium. Ed. Nicholas Rogers. Harlaxton Medieval Studies 3; Paul Watkins Medieval Studies 13. Stamford: Paul Watkins, 1993. Pp. 109-127. [[counsel in William Langland; guilds; City of London]]

Simpson, James. "The Constraints of Satire in 'Piers Plowman' and 'Mum and the Sothsegger.'" In Langland, the Mystics, and the Medieval English Religious Tradition: Essays in Honour of S. S. Hussey. Ed. Helen Phillips. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Pp. 11-31.

Simpson, James. "Desire and the Scriptural Text: Will as Reader in Piers Plowman." In Criticism and Dissent in the Middle Ages. Ed. Rita Copeland. Cambridge, New York, and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Pp. 215-243.

Simpson, James. "From Reason to Affective Knowledge: Modes of Thought and Poetic Form in Piers Plowman." Medium Ævum 55 (1986): 1-23.

Simpson, James. Piers Plowman: An Introduction. 2nd ed. Exeter Medieval Texts and Studies. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2007.

Simpson, James. "Spiritual and Earthly Nobility in Piers Plowman." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 86 (1985): 467-481.

Simpson, James. "Spirituality and Economics in Passus 1-7 of the B-Text." The Yearbook of Langland Studies 1 (1987): 83-103.

Smith, D. Vance. "Piers Plowman and the National Noetic of Edward III." In Imagining a Medieval English Nation. Ed. Kathy Lavezzo. Medieval Cultures 37. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. Pp. 234-257.

Sobecki, Sebastian I. "That Dizzy Height of Wisdom: Augustinian Vision and Kynde's Mountain in Piers Plowman B XI." In Clerks, Wives and Historians: Essays on Medieval English Language and Literature. Sammlung / Collection Variations 8. Ed. Winfried Rudolf, Thomas Honegger, and Andrew James Johnston. Bern [etc.]: Peter Lang, 2007. Pp. 25-45.

Steele, Francis J[oseph]. "Definitions and Depictions of the Active Life in Middle English Religious Literature of the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries, Including Special Reference to Piers Plowman." D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford, 1979. [On the patristic origins of the concept of the Active Life, its hagiographical dissemination, the development of the doctrine, and its application to texts such as Wisdom 393-450 and Piers Plowman.]

Steinberg, Theodore L. Piers Plowman and his Prophecy: An Approach to the C-text. Garland Studies in Medieval Literature 5. New York: Garland, 1991.

Steiner, Emily. "Medieval Documentary Poetics and Langland's Authorial Identity." In Crossing Boundaries: Issues of Cultural and Individual Identity in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Ed. Sally McKee. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 3. Turnhout: Brepols, 1999. Pp. 79-105.

Stokes, Myra. Justice and Mercy in "Piers Plowman." Salem, NH: Salem House, 1984.

Tavormina, M. Teresa. Kindly Similitude: Marriage and Family in "Piers Plowman." Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1995.

Turville-Petre, Thorlac. "Ploughing Piers' Half Acre." A section of Chap. 3 ("Literature and Society") of his Reading Middle English Literature. Blackwell Introductions to Literature 15. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Pp. 68-79.

Vitto, Cindy L. The Virtuous Pagan in Middle English Literature: A Study of "St. Erkenwald" and "Piers Plowman." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 79, Pt. 5. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1989.

Von Nolcken, Christina. "Piers Plowman, the Wycliffites, and Pierce the Plowman's Creed." The Yearbook of Langland Studies 2 (1988): 71-102.

Warner, Lawrence. The Lost History of "Piers Plowman": The Earliest Transmission of Langland's Work. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. [Publisher's description: "Despite the recent outpouring of scholarship on Piers Plowman, Lawrence Warner contends, we know much less about the poem's production, transmission, and readership than one might think. When did William Langland write each of the three versions of the poem, and when did they enter wide circulation? What role did scribes and other agents play in these processes? The Lost History of 'Piers Plowman' engages with these questions to bring about a fundamental shift in our understanding of the genesis and development of the Middle English poem.
     "According to received history, the poem exists in three distinct, chronological versions, the A, B, and C texts, with most scholars agreeing that Langland completed the B text--the version most familiar to modern readers--around 1377-78. Challenging much of the prevalent wisdom about the poem, Warner argues that the received B text is not an integral poem aligned with a single author but, rather, two groups of manuscripts, each of which, because of scribal activities, takes on varying amounts of what we now call C version matter. Through close textual analysis, he reveals that the B text is a conflation of an ur-B text with a collection of passages that belong to the C version of circa 1390, demonstrating that the circulation of the C text actually predates that of the B.
     "The Lost History of 'Piers Plowman' is a groundbreaking and provocative work that establishes an entirely new paradigm for the study of one of the central works of Middle English literature. It will be of interest to scholars and students of textual studies, editorial theory, and medieval history."
     Contents: Piers Plowman before 1400: evidence for the earliest circulation of A, B, and C -- Scribal conflation, convergent variation, and the invention of Piers Plowman B -- The poison of possession: B Passus 15 -- The ending, and end, of Piers Plowman B -- Conclusion: Lollars, friars, and fyndynges: C Passus 9 and the creation of Piers Plowman.]

Weldon, James F. G. "The Structure of Dream Visions in Piers Plowman." Mediaeval Studies 49 (1987): 254-281.

White, Hugh. Nature and Salvation in "Piers Plowman." Piers Plowman Studies 6. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1988.

Yunck, John A. "Satire." In A Companion to "Piers Plowman." Ed. John A. Alford. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. Pp. 135-154. [On medieval satire and Piers Plowman.]

Zeeman, Nicolette. "The Condition of Kynde." In Medieval Literature and Historical Inquiry: Essays in Honor of Derek Pearsall. Ed. David Aers. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. Pp. 1-30. [["Nature" in Piers Plowman]]

Zeeman, Nicolette. "Piers Plowman" and the Medieval Discourse of Desire. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 59. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. [Contents: 'Painful lettings': sin, temptation and tribulation -- Powers of knowledge and desire -- Studying the word -- The word heard and written -- Seeing and suffering in nature -- Clergie and kynde in Piers Plowman -- Imaginatyf and the feast of pacience -- A poem shaped by knowing and wanting.]

J.iii.a. The Later "Piers" Tradition

Barr, Helen. Signes and Sothe: Language in the "Piers Plowman" Tradition. Piers Plowman Studies 10. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer, 1994.

Cawsey, Kathy. "'I playne Piers' and the Protestant Plowman Prints: The Transformation of a Medieval Figure." In Transmission and Transformation in the Middle Ages. Ed. Kathleen Cawsey and Jason Harris. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2007. Pp. 189-206.

Cawsey, Kathy. "When Polemic Trumps Poetry: Buried Medieval Poem(s) in the Protestant Print I Playne Piers." In Renaissance Retrospections: Tudor Views of the Middle Ages. Ed. Sarah Kelen. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, [forthcoming]. [On the Piers tradition; includes an edition of the medieval poem(s) embedded in I playne Piers.]

Dean, James M., ed. Six Ecclesiastical Satires. Middle English Texts. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, for the Consortium for the Teaching of the Middle Ages (TEAMS), 1991. [Contents: "Piers Ploughman's Creed," "The Ploughman's Tale," "Jack Upland," "Friar Daw's Reply," "Upland's Rejoinder," "Why I Can't Be a Nun."]

Hardwick, Paul. "'Biddeth Peres Ploughman go to his werk': Appropriation of Piers Plowman in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries." In Film and Fiction: Reviewing the Middle Ages. Ed. T. A. Shippey. Studies in Medievalism 12. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2003. Pp. 171-195. [Langland as prophet of the socialist movements of the nineteenth century.]

Hudson, Anne. "Epilogue: The Legacy of Piers Plowman." In A Companion to "Piers Plowman." Ed. John A. Alford. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1988. Pp. 251-266. [Analyzes the late medieval and Reformation texts that derive from Piers Plowman.]

Johnson, Barbara A. Reading "Piers Plowman" and "The Pilgrim's Progress": Reception and the Protestant Reader. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992.

Kelen, Sarah A. "Plowing the Past: 'Piers Protestant' and the Authority of Medieval Literary History." Yearbook of Langland Studies 13 (1999): 101-136.

Nolan, Maura. "The Fortunes of Piers Plowman and its Readers." Yearbook of Langland Studies 20 (2006): 1-41.

Parker, Douglas H., ed. The Praier and Complaynte of the Ploweman vnto Christe. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997. [A Protestant (Reformation) text, in the "Piers Plowman" tradition, helping to illustrate how the Protestants used Langland's "Piers."]

J.iii.b. The Later "Piers" Tradition: "Pierce the Plowman's Creed"; "Richard the Redeless"; "Mum and the Sothsegger"

Barr, Helen, ed. The Piers Plowman Tradition: A Critical Edition of "Pierce the Ploughman's Crede," "Richard the Redeless," "Mum and the Sothsegger," and "The Crowned King." Everyman's Library. London: J. M. Dent; Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1993. [Contains the text of four Middle English poems influenced by William Langland's Piers Plowman, with extensive commentary by the editor.]

Barr, Helen. "The Treatment of Natural Law in Richard the Redeless and Mum and the Sothsegger." Leeds Studies in English ns 23 (1992): 49-80.

Dean, James M., ed. "Richard the Redeless" and "Mum and the Sothsegger." Middle English Texts. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, for the Consortium for the Teaching of the Middle Ages (TEAMS), 2000.

Ferguson, Arthur B. "The Problem of Counsel in Mum and the Sothsegger." Studies in the Renaissance 2 (1955): 67-83.

Lampe, David. "The Satiric Strategy of Peres the Ploughmans Crede." In The Alliterative Tradition in the Fourteenth Century. Ed. Bernard S. Levy and Paul E. Szarmach. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1981. Pp. 69-80. [["Pierce the Plowman's Creed."]]

Mohl, Ruth. "Theories of Monarchy in Mum and the Sothsegger." PMLA 54 (1944): 26-44.

J.iv. "Winner and Waster"

Bryant, Brantley L. "Talking with the Taxman about Poetry: England's Economy in 'Against the King's Taxes' and Wynnere and Wastoure." Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 3rd ser. 5 (2008): 219-248 [abstract on p. xi]. [Bryant calls for more careful nuancing of commentaries on political poetry of the later Middle Ages, since there has been something of a lumping together of all political poems under rubrics such as "poetry of social protest." There are divergent "political" views in such poems, as the examples of "Against the King's Taxes" and Wynnere and Wastoure demonstrate: "Against the King's Taxes" is a poem of social protest, representing "one way of poetically and conceptually negotiating the relationship between individual welfare and the common good" by protesting against taxation (248). Wynnere, while equally "political," offers a legitimization of the Parliamentary power of tax-granting on the basis of "assumptions about community" and of "Public Wealth" to be shared. Commentators on political poetry of late medieval England need to acknowledge the diversity of political views being expressed, and to recognize that there is no universal voice of "social unrest" (248).]

Harrington, David V. "Indeterminacy in Winner and Waster and The Parliament of the Three Ages." Chaucer Review 20 (1985-1986): 246-257. ["Wynnere and Wastoure"; "The Parlement of the Thre Ages."]

Harwood, Britton J. "Anxious over Peasants: Textual Disorder in Winner and Waster." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 36 (2006): 291-319.

Hersh, Cara. "'Wyse wordes withinn': Private Property and Public Knowledge in Wynnere and Wastoure." Modern Philology 107 (2010): 507-527.

Scattergood, [Vincent] John. "Winner and Waster and the Mid-Fourteenth-Century Economy." In The Writer as Witness: Literature as Historical Evidence; Papers Read before Irish Conference of Historians, Held at University College, Cork, 23-26 May 1985. Ed. Tom Dunne. Historical Studies 16. Cork: Cork University Press, 1987. Pp. 39-57. ["Wynnere and Wastoure."]

Trigg, Stephanie. "The Rhetoric of Excess in Winner and Waster." The Yearbook of Langland Studies 3 (1989): 91-108. ["Wynnere and Wastoure."]

J.v. Margery Kempe

Akel, Catherine S. "Familial Structure in the Religious Relationships and Visionary Experiences of Margery Kempe." Studia Mystica 16 (1995): 116-132.

Arnold, John H., and Katherine J. Lewis, eds. A Companion to "The Book of Margery Kempe." Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2004. [Publisher's description: "A collection of essays by twelve historians and literary critics who explore Margery Kempe, her Book, and her world."
     Contents: Margery Kempe and the ages of woman / Kim M. Phillips -- Men and Margery: negotiating the medieval patriarchy / Isabel Davis -- Lynn and the making of a mystic / Kate Parker -- Margery's trials: heresy, lollardy and dissent / John H. Arnold -- A shorte treatyse of contemplacyon: The book of Margery Kempe in its early print contexts / Allyson Foster -- Reading and The book of Margery Kempe / Jacqueline Jenkins -- Drama and piety: Margery Kempe / Claire Sponsler -- Political prophesy in The book of Margery Kempe / Diane Watt -- Margery's bodies: piety, work and penance / Sarah Salih -- 'Yf lak of charyte be not ower hynderawnce': Margery Kempe, Lynn, and the practice of spiritual and bodily works of mercy / P. H. Cullum -- Margery Kempe and saint making in later medieval England / Katherine J. Lewis.]

Ashley, Kathleen. "Historicizing Margery: The Book of Margery Kempe as Social Text." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 28.2 (Spring 1988): 371-388. [Vol. 28.2 is a special issue entitled "English Communities in Transition, 1350-1600." On Margery Kempe as representing the search for a bourgeois spirituality (Ashley emphasizes that it is a class issue more than a gender one), finding God in the active, not the contemplative, life, as lived by the urban middle class.]

Castagna, Valentina. Re-Reading Margery Kempe in the 21st Century. Bern and New York: Peter Lang, 2011. [Contents: Autobiography and mystic text -- Travels of/on her own -- Abjection and the body -- A contemporary re-writing: Eva Figes's The true tale of Margery Kempe.]

Collis, Louise. Memoirs of a Medieval Woman: The Life and Times of Margery Kempe. New York: Harper and Row, 1983.

Delany, Sheila. "Sexual Economics, Chaucer's Wife of Bath, and The Book of Margery Kempe." The Minnesota Review 5 (1975): 104-115.

Dzon, Mary. "Margery Kempe's Ravishment into the Childhood of Christ." Mediaevalia 27.2 (2006): 27-57.

Evans, Ruth. "The Book of Margery Kempe." In A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture c.1350-c.1500. Ed. Peter Brown. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 42. Maldon, MA: Blackwell, 2007. Pp. 507-521.

Fanous, Samuel. "Measuring the Pilgrim's Progress: Internal Emphases in The Book of Margery Kempe." In Writing Religious Women: Female Spiritual and Textual Practices in Late Medieval England. Ed. Denis Renevey, and Christiania Whitehead. Cardiff: University of Wales Press; Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 2000. Pp. 157-176.

Fienberg, Nona. "Thematics of Value in The Book of Margery Kempe." Modern Philology 87 (1989): 132-141.

Fredell, Joel. "Design and Authorship in the Book of Margery Kempe." Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History 12 (2009): 1-28.

Fredell, Joel. "Margery Kempe: Spectacle and Spiritual Governance." Philological Quarterly 75.2 (Spring 1996): 137-166.

Furrow, Melissa M. "Unscholarly Latinity and Margery Kempe." In Studies in English Language and Literature: "Doubt wisely"; Papers in Honour of E. G. Stanley. Ed. M. J. Toswell and E. M. Tyler. London and New York: Routledge, 1996. Pp. 240-251. ["Uses Margery Kempe's knowledge of Latin to challenge accepted wisdom on learning and literacy as a formal, scholastic, male domain" (IMB).]

Gertz-Robinson, Genelle. "Stepping into the Pulpit?: Women's Preaching in The Book of Margery Kempe and The Examinations of Anne Askew." In Early Tudor Women Writers. Ed. Elaine V. Beilin. Ashgate Critical Essays on Women Writers in England, 1550-1700, vol. 1. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009. Pp. 343-482.

Gibson, Gail McMurray. "St. Margery: The Book of Margery Kempe." Chap. 3 of her The Theater of Devotion: East Anglian Drama and Society in the Late Middle Ages. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Pp. 47-65. [On Margery Kempe and the "dramatic" and "affective" aspects of her spirituality (and devotion to Mother Mary and the Holy Family), and especially an indebtedness to the Pseudo-Bonaventure Meditations on the Life of Christ.]

Johnson, Lynn Staley. "Margery Kempe: Social Critic." Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 22.2 (Spring 1992): 159-184.

Kempe, Margery. The Book of Margery Kempe. Ed. Barry Windeatt. Longman Annotated Texts. Harlow, and New York: Longman, 2000.

Kempe, Margery. The Book of Margery Kempe. Ed. Lynn Staley. Middle English Texts. Kalamazoo, MI: Published for TEAMS (the Consortium for the Teaching of the Middle Ages), in association with the University of Rochester, by Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1996.

Kempe, Margery. The Book of Margery Kempe: A New Translation, Contexts, Criticism. Trans. and ed. Lynn Staley. Norton Critical Edition. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 2001. [Modern English translation, with extras. Contents: Introduction; Map: "Medieval England"; "A Kempe Lexicon"; "The Text of The Book of Margery Kempe"; Contexts: "From The Constitutions of Thomas Arundel"; "From Meditations on the Life of Christ"; "From The Shewings of Julian of Norwich"; "From The Book of Saint Bride"; "From The Life of Marie d'Oignies by Jacques de Vitry"; Criticism: "Female Sanctity in the Late Middle Ages," by Clarissa W. Atkinson; "Authorship and Authority," by Lynn Staley; "From Utterance to Text," by Karma Lochrie; "The Making of Margery Kempe: Individual and Community," by David Aers; "Historicizing Margery: The Book of Margery Kempe as Social Text," by Kathleen Ashley; "St. Margery: The Book of Margery Kempe," by Gail McMurray Gibson; "Margery Kempe's Imitatio," by Sarah Beckwith; "Late Medieval Eucharistic Doctrine," by Caroline Walker Bynum; "Arundel's Constitutions," by Nicholas Watson.]

Kempe, Margery. The Book of Margery Kempe. Vol. 1 [all published]. Ed. S. B. Meech, with notes and appendices by S. B. Meech and H. E. Allen. Early English Text Society, OS 212. London: Oxford University Press, for the Early English Text Society, 1940 (for 1939).

Kurtz, Patricia Deery. "Mary of Oignies, Christine the Marvelous, and Medieval Heresy." Mystics Quarterly 14.4 (Dec. 1988): 186-196. [Includes some consideration of Margery Kempe.]

Ladd, Roger A. "Margery Kempe and her Mercantile Mysticism." Fifteenth-Century Studies 26 (2001): 121-141.

Lawton, David. "Voice, Authority, and Blasphemy in The Book of Margery Kempe." In Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays. Ed. Sandra J. McEntire. Garland Casebooks 4. New York: Garland, 1992. Pp. 93-115. [Includes a discussion of her "Latinity": her protestations of her lack of education are exaggerated, and used in part to impress those with whom she is conversing that she is inspired rather than educated, the Holy Ghost is providing her with knowledge that she could not otherwise possess (this is a trope which helps her to avoid embarrassing questions about who educated her and how orthodox they were).]

Le Saux, Françoise. "'Hir not lettryd': Margery Kempe and Writing." In Writing and Culture. Ed. Balz Engler. SPELL (Swiss Papers in English Language and Literature) 6. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1992. Pp. 53-68.

Lochrie, Karma. Margery Kempe and Translations of the Flesh. New Culture Studies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.

McCarthy, Cathryn Lee. "Popular Influences on 'The Book of Margery Kempe.'" Ph.D. diss., Fordham University, 1999. [DAI 60 (1999-2000): 123A.]

Morse, Mary Lynn. "Contextualizing Spiritual Authority in 'The Book of Margery Kempe.'" Ph.D. diss., Marquette University, 1999. [DAI 60 (1999-2000): 3377A.]

Mueller, Crystal L. "Technologies of the Late Medieval Self: Ineffability, Distance, and Subjectivity in the Book of Margery Kempe." Ph.D. diss., Marquette University, 2007. [DAI 68 (2007-2008): 1952A. Abstract: "This dissertation examines the late medieval self as a conjoined construction of socially negotiated identity and privately differentiated subjectivity; in so doing, it calls attention to the complex, emphatic, deeply defined subjectivity that emerges in the Book of Margery Kempe. This consideration of Kempe's Book is informed by study of late medieval works that feature self-construction in parallel modes to Kempe's: testing in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, pilgrimage in The Canterbury Tales (most particularly The Wife of Bath's Prologue), and mystical visions in Julian of Norwich's Shewings. In these texts, identity emerges as a social negotiation and subjectivity as a site of inaccessibility. But, none of these selves is constructed with such complexity as Margery Kempe's, nor is the subjectivity in any of these other texts so emphatically defined as hers. Finally, the dissertation traces the continuity of self-construction that extends into literature of the Renaissance, studying selected poems of John Donne ('A Valediction of Weeping' and 'Holy Sonnet VII' ['Spit in my face you Jewes']) and prose of Margaret Cavendish (A True Relation of My Birth, Breeding, and Life and The Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World). Given Kempe's emphatically defined subjectivity even among these Renaissance texts, the dissertation urges careful consideration in establishing and defining criteria for periodization, especially in light of the ongoing critical debate about when the self was 'invented.' Methodologically, the dissertation draws on modern social criticism (Aers; Beckwith; Carruthers), modern mystic criticism (McAvoy; Hollywood; Lochrie; Atkinson), and select literary theorists (Foucault; Peirce; Irigaray)."]

Parsons, Kelly. "The Red Ink Annotator of The Book of Margery Kempe and His Lay Audience." In The Medieval Professional Reader at Work: Evidence from Manuscripts of Chaucer, Langland, Kempe, and Gower. Ed. Kathryn Kerby-Fulton, and Maidie Hilmo. ELS [English Literary Studies] Monograph Series 85. Victoria, BC: University of Victoria, 2001. Pp. 143-216.

Pellegrin, Peter Jerome. "'Þis creatur': Margery Kempe's Pursuit of Spiritual Virginity." Ph.D. diss., University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1999. [DAI 60 (1999-2000): 1122A.]

Staley, Lynn. Margery Kempe's Dissenting Fictions. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1994.

Voaden, Rosalynn. "Beholding Men's Members: The Sexualizing of Transgression in The Book of Margery Kempe." In Medieval Theology and the Natural Body. Ed. Peter Biller and A. J. Minnis. York Studies in Medieval Theology 1. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, in association with the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of York, 1997. Pp. 175-190.

Voaden, Rosalynn. "Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: Margery Kempe as Underground Preacher." In Romance and Rhetoric: Essays in Honour of Dhira B. Mahoney. Ed. Georgina Donavin and Anita Obermeier. Disputatio 19. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. Pp. 109-121. [Contents: Dhira B. Mahoney: a tribute / Georgiana Donavin and Anita Obermeier -- Prologues and pictures -- Exemplars of chivalry: rhetoric and ethics in Middle English romance / Ann Dobyns -- Jans der Enikel's Prologue as a guide to textual multiplicity / Maria Dobozy -- Gifts and givers that keep on giving: pictured presentations in early medieval manuscripts / Corine Schleif -- Women and rhetoric -- The Light of the Virgin muse in John Lydgate's Life of Our Lady / Georgiana Donavin -- Sisters under the skin: Margery Kempe and Christine de Pizan / Elizabeth Archibald -- Wolf in sheep's clothing: Margery Kempe as underground preacher / Rosalynn Voaden -- Lyric, song, and audience -- Rhetoric and reception: Guillaume de Machaut's "Je maudi' / Phyllis R. Brown -- 'Maken melodye': the quality of song in Chaucer's Canterbury tales / Christina Francis -- Enacting liturgy: Estote fortes in the Croxton Play of the sacrament / John Damon -- Arthurian literature: composition and production -- The rhetoric of symbolism: the grail of fertility and sterility / Anita Obermeier -- Arnold Fanck's 1929 film Der heilige Berg and the Nazi quest for the Holy Grail / Kevin J. Harty -- Folklore motifs and diminishing narrative time as a method of coherence in Malory's Morte Darthur / Judith Lanzendorfer -- Malory's intratexts / Alan Lupack.]

Wilson, Janet. "Communities of Dissent: The Secular and Ecclesiastical Communities of Margery Kempe's Book." In Medieval Women in Their Communities. Ed. Diane Watt. Cardiff: University of Wales Press; Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1997. Pp. 155-185.

Yoshikawa, Naoë Kukita. Margery Kempe's Meditations: The Context of Medieval Devotional Literature, Liturgy, and Iconography. Religion and Culture in the Middle Ages. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2007.

J.vi. Thomas Hoccleve

Batt, Catherine, ed. Essays on Thomas Hoccleve. Westfield Publications in Medieval Studies 10. London: Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, 1996.

Bowers, John M. "Thomas Hoccleve and the Politics of Tradition." Chaucer Review 36 (2001-2002): 352-369.

Burrow, J. A. "Autobiographical Poetry in the Middle Ages: The Case of Thomas Hoccleve." Proceedings of the British Academy 68 (1982): 389-412.

Burrow, J. A. "Hoccleve and Chaucer." In Chaucer Traditions: Studies in Honour of Derek Brewer. Ed. Ruth Morse and Barry Windeatt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Pp. 54-61.

Burrow, J. A. "Hoccleve and the 'Court.'" In Nation, Court and Culture: New Essays on Fifteenth-Century English Poetry. Ed. Helen Cooney. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2001. Pp. 70-80.

Burrow, J. A. Thomas Hoccleve. Authors of the Middle Ages: English Writers of the Late Middle Ages 4. Aldershot, Hampshire: Variorum, 1994.

Hasler, Antony J. "Hoccleve's Unregimented Body." Paragraph 13 (1990): 164-183.

Knapp, Ethan. The Bureaucratic Muse: Thomas Hoccleve and the Literature of Late Medieval England. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001.

Knapp, Ethan. "Bureaucratic Identity and the Construction of the Self in Hoccleve's Formulary and La male regle." Speculum 74 (1999): 357-376.

Kohl, Stephan. "More Than Virtues and Vices: Self-Analysis in Hoccleve's 'Autobiographies.'" Fifteenth-Century Studies 14 (1988): 115-127.

Lawes, Richard. "Psychological Disorder and the Autobiographical Impulse in Julian of Norwich, Margery Kempe and Thomas Hoccleve." In Writing Religious Women: Female Spiritual and Textual Practices in Late Medieval England. Ed. Denis Renevey, and Christiania Whitehead. Cardiff: University of Wales Press; Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 2000. Pp. 217-243.

Markus, Manfred. "Truth, Fiction, and Metafiction in 15th-Century English Literature, Particularly in Lydgate and Hoccleve." Fifteenth Century Studies 8 (1983): 117-139.

Mills, David. "The Voices of Thomas Hoccleve." In Essays on Thomas Hoccleve. Ed. Catherine Batt. Westfield Publications in Medieval Studies 10. London: Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, 1996. Pp. 85-107.

Mitchell, Jerome. "The Autobiographical Element in Hoccleve." Modern Language Quarterly 28 (1967): 269-284. [Discusses the "autobiographical" passages of La Male Regle, the Prologue to The Regement of Princes, the Complaint, and the Dialogue with a Friend as a mingling of truth, falsehood, and convention. AES 11 (1968): 316 (#1992).]

Mitchell, Jerome. Thomas Hoccleve: A Study in Early Fifteenth-Century English Poetic. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1968.

Mooney, Linne R. "Some New Light on Thomas Hoccleve." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 29 (2007): 293-340.

Pearsall, Derek. "Hoccleve's Regement of Princes: The Poetics of Royal Self-Representation." Speculum 69 (1994): 386-410.

Perkins, Nicholas. Hoccleve's "Regiment of Princes": Counsel and Constraint. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001. [Publisher's description: "Thomas Hoccleve's politics and poetics have often been viewed as conventional, servile and naive. In the first book-length study of Hoccleve's major poem, Nicholas Perkins argues that The Regiment of Princes is in fact deeply engaged in the political and literary currents of the early fifteenth century, combining the elaborate deference of a petition, the resistance of a complaint and the monitory authority of a speculum principis in its address to the future Henry V. Perkins sets the Regiment's production within a late-medieval economy of advisory speech, reassesses the poem's relationship to the Latin treatises on which it draws, and examines its hermeneutics of royal counsel, which challenges the prince to interpret and act on the advice he receives. Using evidence from the Regiment's many manuscripts, he then reveals how Hoccleve's poem was refashioned for new audiences beyond the Lancastrian court in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries."]

Reeves, A. Compton. "The World of Thomas Hoccleve." In Fifteenth-Century Studies. Ed. Mermier, Guy R. and Edelgard E. DuBruck. Monograph Publishing Sponsor Series. 3 vols. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms Int'l for the Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University, 1978-80. 2: 187-201.

Reeves, Albert C. "Thomas Hoccleve, Bureaucrat." Medievalia et Humanistica 5 (1974): 201-214.

Richardson, Malcolm. "Hoccleve in his Social Context." Chaucer Review 20 (1986): 313-322.

Scanlon, Larry. "The King's Two Voices: Narrative and Power in Hoccleve's Regement of Princes." In Literary Practice and Social Change in Britain, 1380-1530. Ed. Lee Patterson. The New Historicism: Studies in Cultural Politics 8. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. Pp. 216-247.

Simpson, James. "Nobody's Man: Thomas Hoccleve's Regement of Princes." In London and Europe in the Later Middle Ages. Ed. Julia Boffey and Pamela King. Westfield Publications in Medieval Studies 9. London: Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, 1995. Pp. 149-180.

Smith, Lucy Toulmin. "Ballad by Thomas Occleve Addressed to Sir John Oldcastle, A.D. 1415." Anglia 5 (1882): 9-42.

Strohm, Paul. "Hoccleve, Lydgate and the Lancastrian Court." Chap. 24 of The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Ed. David Wallace. New Cambridge History of English Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. 640-661.

Tolmie, Sarah. "The Professional: Thomas Hoccleve." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 29 (2007): 341-373.

Torti, Anna. "Hoccleve's Attitude towards Women: 'I shoop me do my peyne and diligence / To wynne hir loue by obedience.'" In "A wyf ther was": Essays in Honour of Paule Mertens-Fonck. Ed. Juliette Dor. Liège: L3 (Liège Language and Literature), Département d'anglais, Université de Liège, 1992. Pp. 264-274.

Tout, Thomas Fredrick. "Literature and Learning in the English Civil Service in the Fourteenth Century." Speculum 4 (1929): 365-389.

Winstead, Karen A. "'I am othir to yow than yee weene': Hoccleve, Women, and the Series." Philological Quarterly 72 (1993): 143-155.

J.vii. "The Land of Cockayne"

Henry, P. L. "The Land of Cockayne: Cultures in Contact in Medieval Ireland." Studia Hibernica 12 (1972): 120-141.

Hill, T. D. "Parody and Theme in the Middle English 'Land of Cockayne.'" Notes and Queries 220 (1975): 55-59.

Kuczynski, P. "Utopie and Satire in The Land of Cockayne." Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 28 (1980): 45-55. [[utopia]]

Morton, A[rthur] L[eslie]. The English Utopia. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1952. [Chap. 1 is on "The Land of Cockayne."]

Pleij, Herman. Dreaming of Cockaigne: Medieval Fantasies of the Perfect Life. Trans. Diane Webb. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. [On the Earthly Paradise and paradises in general, including gardens and pleasure parks. ["The Land of Cockayne"]]

Tigges, Wim. "The Land of Cockayne: Sophisticated Mirth." In Companion to Early Middle English Literature. Ed. N. H. G. E. Veldhoen and H. Aertsen. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Free University Press, 1995. Pp. 93-101.

J.viii. Traditional Ballads: Editions

Bronson, Bertrand Harris. The Traditional Tunes of the Child Ballads, with their Texts, According to the Extant Records of Great Britain and America. 4 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959-1972.

Chappell, W. The Ballad Literature and Popular Music of the Olden Time: A History of the Ancient Songs, Ballads, and of the Dance Tunes of England, with Numerous Anecdotes and Entire Ballads; also, A Short Account of the Minstrels. The Whole of the Airs Harmonized by G. A. Macfarren. 2 vols. London: Chappell and Co., 1859.

Child, Francis James, ed. English and Scottish Popular Ballads. Ed. Helen Child Sargent and George Lyman Kittredge. Cambridge Edition of the Poets. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1932. [A convenient one-volume abridgement of Child's original five-volume work (most variant versions and commentary are removed). The introduction by Kittredge is valuable.]

Child, Francis James. The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. 5 vols. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1883-1898. [Limited edition of 1000 copies. Orig. issued in 10 parts, then organized into 5 vols. (the five title pages were issued with the last part); Part 10 was issued posthumously after Child's death, edited by George Lyman Kittredge. An edition of 305 traditional ballads, including 38 tales of Robin Hood. The appendices and supplmentary matter include a "Glossary," "Sources of the texts of the English and Scottish ballads"; "Index of published airs of English and Scottish popular ballads, with an appendix of some airs from manuscript"; "Index of ballad titles"; "Index of matters and literature"; "Biographical sketch of Professor Child [by G. L. Kittredge]"; "Titles of collections of ballads, or of books containing ballads"; Bibliography. Rpt.: New York: Dover Publications, 1965.]

Ritson, Joseph, ed. Ancient Songs and Ballads from the Reign of King Henry the Second to the Revolution. 3rd ed. Rev. W. Carew Hazlitt. London: Reeves and Turner, 1877. [First edition, 1790.]

J.ix. Robin Hood Ballads and Plays: Editions

Blackstone, Mary A., ed. Robin Hood and the Friar. Poculi Ludique Societas Performance Text 3. Toronto: Poculi Ludique Societas, 1981. [An early dramatic adaptation of one of the earliest Robin Hood stories, with some account (with photographs) of a performance in Toronto.]

Clawson, William Hall. The Gest of Robin Hood. Toronto: University of Toronto Library, 1909.

Dietrick, Laurabelle, and Joseph Franz-Walsh. The Merry Ballads of Robin Hood. Illus. Edna Reindel. New York: Macmillan Co., 1931. [The whole story of that Robin Hood, known as Earl of Huntington, and Locksley.]

Dobson, R[ichard] B[arrie], and J[ohn] Taylor, eds. Rymes of Robin Hood: An Introduction to the English Outlaw. London: Heinemann, 1976. [An edition of selected early Robin Hood ballads and plays. Includes (as Appendix IV) "A Select List of Robin Hood Place-Names" (sites associated with Robin Hood).]

Gutch, J[ohn] M[athew], ed. Robin Hood: A Collection of Poems, Songs, and Ballads. With a life of Robin Hood by John Hicklin. London: W. Tegg, 1866.

Gutch, John Mathew, ed. A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode and his Meiny. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1847. [Reprinted from the edition edited by John Mathew Gutch, following the Wynken de Worde and William Copland texts, by Edwin and Robert Grabhorn for the Westgate Press; . . . San Francisco, [1932], 1847).]

Hunt, Leigh. Ballads of Robin Hood. Cedar Rapids: Privately printed, 1922. [With some manuscript reproductions.]

Knight, Stephen, ed. Robin Hood: The Forresters Manuscript, British Library Additional MS 71158; with a Manuscript Description by Hilton Kelliher. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer, 1998. [Twenty-two Robin Hood ballads in a recently-discovered seventeenth-century manuscript; these are mostly variants of ballads already known, but some of them are superior to otherwise known versions, and one, at least, predates the previously known version by 100 years.]

Knight, Stephen, and Thomas Ohlgren, eds. Robin Hood and Other Outlaw Tales. 2nd ed. Middle English Texts. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, for the Consortium for the Teaching of the Middle Ages (TEAMS), 2000.

Lees, Jim, ed. The Ballads of Robin Hood. Illus. David Gentleman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Morris, George E. "A Ryme of Robyn Hood." Modern Language Review 43 (1948): 507-508. [A fragment of a poem beginning "Robyn hod in scherewod stod" is preserved in Lincoln Cathedral MS 132, fol. 100v (accompanied by a rough Latin translation of the English lines). The hand appears to be of the early fifteenth century, which would make this the earliest Robin Hood text to survive.
      Robyn hod in scherewod stod
      hodud and hathud hosut and schod
      ffour And thuynti arowus he bar In hit hondus]

Munday, Anthony. The Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntingdon. Ed. John C. Meagher. The Malone Society Reprints. Oxford: Oxford University Press, for the Malone Society, 1965.

Munday, Anthony. The Death of Robert, Earl of Huntingdon. Ed. John C. Meagher. The Malone Society Reprints. Oxford: Oxford University Press, for the Malone Society, 1967.

P[arker], M[artin]. A True Tale of Robin Hood; or, A Brief Touch of the Life and Death of that Renowned Outlaw, Robert, Earl of Huntington, Vulgarly called Robin Hood, Who Lived and Dyed in A.D. 1198, being the 9th Year of the Reign. . . . [London]: Printed for J. Clark, W. Thackeray, and T. Passinger, 1686.

Percy, Thomas. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. 1765; London: Bohn, 1864.

Ritson, Joseph, ed. Robin Hood: A Collection of Poems, Songs, and Ballads, Relative to that Celebrated English Outlaw. London: Routledge, 1884.

Sidgwick, Frank, ed. Popular Ballads of the Olden Time. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1912. [Ballads of Robin Hood and other outlaws.]

J.x. Traditional Ballad and Song: Secondary Literature

Achinstein, Sharon. "Audiences and Authors: Ballads and the Making of English Renaissance Literary Culture." Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 22 (1993): 311-326. ["In assessing the place of the author in early modern England, Achinstein argues that the definition of literary culture hinged upon 'a process of exclusion' which situated the ballad in an inferior and marginal context. Achinstein suggests that this position is crucial to the development of 'high [literary] culture,' itself dependent upon 'the abilities of an audience to mark the borders between the literary and the non-literary.' Literary poetry and the notion of the autonomous author were legitimized by patronage and by the capacity of poetry to serve the state. In contrast, the largely anonymous broadside ballad was seen as 'too sociologically common,' therefore standing in contradistinction to literary taste" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Andersen, Flemming Gotthelf, Otto Holzapfel, and Thomas Pettitt. The Ballad as Narrative: Studies in the Ballad Traditions of England, Scotland, Germany and Denmark. Intro. Thomas Pettitt. Odense: Odense University Press, 1982.

Andersen, Flemming. Commonplace and Creativity: The Role of Formulaic Diction in Anglo-Scottish Traditional Balladry. Odense: Odense University Press, 1985. ["Andersen emphasizes the role of formulaic patterns in the traditional ballad in order to argue that such formulas are a key vehicle for the creativity and interpretive authority of the individual ballad-singer. Ballad formulas are not seen merely as hollow repetitions but instead as 'supra-narrative concentrates' of the ballad's action, 'partly outlining the event taking place right now, partly relating to other points in the ballad narrative.' As such, ballad style is seen not as impersonal (as is generally accepted) but instead as reflecting the individual creative prowess defined by the specific placement and use of formulaic diction. The study includes a detailed examination of the 'individual families' of supra-narrative formulas" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Armstrong, Frankie (with editorial assistance from Brian Pearson). "On Singing Child Ballads." In Ballads into Books: The Legacies of Francis James Child. Ed. Tom Cheesman and Sigrid Rieuwerts. Selected Papers from the 26th International Ballad Conference (SIEF Ballad Commission), Swansea, Wales, 19-24 July 1996. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997. Pp. 249-258.

Atkinson, David. The English Traditional Ballad: Theory, Method and Practice. Ashgate Popular and Folk Music Series. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002.

Atkinson, David, and Tom Cheesman. "A Child Ballad Study Guide with Select Bibliography and Discography." In Ballads into Books: The Legacies of Francis James Child. Ed. Tom Cheesman and Sigrid Rieuwerts. Selected Papers from the 26th International Ballad Conference (SIEF Ballad Commission), Swansea, Wales, 19-24 July 1996. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997. Pp. 259-280.

Bell, Michael. "No Borders to the Ballad Maker's Art: Francis James Child and the Politics of the People." Western Folklore 47 (1988): 285-307. ["Bell revisits Child's entry on ballad poetry in Johnson's Universal Cyclopedia (1874) to demonstrate Child's formal (and at heart Romantic) theories of balladry. Bell responds to critics such as Francis Gummere and D. K. Wilgus who regarded the work as consisting of 'oblique, half-hearted utterances' and metaphors, as opposed to representing serious, theoretical scholarship. The fact that Child carefully defines the socio-historical parameters of the popular ballad leads Bell to argue that Child 'advocates a position as much ideological as factual,' a position concerned with 'the thoroughly modern crisis of self and community.' As such, the entry stands as a significant contribution to the development of 'scientific American folklore scholarship'" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Blagden, Cyprian. "Notes on the Ballad Market in the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century." Studies in Bibliography 6 (1954): 161-180. [Blagden studies the variant versions of printers' names and discovers that they can aid in the dating of broadsides.]

Boglund-Logopoulus, Karin. "Judas: The First English Ballad?" Medium Ævum 62 (1993): 20-34. [Re: Child no. 23. "Seeking to contextualize 'Judas' within the narrative folksong tradition, Boglund-Logopoulus highlights the poem's proximity to later romantic and tragic popular ballads in terms of plot structure. In addition, the author points to stylistic elements such as incremental repetition and an 'economy of narrative' that firmly link the poem to oral composition and performance. While Boglund-Logopoulus does not offer conclusive evidence to suggest that 'Judas' is in fact a ballad, she does point out that many of the distinguishing features of the poem (both in terms of narrative and stylistic structures) are shared by the popular ballad. The author concludes her essay by suggesting that the composer of 'Judas' was very likely a Franciscan cleric, thus reinforcing the idea that the poem is firmly rooted in oral tradition" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Boyes, Georgina. The Imagined Village: Culture, Ideology and the English Folk Revival. Music and Society. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1993. [(Not in U of A libraries: I have asked them to purchase a copy, if possible; I have a personal copy, which you can borrow when you are ready for it.) "A book-length study of the social and intellectual background to the folk song revival, and the personalities involved, up until shortly after World War II" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Brewster, Paul G. The Two Sisters. Folklore Fellows Communications 62, no. 147. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1953. [Re: Child no. 10.]

Bronson, Bertrand. "The Interdependence of Ballad Tunes and Texts." California Folklore Quarterly (Western Folklore) 3 (1944): 185-207.

Buchan, David. The Ballad and the Folk. London and Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972. ["Buchan examines the ballad tradition in Northeast Scotland (Aberdeenshire) in order to investigate the ballad as oral (illiterate) literature, since literacy did not substantially affect the region until the end of the eighteenth century (and also because of the significant 'quality and quantity' of ballads from the region). This focus enables Buchan to 'set the regional tradition in its social context,' thereby tracing the effects of literacy on the oral tradition of the ballad. Buchan concludes that the shift toward literacy that penetrated Northeast Scotland by the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century severed the ballad form from the creative dynamism of oral transmission and production" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Chambers, E. K. "Popular Narrative Poetry and the Ballad." Chap. 3 of his English Literature at the Close of the Middle Ages. Oxford History of English Literature 2.2. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1945. Pp. 122-184 (with a bibliography on pp. 223-229).

Cheesman, Thomas, and Sigrid Rieuwerts, eds. Ballads into Books: The Legacies of Francis James Child. 2nd ed. Bern and New York: Peter Lang, 1999. ["A collection of papers from the 26th International Ballad Conference (July 1996), this anthology explores 'the legacy of Francis James Child' in a wide variety of ways. The book is divided into sections which consider Child's editorial influences and practices, theories of the ballad, influences of the ballad on literary traditions (including Shakespeare, Gay, and American genre fiction), and ballad singing, as well as an up-to-date 'study guide' which includes a select bibliography and discography, as well as a list of on-line resources" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Child, Francis James. "Ballad Poetry" [encyclopedia article]. In Johnson's New Universal Cyclopaedia. Ed. Frederic A. P. Barnard, et al. New York: A. J. Johnson & Son, 1877. 1: 365-368.

Christophersen, Paul. The Ballad of Sir Aldingar, Its Origin and Analogues. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952. [Re: Child no. 59.]

Chumbawamba [musical group]. English Rebel Songs, 1381-1984. [Audio CD.] Trade Root Music, 2003. [Contents: The cutty wren (1:55) -- The Diggers song (2:30) -- The Colliers' march (2:27) --The triumph of General Ludd (3:01) -- Chartist anthem (1:34) -- The bad squire (2:36) -- Song on the times (3:53) -- Smashing of the van (2:09) -- The world turned upside down (1:22) -- Poverty knock (3:12) -- Idris strike song (2:48) -- Hanging on the old barbed wire (2:01) -- Coal not dole (2:00).]

Clark, Sandra. Women and Crime in the Street Literature of Early Modern England. London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Collinson, Francis. The Traditional and National Music of Scotland. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966. [On traditional songs, folk songs, pipe tunes, harp tunes, etc., including sections on the Child Ballads, the Bothy ballads, and the Bannatyne Manuscript, James I and The Kingis Quaire, and other interesting subjects.]

Dugaw, Dianne. Warrior Women and Popular Balladry, 1650-1850. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Rpt. with a new preface, Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1996. ["Centering her study on the Female Warrior of Anglo-American ballad tradition, Dugaw suggests the ways in which this polyvalent (at once male and female) figure challenges and subverts gender hierarchies. Crucial to this notion of subversion, Dugaw argues, is the fact that the Female Warrior ballads encourage women to step outside of their socially ascribed positions, thus celebrating the heroic female figure as an ideal for which to strive. By focusing on the social and historical significance of the Female Warrior figure, Dugaw responds to traditional scholars who 'tend to explain her as a genre convention or as an exceptional and idiosyncratic fictional figure'" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Fowler, David C. A Literary History of the Popular Ballad. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1968. ["This groundbreaking study emphasizes the relationship of the ballad genre to literary history by proposing a chronological approach to the material. Such an approach enables Fowler to trace 'the evolution of ballad style,' thus responding to a critical tradition (established by F. J. Child and 'the supposed autonomy of oral tradition') which set the ballad form in isolation from the literary tradition by neglecting its chronological development. Fowler argues that the dissolution of the professional minstrel tradition during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries resulted in an integration of popular folksong and minstrel traditions which solidified the influence of melody (stanzaic forms with refrain, incremental repetition) upon the ballad form" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Friedman, Albert B. "The Late Medieval Ballade and the Origin of Broadside Balladry." Medium Ævum 17 (1958): 95-100. ["After demonstrating that the Medieval notion of 'balade' (or the Italian 'ballata') as denoting popular dance-songs is distinct from the 'traditional,' 'popular,' or 'folk' ballad (titles which carried over in the eighteenth century from the early modern broadside ballad), Friedman investigates the question of how the term 'ballad' passed from a courtly tradition to the popular broadside tradition by analyzing the fifteenth-century English ballade and pseudo-ballade (epitomized by Chaucer and Lydgate). Friedman points out that pseudo-ballades in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries were vehicles for political propaganda, thus disseminated on printed broadsheets. This practice, he argues, provides the link between the medieval ballade form and the 'new and unlovely' broadside ballad of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century. As printing became cheaper and the audience became wider and more popular, the ballads took on characteristics of song, replacing the non-singable decasyllable stanza of the pseudo-ballade" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Friedman, Albert B. The Ballad Revival: Studies in the Influence of Popular on Sophisticated Poetry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961. ["Friedman focuses on the 'revival' of the traditional and broadside ballad by literary poets and collectors in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries , but his study is concerned more broadly with appropriations of ballads by 'sophisticated' poetic traditions from the medieval period to the twentieth century. Tracing the roles that the ballad played in the development of literary culture, Friedman identifies literary articulations of the ballad form ranging from parodies and imitations to the ballad's influence in shaping 'the Romantic imagination.' While Friedman suggests that the 'revival' of the ballad played a detrimental role in translating 'the genre from an active life on the popular level to a 'museum life' on the sophisticated level,' he emphasizes the ways in which literary appropriations attest to the social, cultural and artistic significance of the popular and broadside ballad forms" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Fumerton, Patricia, Anita Guerrini, eds. Ballads and Broadsides in Britain, 1500-1800. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2010. [Publisher's description: "Bringing together diverse scholars to represent the full historical breadth of the early modern period, and a wide range of disciplines (literature, women's studies, folklore, ethnomusicology, art history, media studies, the history of science, and history), Ballads and Broadsides in Britain, 1500-1800 offers an unprecedented perspective on the development and cultural practice of popular print in early modern Britain. Fifteen essays explore major issues raised by the broadside genre in the early modern period: the different methods by which contemporaries of the sixteenth through nineteenth centuries collected and 'appreciated' such early modern popular forms; the preoccupation in the early modern period with news and especially monsters; the concomitant fascination with and representation of crime and the criminal subject; the technology and formal features of early modern broadside print together with its bearing on gender, class, and authority/authorship; and, finally, the nationalizing and internationalizing of popular culture through crossings against (and sometimes with) cultural Others in ballads and broadsides of the time."
     Contents: Introduction: straws in the wind / Patricia Fumerton and Anita Guerrini -- Remembering by dismembering: databases, archiving, and the recollection of seventeenth-century broadside ballads / Patricia Fumerton -- The art of printing was fatal: print commerce and the idea of oral tradition in long eighteenth-century ballad discourse / Paula McDowell -- Child's ballads and the broadside conundrum / Mary Ellen Brown -- Journalism vs. tradition in the early English ballads of the murdered sweetheart / Thomas Pettit -- Do you take this hog-faced woman to be your wedded wife? / Tassie Gniady -- Advertising monstrosity: broadsides and human exhibition in early eighteenth-century London / Anita Guerrini -- And I my vowe did keepe: oath making, subjectivity, and husband murder in "murderous wife" ballads / Simone Chess -- Tracking the petty traitor across genres / Frances Dolan -- Ballads and the emotional life of crime / Joy Wiltenburg -- The maiden's bloody garland: Thomas Warton and the elite appropriation of popular song / Steve Newman -- Ne sutor ultra crepidam: political cobblers and broadside ballads in late seventeenth-century England / Angela McShane -- William Hogarth's pregnant ballad sellers and the engraver's matrix / Elizabeth Mitchell -- War and the media in border minstrelsy: the ballad of Chevy Chase / Ruth Perry -- Heroines gritty and tender, printed and oral, late-breaking and traditional: revisiting the Anglo-American female warrior / Dianne Dugaw -- Music and Indians in John Gay's Polly / Noelle Chao -- Afterword: ballad futures / by Bruce R. Smith.]

Gammon, Vic. "A. L. Lloyd and History: A Reconsideration of Aspects of Folk Song in England and Some of His Other Writings." In Singer, Song and Scholar. Ed. Ian Russell. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1986. Pp. 147-164.

Gerould, G. H. The Ballad of Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932.

Gilchrist, Anne. "Lamkin: A Study in Evolution." Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society 1 (1932): 1-17. ["Lamkin" is Child no. 93.]

Gomme, Alice Bertha, ed. The Traditional Games of England, Scotland, and Ireland, with Tunes, Singing-Rhymes, and Methods of Playing According to the Variants Extant and Recorded in Different Parts of the Kingdom. 2 vols. The Dictionary of British Folk-Lore. London: D. Nutt, 1894-1898. [Rpt.: New York: Dover Publications, 1964. Includes the songs which go along with games ("London Bridge is Falling Down," and many others).]

Green, Richard Firth. "The Ballad and the Middle Ages." In The Long Fifteenth Century: Essays for Douglas Gray. Ed. Helen Cooper and Sally Mapstone. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. Pp. 163-184. ["In response to critics who have apparently down-played the significance of oral transmission in the determination of Medieval ballad origins, Greene argues that the influence of Medieval romances and early proto-ballads upon eighteenth- and nineteenth-century printed ballads can be explained by continuous oral transmission. To substantiate this notion of oral continuity, Greene points to the endurance of opening lines, variations of medieval expressions, 'verbal echoes' and central thematic elements within printed ballads. By identifying such links to medieval origins, Green suggests that the printed popular ballad provides 'an authentic glimpse of a popular culture that was almost entirely silenced by the official voice of the medieval church and state'" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Gummere, Francis. The Popular Ballad. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1907.

Harris, Joseph, ed. The Ballad and Oral Literature. Harvard English Studies 17. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991. ["Six of the papers gathered here originated as lectures at a symposium on the Child ballads held at Harvard University in November 1988." -- pref. "This anthology consists of papers presented at a 1988 symposium on Child ballads at Harvard University. Ranging from historical approaches (Rieuwerts, McCarthy, Lyle) to theoretical assessments of the distinction between 'ethnic' and 'analytical' categories of ballad study (Andersen, Shields, Buchan) to the 'intertextual relevance' of the Child ballads to literary ballads in English (Würzbach), the collection offers a useful cross-section of recent scholarship pertaining to the Anglo-Scottish, American, and Scandinavian ballad" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Hendron, Joseph. "The Scholar and the Ballad Singer." Southern Folklore Quarterly 18 (1954): 139-146.

Hirsh, John C. Medieval Lyric: Middle English Lyrics, Ballads, and Carols. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. [Publisher's description: "Medieval Lyric is a colourful collection of lyrical poems, carols, and traditional British ballads written between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, together with some twentieth-century American versions of them."
     Contents: I Poems of Mourning, Fear, and Apprehension; II Poems of Joy and Celebration; III Poems Inscribed to the Blessed Virgin; IV Poems of Narrative Reflection; V Poems Whose Meanings Are Hidden (but Not Necessarily Unknown); VI Poems about Christ's Life and Passion; VII Poems Inviting or Disparaging Love; VIII Poems about Sex; IX Ballads; X Carols; Appendix A Some Lyrics of Geoffrey Chaucer; Appendix B Poems by William Herebert, Richard Rolle, and John Audelay; Appendix C Three Poems from the Findern Anthology.
     The "medieval" ballads that are included (each of them accompanied by an "American version") are "Sir Patrick Spens," "Bonnie Barbara Allan," "Lord Randal," "The Unquiet Grave," and "The Three Ravens."]

Hodgart, Matthew J[ohn] C[aldwell]. The Ballads. 2nd ed. London: Hutchinson's University Library; New York: W. W. Norton, 1962. ["A concise and very readable account of the ballads, their style, history, and poetry. It also includes a useful chapter on their music. Although it should be supplemented by some of the more recent research, this remains probably the best introductory study of the ballads" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Hoffman, Dean Alan. "The Minstrelsy of the Greenwood: The Medieval English Outlaw Ballad in Literary and Social History." Ph.D. diss., University of California, Riverside, 1987. [DAI 48 (1987-1988): 2623A. Abstract: "This study seeks a revisionist approach to the five earliest Robin Hood ballads, the Tale of Gamelyn, 'Robyn and Gandeleyn,' and 'Adam Bell,' viewing them in an exclusively contemporaneous framework that eschews the influence of post-medieval balladry and later representations.
     "The purpose of the first half of this analysis is to establish the transitional character of this poetry by contrasting the formal conventions of the metrical romance with the ballad's tendency toward incremental repetition and narrative symmetry, a component which indicates the probable lateness of the Gest of Robyn Hode and virtually defines the style, structure and central conflict leading to outlawry in the Tale of Gamelyn. This combination also suggests a performance style for the yeoman minstrel marked by oral stylizations, opportunities for improvisation through a flexible stanzaic rhyme scheme, and rhetorical complexity typical of writing for private reading.
     "The balance of this study describes transitional qualities in the characters, images, and themes of these works. The outlaw protagonist is portrayed as an antihero throughout most of the medieval tales. The Gest of Robyn Hode, however, presents this character as a more benevolent figure, one closer in spirit to a later concept of the noble bandit. The appearance of archery in the medieval Robin Hood ballads differs not only from the later tradition in a less ornamental, more deliberately functional sense, but serves also to introduce and develop narrative and character. And through an examination of the relative absence in the outlaw ballads of the overt festivity and ceremony found in the Robin Hood drama, an important contrast becomes apparent between the two symbolic landscapes of forest and town, one which reveals the outlaw milieu to be based upon an intrinsic sense of order and propriety rather than the anarchy and lawlessness attributed to it by its enemies.
     "Finally, an examination of the shifting social framework of the three estates depicted in the Gest of Robyn Hode will articulate the relationship between the greenwood ballads and picaresque narratives--a larger strain of popular fiction of outsiders and rogues--which arose out of similarly disruptive periods of social history."]

Hustvedt, Sigurd Bernhard. Ballad Books and Ballad Men: Raids and Rescues in Britain, America, and the Scandinavian North Since 1800. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1930.

James, Thelma. "The English and Scottish Popular Ballads of Francis J. Child." Journal of American Folklore 46 (1933): 51-68.

K[ittredge], G[eorge] L[yman]. "Introduction." English and Scottish Popular Ballads. Ed. Helen Child Sargent and George Lyman Kittredge. Cambridge Edition of the Poets. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1932. Pp. xi-xxxi. [A still useful introduction to the Child ballads, their origins, transmission, and themes. Uses "The Hangman's Tree" (a version of Child no. 95, "The Maid Freed from the Gallows" [a.k.a. "Hangman," "Gallows Pole"] as an example to illustrate some points (on pp. xxv-xxvii).]

Karpeles, Maud. An Introduction to English Folk Song. London, New York, and Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1973. [Includes chapters on the nature and characteristics of folk music, its difference from art music, on the classification of types of folk music, on ballads and broadsides, on the Folk Song Society and Cecil Sharp, as well as collectors and collection (and field work) more generally. [Maud Karpeles was one of Cecil Sharp's assistants.]
     "A short book by Cecil Sharp's assistant. Though it is quite a well-known book (partly because of its availability in paperback and its ease of reading), it is in effect little more than a restatement of Sharp's own arguments, and was therefore outdated even at the time of its publication" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Keith, Alexander. "Scottish Ballads: Their Evidence of Authorship and Origin." Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association 12 (1926): 100-119.

Laws, G[eorge] Malcolm. American Balladry from British Broadsides: A Guide for Students and Collectors of Traditional Song. Publications of the American Folklore Society: Bibliographical and Special Series 8. Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, 1957. [Includes a catalogue of all known American ballads based on traditional British sources. ("Native"--i.e., non-British--American ballads are covered in his previous volume, Native American Balladry.)]

Laws, G[eorge] Malcolm. The British Literary Ballad: A Study in Poetic Imitation. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1972. ["Laws' discussion focuses on the influence of the folk and broadside ballad form upon 'literary' poets of the eighteenth through twentieth centuries. The author points to Percy's Reliques as central to the development of literary imitations of the ballad, since Percy's editorial practices set a precedent for the kinds of revisions and re-writings that defined the literary imitation. In light of such considerations, Laws attempts to classify stylistic characteristics of poems 'superficially alike' in order to distinguish the literary ballad from the 'sub-literary' folk and broadside forms. While suggesting that the boundary between these forms is often blurred, Laws concludes by praising the literary ballad as superior by virtue of its place as 'poetry' as opposed to mere 'verse'" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Leach, MacEdward, and Tristram Potter Coffin, eds. The Critics and the Ballad: Readings. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1961. [This collection of essays includes "a significant number of important writings on the ballad by scholars such as Francis Gummere, Alexander Keith, Phillips Barry, and Anne Gilchrist" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Lloyd, A[lbert] L[ancaster]. Folk Song in England. London: Lawrence and Wishart, in association with the Workers' Music Association, 1967. [An introduction to, and collection of, folk songs, by one of the great promoters and preservers of traditional song. It includes some introduction to the music as well as the texts (discussion of modalities etc.). "The most influential work of the post-war English folk revival, full of enthusiasm for the democratic roots of folk song, but poorly annotated and with an over-emphasis on international parallels. Gammon ('A. L. Lloyd and History') offers a balanced critique of Lloyd's views" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Long, Eleanor. "'The Maid' and 'The Hangman': Myth and Tradition in a Popular Ballad. Folklore Studies. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1971. ["A classic historical-geographical study of the international spread of a ballad" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography"). ["Hangman," also known as "The Maid Freed from the Gallows" (Child no. 95).]]

MacColl, Ewan, and Peggy Seeger, eds. Travellers' Songs, from England and Scotland. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1977. [English "travellers" are also commonly but mistakenly called "gypsies." MacColl and Seeger present the words and melodies of traditional songs and ballads collected from travellers (some of these are variants of Child ballads.)]

MacKinnon, Niall. The British Folk Scene: Musical Performance and Social Identity. Buckingham: Open University Press, 1993. ["A sociological study of the post-war folk revival in both England and Scotland (with little discrimination), based on extensive surveys and interviews with participants, which generally takes a sympathetic view of the revival as a cultural activity" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Marsh, Christopher W. Music and Society in Early Modern England. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. [Book with audio CD offering examples of the music discussed; musical tracks performed by the Dufay Collective with invited guests. CD track list, contents notes, lyrics and musical examples on pp. 526-555.
     Contents: Introduction: the ringing island -- The power of music -- Occupational musicians: denigration and defence -- Occupational musicians: employment prospects -- Recreational musicians -- Ballads and their audience -- Balladry and the meanings of melody -- 'The skipping art': dance and society -- Parish church music: the rise of 'the singing psalms' -- Parish church music: bells and their ringers -- Conclusion: the musical milieux of Machyn and Pepys.]

Martin, Randall, ed. Women and Murder in Early Modern News Pamphlets and Broadside Ballads, 1573-1697. Early Modern Englishwoman, Series 3: Essential Works. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005.

McAlpine, Kaye. "The Traditional and Border Ballad." In Oral Literature and Performance Culture. Ed. John Beech, et al. Scottish Life and Society 10. Edinburgh: John Donald, in association with the European Ethnological Research Centre, 2007. Pp. 305-321.

McCarthy, William. The Ballad Matrix: Personality, Milieu and the Oral Tradition. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990. ["Following in the footsteps of Albert Lord and other advocates of the oral-formulaic tradition, McCarthy highlights the aesthetic qualities of the ballad form by situating stylistic considerations firmly within the context of 'oral poesis.' McCarthy applies oral theory to the 'weaving' ballads sung by Agnes Lyle of Kilbarchan in the early nineteenth century. He argues that Lyle's ballads demonstrate 'consistent patterns of formulicity' as well as other oral elements that situate the ballads in a 'recreative' as opposed to purely mnemonic oral tradition. That such elements contribute to the aesthetic value of the popular ballad is justified by McCarthy's identification of 'annular, binary, and trinary' structures of the ballad, which provide solutions to 'the three most significant aesthetic problems in any art . . . namely the problems of unity, organization, and sufficiency'" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

McNamee, Peter, ed. Traditional Music--Whose Music?: Proceedings of a Co-operation North Conference, 1991. Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast, 1992.

Middleton, Richard. Studying Popular Music. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1990. ["A standard textbook of popular music studies, which includes a rather hostile account of folk song, denying, in effect, the perceived difference of folk song from other kinds of popular music" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Mitsui, Tori. "How Was 'Judas' Sung?" In Ballads and Boundaries: Narrative Singing in an Intercultural Context. Ed. James Porter. Los Angeles: Department of Ethnomusicology and Systematic Musicology, UCLA, 1995. Pp. 241-250. ["A musicological study which considers how the oldest text in The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, dating from the thirteenth century, might have sounded when, and if, it was sung" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography"). [Child no. 23]]

Morgan, Gwendolyn A. Medieval Balladry and the Courtly Tradition: Literature of Revolt and Assimulation. American University Studies, Series 4: English Language and Literature 160. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1993. ["Morgan responds to the conventional view of the fourteenth- and fifteenth-century literary tradition as indicative of 'a monolithic Age of Faith' by suggesting that the popular ballad of the period provided a subversive and contradictory response to dominant authority. Situating the ballad within the context of Medieval social history, Morgan argues that the popular ballad (with its emphasis on practicality and pragmatism over the romantic and idyllic) offers a critique of the chivalric code by which the re-affirmation of feudalism was justified. By invigorating the ballad with social didacticism, Morgan suggests that one must not equate the simplicity of the ballad form with simplicity of thought, as has been the traditional practice" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Munro, Ailie, and Morag MacLeod. The Democratic Muse: Folk Music Revival in Scotland. Rev. ed. Fwd. Hamish Henderson. Aberdeen: Scottish Cultural Press, 1997. [Revised version of Munro's Folk Music Revival in Scotland (1984); includes "The Folk Revival in Gaelic Song" by Morag MacLeod.]

Nettel, Reginald. A Social History of Traditional Song. Documents of Social History. New York: Augustus M. Kelley Publishers, 1969.

Northall, G. F., ed. English Folk-Rhymes. Detroit: Singing Tree Press, 1968. [Includes the songs which go along with games.]

Nygard, Holger Olof. "Popular Ballad and Medieval Romance." In Folklore International: Essays in Traditional Literature, Belief, and Custom in Honor of Wayland Debs Hand. Ed. D. K. Wilgus. Hatboro: Folklore Associates, 1967. Pp. 161-173. Rpt. in Ballad Studies. Ed. E. B. Lyle. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer; Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield, for the Folklore Society, 1976. Pp. 1-19.

Opie, Iona, and Peter Opie. The Singing Game. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985. ["The standard work on singing-games, which also traces their history" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Palmer, Roy. The Sound of History: Songs and Social Comment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. Rpt. London: Pimlico, 1996. ["A fascinating and informative book which demonstrates the enormous potential of broadsides and folk songs to illuminate the responses of the common people to all kinds of historical events, the methodological difficulties in making use of such evidence notwithstanding" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Pegg, Bob. Folk: A Portrait of English Traditional Music, Musicians and Customs. London: Wildwood House, 1976.

Pettitt, Thomas. "The Ballad of Tradition: In Pursuit of a Vernacular Aesthetic." In Ballads into Books: The Legacies of Francis James Child. Ed. Tom Cheesman and Sigrid Rieuwerts. Selected Papers from the 26th International Ballad Conference (SIEF Ballad Commission), Swansea, Wales, 19-24 July 1996. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997. Pp. 111-123.

Pettitt, Thomas. "Ballad Singers and Ballad Style: The Case of the Murdered Sweethearts." In The Entertainer in Medieval and Traditional Culture: A Symposium. Ed. Flemming G. Andersen, Thomas Pettitt, and Reinhold Schröder. [Odense, Denmark]: Odense University Press, 1997. Pp. 101-131.

Pickering, Michael. Village Song and Culture: A Study Based on the Blunt Collection of Song from Adderbury, North Oxfordshire. London: Croom Helm, 1982. ["Describes the social context of folk song in an English village, from a broadly Marxist perspective, drawing on the collection of Janet Heatley Blunt; extremely difficult to read for both stylistic and typographical reasons" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Pollard, Michael. Discovering English Folksong. Discovering Series 270. Aylesbury, Bucks.: Shire Publications, 1982. [A 48 p. introduction to English folksong, from a historian and former director of Topic Records. Pollard emphasizes the elements of the traditional and oral, and the medieval origins of English folksong, and distinguishes "folk" singing from "folksy" singing (the latter being the polished and commercial "folk music," from which the traces of real "folk" are completely removed). Pollard has chapters on the origins and development of folk music (medieval ballads, broadside ballads, music hall and pub singing, etc.), on the great collectors of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and on the singers (and some of the venues, such as social clubs, where they can still, sometimes, be heard). He also has an alphabetical section on some of the themes of folk song: gallows songs, the murder of Maria Marten (murder in the Red Barn), Waly Waly (from the story of James Douglas), etc.]

Porter, James, ed. The Ballad Image: Essays Presented to Bertrand Harris Bronson. Fwd. Wayland D. Hand. Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Comparative Folklore and Mythology, University of California, Los Angeles, 1983. ["While this collection includes provocative essays on a range of issues pertaining to the singing (and oral transmission) of the ballad, most useful are the essays in the section entitled 'Problems of Oral Re-Creation.' Albert Friedman's 'The Oral-Formulaic Theory of Balladry: A Re-Rebuttal' points out that 'ballad variation is a far less radical operation than the recomposition from scratch' which oral-formulaic theories postulate as an explanation for variants. Instead, variation stems from 'communal re-creation,' whereby a text memorized and transmitted over time takes on the shape of the individual singer. In 'The Impossibles of Ballad Style,' Hugh Shields offers a catalogue of the rhetorical use of 'impossibles' in French and Irish, as well as in English and American ballad traditions. Focusing on 'Hugh Spenser's Feats in France' (Child 158), David Buchan examines the tension between 're-creation' and 'conservation' at both the compositional and functional level. Buchan argues that re-creation enables the individual ballad singer to fashion his art 'in accordance with the conditions of his context and his individual flair'" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Porter, James. The Traditional Music of Britain and Ireland. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 807: Music Research and Information Guides 11. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1989.

Porter, James, and Herschel Gower. Jeannie Robertson: Emergent Singer, Transformative Voice. Publications of the American Folklore Society, New Series. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1995. [Rpt. East Linton: Tuckwell, 1999. Jeannie Robertson is a "traveller" ("gypsy") who became something of a music hall sensation in the mid-twentieth century after being discovered by folk song collector Alan Lomax.]

Powers, Harold S. "Modal Scales and Folksong Melodies." In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Ed. Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1980. 12: 418-422. ["Explains the musical theory of folk song tunes, as part of a longer section on the modes in musical theory" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Renwick, Roger de V. English Folk Poetry: Structure and Meaning. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1980. ["One of the most inspiring text-based studies of recent folk song research, which uses the methodology of structuralism to look at ways in which some folk song texts might function. It attracted substantial criticism, however, for its apparent lack of attention to ethnography" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Rieuwerts, Sigrid. "The Folk-Ballad: The Illegitimate Child of the Popular Ballad." Journal of Folklore Research 33 (1996): 221-226. ["Addressing the question of why Child uses the term 'popular' as opposed to 'folk' in his English and Scottish Popular Ballads, Rieuwerts calls attention to the distinction between the popular ballad (a product of a 'pre-civilized, ideal community of the past') and the folk-ballad (part of an ongoing tradition of oral transmission). Rieuwerts suggests that Child's collection places an emphasis on the former kind of ballad, while the latter is seen as poetically inferior. By pointing out this distinction, Rieuwerts responds to scholars such as Michael Bell who have argued that the two terms can be used interchangeably when discussing Child's theories of balladry" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Rieuwerts, Sigrid. "From Percy to Child: The 'Popular Ballad' as 'a distinct and very important species of poetry.'" In Ballads and Boundaries: Narrative Singing in an Intercultural Context. Ed. James Porter. Los Angeles: Department of Ethnomusicology and Systematic Musicology, UCLA, 1995. Pp. 13-20.

Rieuwerts, Sigrid. "'The Genuine Ballads of the People': F. J. Child and the Ballad Cause." Journal of Folklore Research 31 (1994): 1-34. ["An excellent discussion of what Child had in mind in selecting and editing material for The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, which also reprints some key documents" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").
     "In the path of Michael Bell and others who have recently re-visited and challenged the assertion that Francis Child offered no theoretical concept of the ballad, Rieuwerts traces Child's 'changing perception of the ballad as a genre.' Central to her claim is the fact that Child wrote more than one article on ballad theory; the problem is that many of these have remained unpublished and thus inaccessible to scholars. Examining two reviews of Percy's Reliques written by Child and published anonymously in The Nation, Rieuwerts suggests that the development of Child's theory of balladry (increasingly emphasizing the importance of 'genuine' oral and manuscript documentation) is clearly evident in his rejection of Percy's editorial practices. Since The English and Scottish Popular Ballads reflects Child's emphasis on the 'genuine,' Rieuwerts suggests that Child's work on the ballad stands 'complete,' despite the absence of a 'formal' preface on ballad theory" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Rollins, Hyder E. "The Black-Letter Broadside Ballad." PMLA 34 (1919): 258-339.

Rosenberg, Neil V., ed. Transforming Tradition: Folk Music Revivals Examined. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993. ["An impressive collection of fifteen essays and an introduction discussing folk music revivals in North America, with some allusions to the British experience, which suggests many historical parallels, influences, and distinctions, and raises many challenging theoretical issues" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Russell, Dave. Popular Music in England, 1840-1914: A Social History. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987.

Sharp, Cecil James. English Folk Song: Some Conclusions. 4th ed. Ed. Maud Karpeles, with an appreciation of Cecil Sharp by Ralph Vaughan Williams. Wakefield: EP Publishing, 1972.

Siegmund, William Ian. "A Comparative Study of 'Earl Brand' (Child #7) and its Danish and Icelandic Analogues." 2 vols. Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 1973. [DAI 34 (1973-1974): 2489A.]

Simpson, Claude M. The British Broadside Ballad and its Music. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1966. ["The standard reference work for the music of broadside ballads" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Stewart, Polly. "Wishful Willful Wily Women: Lessons for Female Success in the Child Ballads." In Feminist Messages: Coding in Women's Folk Culture. Ed. Joan Newlon Radner. Publications of the American Folklore Society, New Series. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993. Pp. 54-73.

Stewart, Susan. "Scandals of the Ballad." In Crimes of Writing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. Pp. 102-131. ["Stewart identifies a 'crisis of authenticity' that occurred when the ballad as artifact was severed from its performative context by collectors from the sixteenth century onward. In the process of 'artifactualizing' the ballad material, the literary community 'sought an idea of folklore more than the actuality of folkloric materials themselves.' Stewart suggests that, by the eighteenth century, the revival (or 'discovery') of the ballad at the hands of collectors and literary imitations served a nationalistic agenda and also provided literary authors with 'an idyllic context of representation' removed from the realm of 'patronage, professionalism, and the parodies of ventriloquism'" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Stradling, Robert, and Meirion Hughes. The English Musical Renaissance, 1860-1940: Construction and Deconstruction. London: Routledge, 1993. ["A historical analysis of the drive in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries for the development of a distinctively English national music, which became identified with folk music, particularly through the work of Vaughan Williams" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Sykes, Richard. "The Evolution of Englishness in the English Folksong Revival, 1890-1914." Folk Music Journal 6 (1993): 446-490. ["A detailed study of the significance of nationalism and the development of a concept of English identity as part of the cultural and political climate of the revival" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Symonds, Deborah. Weep Not for Me: Women, Ballads, and Infanticide in Early Modern Scotland. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997. ["While this book is concerned primarily with the historical details and implications of infanticide in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Scotland, it is relevant to the study of early modern balladry since Symonds provides a close analysis of ballads dealing with infanticide in order to contrast popular depictions of the crime with those of court trial records and the literary novel. Scots ballads provide a useful window into the socio-historical context of infanticide, since many of the poems were produced and sung by members of the communities in which the infant murders took place. Symonds examines ballads such as 'Mary Hamilton' in order to argue that such texts construct a 'ballad heroine' whose willingness to die for the murder of her child 'offered a tough, honorable, sexual, and utterly sensible model of what a woman could be'" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Toelken, Barre. Morning Dew and Roses: Nuance, Metaphor, and Meaning in Folksongs. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995. ["An important and readable study, which demonstrates wide-ranging poetic possibilities in ballads and folk songs, and relates them to their singing contexts. Chapters in the book reproduce several earlier classic articles by Toelken, for instance on the riddle or wit combat ballads and on metaphor and ambiguity in ballads" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Vaughan Williams, R[alph], and A. L. Lloyd, eds. The Penguin Book of English Folk Songs, from the Journal of the Folk Song Society and the Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1959. [Texts with unaccompanied melodies. A collection of various traditional ballads and songs, including tunes, including "The Bramble Briar" (pp. 24-25), "The Cruel Mother" (Child 20) (p. 28), "The Golden Vanity" (Child 286 ["The 'Sweet Kumadie'"; Kumadee; "Sweet Trinity"]) (pp. 46-47), "The Greenland Whale Fishery" (pp. 50-51), "John Barleycorn" (pp. 56-57), "Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanor" (Child 73 ["Lord Thomas and Fair Annet"]) (pp. 62-63), "Mother, Mother, Make My Bed" (related to "Lady Maisry" [Child 65], "Lord Lovel" [Child 75], and "Barbara Allen" [Child 84]) (p. 71), "The Outlandish Knight" (Child 4 ["Lady Isabel and the Elf-Knight"]) (pp. 80-81), "Robin Hood and the Pedlar" (variant of Child 132) (pp. 88-89), "Young Edwin in the Lowlands" (pp. 106-107).]

Vicinus, Martha. The Industrial Muse: A Study of Nineteenth Century British Working-Class Literature. London: Croom Helm, 1974. ["A wide-ranging study of popular literature, including broadsides, songs, and poetry, and dialect writing and song" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Watson, Ian. Song and Democratic Culture in Britain: An Approach to Popular Culture in Social Movements. London: Croom Helm; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983. ["An attempt to establish the central place of folk song in a cultural opposition to other popular forms motivated primarily by commercialism. Heavily informed by Marxism, the argument draws on ideas about industrial song developed by A. L. Lloyd, and extends to the revival and the work of later writers of oppositional songs in the traditional idiom. Ultimately, the book is probably of greater value in analysing the post-war folk revival than for studying folk song at large" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Wilgus, D. K., and Barre Toelken. The Ballad and the Scholars: Approaches to Ballad Study; Papers Presented at a Clark Library Seminar, 22 October 1983. Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Library, University of California, Los Angeles, 1986. ["Two papers which, although ostensibly demonstrating the confrontation between textual and contextual approaches to ballad and folk song study, actually display a lot of shared ground" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Wilgus, D. K., and Eleanor R. Long. "The Blues Ballad and the Genesis of Style in Traditional Narrative Song." In Narrative Folksong: New Directions; Essays in Appreciation of W. Edson Richmond. Ed. Carol L. Edwards and Kathleen E. B. Manley. Fwd. Bruce A. Rosenberg. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1985. Pp. 435-482.

Wiltenburg, Joy. Disorderly Women and Female Power in the Street Literature of Early Modern England and Germany. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992. ["Framing her discussion within the early modern conviction that women were out of control, Wiltenburg examines German and English street ballads and pamphlets in order to shed light on the social and cultural implications of such representations of women. Wiltenburg notes many similarities between English and German portrayals of unruly women, most notably the notion that imagined female power contained and regulated any real threat of female disorder. However, most important to the discussion are the differences between English and German depictions of female unruliness, suggesting the complex ways in which attitudes toward gender and sexual power are informed by wider social and cultural considerations" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

Woods, Fred. Folk Revival: The Rediscovery of a National Music. Poole, [Eng.]: Blandford Press, 1979.

Würzbach, Natascha. The Rise of the English Street Ballad, 1550-1650. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. ["This study focuses on the cultural and social conditions that accompanied the development of the broadside (street) ballad in early Modern England. Through an investigation of the printers and authors, market and distribution, and the ballad-monger and his audience, Würzbach identifies a close relationship between text and socio-cultural environment, in order to argue that elements of production, transmission, and reception are articulated through the content and structure of the ballad form. Würzbach also examines the ballad as a literary form, taking into account various ballad types and devices in order to convey elements of the genre, as well as to counter conventional notions that the street ballad is a necessarily inferior and sub-literary genre" (Joshua B. Fisher, Ballad pages [no longer online]).]

J.xi. Robin Hood: Secondary Literature

Almond, Richard, and A. J. Pollard. "The Yeomanry of Robin Hood and Social Terminology in Fifteenth-Century England." Past and Present no. 170 (Feb. 2001): 52-77. [Almond and Pollard present a new argument with respect to the term "yeoman." Abstract: "The writers argue that Robin Hood's yeomanry is a fixed point of reference in a context in which his earliest audiences can identify themselves with different associations of yeomanliness. They contend that his status as a yeoman of the forest, an ambiguous figure set apart from but well-known to both gentle and popular audiences and who sustains himself by an activity practiced by both, brings the heterogeneous elements of the ballads together. They suggest that the liminality of this status means that Robin Hood stands on the threshold of the social divide between gentility and commonality. They maintain that the yeoman of the forest thus acts as a pivotal point of reference in a fiction in which audiences composed of all ranks of society can make contact with the hero and identify themselves with different associations of the hero's status."]

Anderson, Eric R. "Game and Reality in Medieval and Renaissance English Outlaw Narratives." Aethlon: The Journal of Sport Literature 8.2 (Spring 1991): 73-88. [Including Robin Hood and Hereward the Wake.]

Ayton, Andrew. "Military Service and the Development of the Robin Hood Legend in the Fourteenth Century." Nottingham Medieval Studies 36 (1992): 126-147. [Argues that Robin Hood stories were created and spread by soldiers in the Hundred Years War.]

Barczewski, Stephanie L. Myth and National Identity in Nineteenth-Century Britain: The Legends of King Arthur and Robin Hood. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. [Abstract: "Scholars continue to find that fictional narratives provide rich insight into the historical development of a modern national consciousness. In nineteenth-century Britain, the legends of King Arthur and Robin Hood played an important role in construction of contemporary national identity. These two legends provide important windows on British culture and draw from very different perspectives. King Arthur and Robin Hood have traditionally been diametrically opposed in their ideological orientation, with Arthur at the pinnacle of the social and political hierarchy and Robin Hood completely outside conventional hierarchical structures. The fact that two such different figures could simultaneously function as British national heroes suggests that nineteenth-century British nationalism did not represent a single set of values and ideas, but rather that it was forced to assimilate a variety of competing points of view."]

Behlmer, Rudy. "'Welcome to Sherwood!': The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938)." In Behind the Scenes. 2nd ed. Hollywood: French, 1990. Pp. 61-86. [On the 1938 movie starring Errol Flynn and Basil Rathbone. Rpt. as "Robin Hood on the Screen: From Legend to Film" in Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism, ed. Stephen Knight, pp. 441-460.]

Bellamy, John [G.]. Robin Hood: An Historical Enquiry. London and Sydney: Croom Helm, 1985. [Bellamy summarizes the attempts to date (1985) to find a "historical" Robin Hood; the bulk of the book is a historical study of The Gest of Robyn Hode. Contents: "The Search and the Searchers I," "The Search and the Searchers II," "The Chronology of the Gest," "The Sheriff of Nottingham," "The Gest, Public Order and Crime," "Sir Richard at the Lee," "Other 'Personae' of the Gest," "Conclusions and Additional Considerations."]

Bessinger, J[ess] B., Jr. "The Gest of Robin Hood Revisited." In The Learned and the Lewed: Studies in Chaucer and Medieval Literature. Ed. Larry D. Benson. Harvard English Studies 5. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974. Pp. 355-369. [Rpt. in Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism, ed. Stephen Knight, pp. 39-50.]

Bessinger, Jess B., Jr. "Robin Hood: Folklore and Historiography, 1377-1500." Tennessee Studies in Literature 11 (1966): 61-69.

Biddick, Kathleen A. "The Historiographic Unconscious and the Return of Robin Hood." In The Salt of Common Life: Individuality and Choice in the Medieval Town, Countryside, and Church; Essays Presented to J. Ambrose Raftis. Medieval Institute Publications 36. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1995. Pp. 449-483.

Biddick, Kathleen A. "The Return of Robin Hood." In her The Shock of Medievalism. Durham: Duke University Press, 1988. Pp. 74-75.

Blamires, David. "Robin Hood." Trans. (into German) by Silvia Westreicher. In Herrscher, Helden, Heilige. Ed. Ulrich Müller and Werner Wunderlich. Mittelalter Mythen Bd. 1. 2nd ed. St. Gallen: UVK, Fachbuchverlag für Wissenschaft und Studium, 2001. Pp. 437-450.

Brockman, Bennet A. "Robin Hood and the Invention of Children's Literature." Children's Literature 10 (1982): 1-14.

Butler, Marilyn. "'The Good Old Times': Maid Marion and The Misfortunes of Elphin." In her Peacock Displayed: A Satirist in his Context. London and Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979. Pp. 140-182. [On Maid Marion, a novel by Thomas Love Peacock. The "Maid Marion" portion of the chapter is rpt. in Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism, ed. Stephen Knight, pp. 141-153.]

Carpenter, Kevin, ed. Robin Hood: Die vielen Gesichter des edlen Räubers / The Many Faces of that Celebrated English Outlaw. Oldenberg: BIS, 1995. [On pictorial representations of Robin Hood.]

Chism, Christine. "Robin Hood: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally in the Fifteenth-Century Ballad." In The Letter of the Law: Legal Practice and Literary Production in Medieval England. Ed. Emily Steiner and Candace Barrington. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002. Pp. 12-39. [On "A Gest of Robyn Hode."]

Clouet, Richard. "The Robin Hood Legend and its Cultural Adaptation for the Film Industry: Comparing Literary Sources with Filmic Representations." Journal of English Studies 3 (2001-2002): 37-46.

Coss, Peter R. "Aspects of Cultural Diffusion in Medieval England: The Early Romances, Local Society and Robin Hood." Past and Present no. 108 (August 1985): 35-79.

Crook, David. "The Sheriff of Nottingham and Robin Hood: The Genesis of the Legend?" In Thirteenth-Century England II: Proceedings of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Conference, 1987. Ed. P. R. Coss and S. D. Lloyd. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press / Boydell and Brewer, 1988. Pp. 59-68. [Speculating that the "sherrif" in question might have been Eustace of Lowdham, sometime undersherrif of Nottingham but also with connections to Barnsdale; Robin Hood may have been Robert of Wetherby, being hunted in Yorkshire in 1225.]

Crook, David. "Some Further Evidence Concerning the Dating of the Origins of the Legend of Robin Hood." In Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism. Ed. Stephen Knight. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1999. Pp. 257-261. ["Investigates the appearance of a fugitive, William Robehod, in a memoranda roll (MS. London, P.R.O., E/159/36) who seems to be synonymous with the William son of Robert le Fevere found in an Eyre Roll (MS. London, P.R.O. JUST 1/40)" (International Medieval Bibliography). Crook presents this reference to a fugitive in 1262 as a "Robehod" as evidence that whoever referred to him in this way was familiar with legends of Robin Hood.]

Davis, Stephen M. Robin Hood's England. TimeTraveller's Guide. Washington, DC: TimeTraveller Press, 1991. [A suggested tour of parts of Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire, for sites associated with the legend, including some historical account of the origins of the legend (and the significant variants between earlier and later versions); also suggestions for further study; also suggestions for holding "Robin Hood festivals" at home (including some medieval recipes).]

De Ville, Oscar. "The Deyvilles and the Genesis of the Robin Hood Legend." Nottingham Medieval Studies 43 (1999): 90-109. [Re: A Little Gest of Robyn Hode.]

De Vriess, Kelly. "Longbow Archery and the Earliest Robin Hood Legends." In Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence, Transgression, and Justice. Ed. Thomas G. Hahn. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. Pp. 41-59.

Dixon-Kennedy, Mike. The Robin Hood Handbook: The Outlaw in History, Myth and Legend. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 2006. [Contents: The legends of Robin Hood and his Merry Men -- An A-Z of people and places -- Source texts -- Conclusions.]

Dobson, R[ichard] B[arrie], and J[ohn] Taylor. "The Medieval Origins of the Robin Hood Legend: A Reassessment." Northern History 7 (1972): 1-30.

Dobson, R[ichard] B[arrie], and J[ohn] Taylor. "Robin Hood of Barnesdale: A Fellow Thou Hast Long Sought." Northern History 19 (1983): 210-220.

Evans, Michael. "Robynhill or Robin Hood's Hills?: Place-names and the Evolution of the Robin Hood Legends." Journal of the Place-Name Society 30 (1998): 1-15.

Evans, Michael R. "Robin Hood in the Landscape: Place-Name Evidence and Mythology." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 181-187.

Field, Sean. "Devotion, Discontent, and the Henrician Reformation: The Evidence of the Robin Hood Stories." Journal of British Studies 41 (2002): 6-22.

Gray, Douglas. "Everybody's Robin Hood." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 21-41.

Gray, Douglas. "The Robin Hood Poems." Poetica (Tokyo) 18 (1984): 1-39. [Rpt. in Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism, ed. Stephen Knight, pp. 3-37.]

Green, Richard Firth. "The Hermit and the Outlaw: New Evidence for Robin Hood's Death?" In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 51-59.

Greenfield, Peter H. "The Carnivalesque in the Robin Hood Games and King Ales of Southern England." In Carnival and the Carnivalesque: The Fool, the Reformer, the Wildman, and Others in Early Modern Theatre. Ed. Konrad Eisenbichler and Wim Hüsken. Ludus: Medieval and Early Renaissance Theatre and Drama 4. Amsterdam, and Athens, GA: Rodopi, 1999. Pp. 19-28. ["This collection . . . originates from the meetings of the Société Internationale du Théâtre Médiéval held on 2-11 August, 1995, at Victoria College in the University of Toronto" (Introd., p. 7).]

Hahn, Thomas G., ed. Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence, Transgression, and Justice. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000.

Hahn, Thomas G., and Stephen Knight. "'Exempt me Sire, I am afeard of women': Gendering Robin Hood." In Bandit Territories: British Outlaws and their Traditions. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2008. Pp. 24-43.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Ballads and Bandits: Fourteenth-Century Outlaws and the Robin Hood Poems." In Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Ed. Barbara Hanawalt. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. Pp. 154-175. [Rpt. in Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism, ed. Stephen Knight, pp. 263-284.
     Hanawalt compares medieval stories of Robin Hood with actual criminal records of medieval banditry, and finds many elements of the Robin Hood ballads to be "realistic." The most notable exception to the "realism" of the ballads is that real bandits spared neither women nor "husbandmen."]

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Men's Games, King's Deer: Poaching in Medieval England." Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 18 (1988): 175-193.

Hark, Ina Rae. "The Visual Politics of The Adventure of Robin Hood." Journal of Popular Fiction 5 (1976): 3-17. [On the 1938 movie starring Errol Flynn and Basil Rathbone.]

Harris, P[ercy] Valentine. The Truth about Robin Hood: A Refutation of the Mythologists' Theories, with New Evidence of the Hero's Actual Existence. 2nd ed. Mansfield: Linneys, 1978.

Harty, Kevin J. The Reel Middle Ages: American, Western and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and Asian Films About Medieval Europe. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Co., Publishers, 1999. ["Those tales of old--King Arthur, Robin Hood, The Crusades, Marco Polo, Joan of Arc--have been told and retold, and the tradition of their telling has been gloriously upheld by filmmaking from its very inception. From the earliest of Georges Méliès's films in 1897, to a 1996 animated Hunchback of Notre Dame, film has offered not just fantasy but exploration of these roles so vital to the modern psyche. St. Joan has undergone the transition from peasant girl to self-assured saint, and Camelot has transcended the soundstage to evoke the Kennedys in the White House. Here is the first comprehensive survey of over 900 cinematic depictions of the European Middle Ages--date of production, country of origin, director, production company, cast, and a synopsis and commentary. A bibliography, index, and over 100 stills complete this remarkable work."]

Harty, Kevin J. "Robin Hood on Film: Moving beyond a Swashbuckling Stereotype." In Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence, Transgression, and Justice. Ed. Thomas G. Hahn. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. Pp. 87-100.

Hayes, T[homas] Wilson. The Birth of Popular Culture: Ben Jonson, Maid Marian, and Robin Hood. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1992.

Hepworth, David. "A Grave Tale." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 91-112. Also "Appendix: Written Epitaphs of Robin Hood." Pp. 188-189. [On the supposed grave of Robin Hood near the ruins of Kirklees Priory (Hepworth having done a new history of Kirklees), and the various errors which have been made (and too frequently repeated) by scholars on the subject. (Hepworth has indicated (in a message to a Robin Hood online forum) that he is working on a short monograph on the subject.) See also the Appendix to the volume, being a collection of the texts of several Robin Hood epitaphs.]

Hilton, R[odney] H[oward]. "The Origins of Robin Hood." Past and Present no. 14 (Nov. 1958): 30-44. [Rpt. in Peasants, Knights, and Heretics: Studies in Medieval English Social History. Ed. R[odney] H[oward] Hilton. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. Pp. 221-235.
     Rpt. in Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism. Ed. Stephen Knight. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1999. Pp. 197-210.
     "Argues that the significance of Robin Hood does not depend on whether he was a real person, and examines the recurring effort to manufacture 'an authentic, documented, individual'" (International Medieval Bibliography). Hilton argues for a connection between Robin Hood and the social unrest which led to the "Peasants' Revolt" of 1381.]

Hoffman, Dean A[lan]. "'With the shot y wyll / Alle thy lustes to full-fyl': Archery as Symbol in the Early Ballads of Robin Hood." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 86 (1985): 494-505.

Holt, J. C. "The Origins and Audience of the Ballads of Robin Hood." Past and Present no. 18 (1960): 89-110. [Rpt. in Peasants, Knights, and Heretics: Studies in Medieval English Social History. Ed. R[odney] H[oward] Hilton. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. Pp. 236-255.
     Holt argues, against Hilton, for the rural gentry as the primary original audience of the Robin Hood stories.]

Holt, J. C. Robin Hood. London: Thames and Hudson, 1982. [A medieval historian's study of the Robin Hood legends. Contents: "Prologue," "The Legend" (on the "Gest" and the early ballads), "Who was Robin Hood?" (on various attempts to discover a "historical" Robin Hood), "The Original Robin Hood" (on the "blend of fact and fiction" in the ballads, including information on real medieval outlaws), "The Physical Setting" (on Barnsdale, Sherwood Forest, etc., and a hypothesis about a Lancashire connection), "The Audience," "The Later Tradition," "Epilogue."]

Holt, J. C., and Toshiyuki Takamiya. "A New Version of 'A Rhyme of Robin Hood.'" English Manuscript Studies, 1100-1700 1 (1989): 213-221. [Re: Tokyo, Takamiya MS 51, fol. 1v: a 20-line fragment of "A Rhyme of Robin Hood" (a nonsense carol, only the first line of which refers to the outlaw), added to the flyleaf in a fifteenth-century hand: this is the only known MS version of a poem spoken by the character "Ignorance" in John Rastell's interlude, The Four Elements (ca. 1520) (the two versions are independent of each other).]

Ikegami, Masa. "The Language and the Date of A Gest of Robyn Hode." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 96 (1995): 271-281. ["Argues that the Gest is likely to have been written later than is usually thought, probably sometime in 15c., and suggests the NE Midlands as its place of provenance" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Johnston, Alexandra F. "The Robin Hood of the Records." In Playing Robin Hood: The Legend as Performance in Five Centuries. Ed. Lois Potter. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1998. Pp. 27-44. [On the evidence for the fifteenth-century "plays" and "games" of Robin Hood, found in the "Records of Early English Drama" [REED] series. To judge from the many references to Robin Hood games in the records, Robin Hood was a central figure in the social life of the sixteenth-century English village. Johnston disputes Wiles's identification of Robin Hood of the village fêtes with the Summer Lord, seeing these two as distinct and contrary roles in most villages.]

Jones, Dudley. "Reconstructing Robin Hood: Ideology, Popular Film, and Television." In A Necessary Fantasy?: The Heroic Figure in Children's Popular Culture. Ed. Dudley Jones and Tony Watkins. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 2000. Pp. 111-135.

Keen, Maurice H. "Robin Hood: A Peasant Hero." History Today 8 (1958): 684-689. [Rpt. in History Today 41.10 (Oct. 1991): 20-24.
     Abstract: "The legendary figure of Robin Hood personifies the aspirations and limits of England's oppressed common people of the 14th and 15th centuries. Robin Hood's enemies were petty local tyrants and land-owning nobles and clergymen, the same groups who were the targets of the failed peasant insurrection led by Wat Tyler in 1381. The violence committed by Robin Hood and his men is always done in the cause of justice; his role is not to destroy the old system but merely to right its wrongs. Portrayed in one tale as a disinherited nobleman, the character is always faithful to the king, just as the peasants of 1381 respected the sacred status of lordship and apparently had unswerving faith in Richard II. Robin Hood represents the ideal of good lordship, and his cult was the peasants' answer to the dilemma of loving a God above but hating the wrongs of his ministers below."]

Keen, Maurice H. "Robin Hood--Peasant or Gentleman?" Past and Present no. 19 (1961): 7-15. [Rpt. in Peasants, Knights, and Heretics: Studies in Medieval English Social History. Ed. R[odney] H[oward] Hilton. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. Pp. 258-266.
     Keen attempts to connect the rise of the Robin Hood legends to the Peasants' Revolt. In the 1976 reprinting, the article concludes with a note, however, which declares that, since writing the article, he has been persuaded by the arguments of J. C. Holt's "The Origins and Audience of the Ballads of Robin Hood," and so does not "believe that my attempts to relate the Robin Hood story to the social pressures of the period of the Peasants' Revolt will stand up to scrutiny."]

Kevelson, Roberta. Inlaws/Outlaws: A Semiotics of Systemic Interaction: "Robin Hood" and the "King's Law." Bloomington: Indiana University and Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press, 1977.

Knight, Stephen. "Bold Robin Hood: The Structures of a Tradition." Southern Review [Adelaide] 20.2 (July 1987): 152-167.

Knight, Stephen. "How Red was Robin Hood?" In Running Wild: Essays, Fictions and Memoirs Presented to Michael Wilding. Ed. David Brooks and Brian Kiernan. Sydney Studies in Society and Culture 22. New Delhi, India: Manohar, 2004. Pp. 13-28.

Knight, Stephen. "'Meere English flocks': Ben Jonson's The Sad Shepherd and the Robin Hood Tradition." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 129-144.

Knight, Stephen. "Rabbie Hood: The Development of the English Outlaw Myth in Scotland." In Bandit Territories: British Outlaws and their Traditions. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2008. Pp. 99-118. [On the Scottish chronicles and other evidence of a particular fascination with Robin Hood in medieval and early modern Scotland.]

Knight, Stephen. "Remembering Robin Hood: Five Centuries of Outlaw Ideology." European Journal of English Studies 10 (2006): 149-161.

Knight, Stephen. Robin Hood: A Complete Study of the English Outlaw. Oxford, and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1994.

Knight, Stephen. Robin Hood: A Mythic Biography. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2003. [Knight identifies four "kinds" of Robin Hood in the stories, to some extent as a chronological progression (a "biography"), but all four are currently available and viable. First came Robin Hood the yeoman-outlaw hero, who lived by "natural" law and ideals, and there is no sense in the early stories that his status will ever change (nor that he desires it to change); then came Robert, Earl of Huntington, the distressed nobleman, who is temporarily enjoying the pastoral setting of Sherwood while waiting for restoration. In the nineteenth century, Ritson and others found a way to combine these two into the outlaw of genteel birth but who is idealistic and aggressive in response to authority (Robin Hood is radically reshaped and "updated" in terms of the values for which he stands). And the twentieth-century versions are dominated by the Robin Hood of Hollywood (though, again, none of the three earlier kinds of Robin Hood have disappeared).]

Knight, Stephen, ed. Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer, 1999. [A collection of previously published articles. Contents: "The Robin Hood Poems," by Douglas Gray; "The Gest of Robin Hood Revisited," by J. B. Bessinger, Jr; "Who was Robin Hood?," by W. F. Prideaux; "Rymes of Robin Hood," by David C. Fowler; "Robin Hood as Summer Lord," by David Wiles; "The Earl of Huntington: The Renaissance Plays," by M. A. Nelson; "Keat's 'Robin Hood,' John Hamilton Reynolds, and the 'Old Poets'," by John Barnard; "The Good Old Times: Maid Marian," by Marilyn Butler; "The Legend Since the Middle Ages," by R. B. Dobson and J. Taylor; "Robin Hood," by Joseph Hunter; "The Origins of Robin Hood," by R. H. Hilton; "The Origins and Audience of the Ballads of Robin Hood," by J. C. Holt; "The Birth and Setting of the Ballads of Robin Hood," by J. R. Maddicott; "Some Further Evidence Concerning the Dating of the Origins of the Legend of Robin Hood," by David Crook; "Ballads and Bandits: Fourteenth-century Outlaws and the Robin Hood Poems," by Barbara A. Hanawalt; "Robin Hood," by Christopher Hill; "'Drunk with the Cup of Liberty': Robin Hood, the Carnivalesque, and the Rhetoric of Violence in Early Modern England," by Peter Stallybrass; "Aspects of Cultural Diffusion in Medieval England: Robin Hood," by Peter R. Coss; "The 'Mistery' of Robin Hood: A New Social Context for the Texts," by Richard Tardif; "An Outlaw and Some Peasants: The Possible Significance of Robin Hood," by Colin Richmond; "Robin Hood," by Sidney Lee; "Robin Hood," by Lord Raglan; "The Games of Robin Hood," by John Matthews; "The Paradoxes of Robin Hood," by Joseph Falaky Nagy; "Robin Hood on the Screen," by Jeffrey Richards; "Robin Hood on the Screen: From Legend to Film," by Rudy Behlmer; "Robin Hood: Men in Tights: Fitting the Tradition Snugly," by Stephen Knight.]

Knight, Stephen. "Robin Hood and the Printer." Trivium 31 (1999): 155-168. [On early printed editions of the Robin Hood ballads.]

Knight, Stephen. "Splitting Time's Arrow: Cultural History and the Robin Hood Myth." In History, Literature and Society: Essays in Honour of S. N. Mukherjee. Ed. Mabel Lee and Michael Wilding. Sydney Studies in Society and Culture 15. Delhi: Manohar 1997. Pp. 119-131.

Leach, Robert. "As You Like It: A 'Robin Hood' Play." English Studies 82.5 (Oct. 2001): 393-400.

Lewis, Brian. Robin Hood: A Yorkshire Man. Pontefract: Briton Press, 1994. [Subtitle on the cover: "The Case for the Wentbridge Robin Hood." Lewis argues that the original Robin Hood had nothing to do with Sherwood Forest or Nottingham, but his camp was at the site of what is now Wentbridge. The Sheriff of "Nottingham" was probably in fact the Sheriff of Pontefract, if not the Shire Reeve of Knottingley. The Prioress of Kirklees was probably a woman from Kirk Smeaton. This way, all of the locations named in the "Gest" would be within a four-mile radius of Wentbridge, much more realistic than the distances implied in the "corrupt" text. In Part II of the text, Lewis goes on to point out that a "Mary Magdalene" pilgrim badge was found in the Went valley under the new viaduct, suggesting that a Chapel of the Magdalene was located there--perhaps the chapel which the "Gest" states was founded in Barnsdale by Robin Hood.]

Lumpkin, Bernard. "The Ties that Bind: Outlaw and Community in the Robin Hood Ballads and the Romance of Eustace the Monk." In Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence, Transgression, and Justice. Ed. Thomas G. Hahn. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. Pp. 141-150.

Lumpkin, Bernard Isaac. "The Making of a Medieval Outlaw: Code and Community in the Robin Hood Legend, 1400-1600." Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1999. [DAI 60 (1999-2000): 2479A. Abstract: "The popular and enduring view of Robin Hood as the outlaw who steals from the rich in order to help the poor is a far-too generous description of the outlaw as he is portrayed in the medieval texts; nevertheless, this view captures an essential truth about the legend. Even though he breaks laws, Robin Hood represents more than a mere criminal because he subscribes to a code of higher principles: 'good yeomanry.' Good yeomanry dictates that the outlaws use their yeoman skills (archery) in the service of noble ideals (courtesy, piety). My dissertation analyzes the evolving portrayal of this code in Robin Hood entertainments, ballads, and plays of the period 1400-1600. Chapter One explores the relationship between Robin Hood and medieval English and French outlaw stories. Robin Hood uses the same set of strategies (deception, disguise) as the tricksters Reynard the Fox and Eustace the Monk, yet he eschews the selfish motivations of his French counterparts and embraces instead a communal cause similar to that of Hereward the Saxon in the Gesta Herewardi. Chapter Two explores the tension between the French tricksters' individualistic code and English outlaws' communal code as it is revealed in sixteenth-century Robin Hood entertainments and plays. Chapter Three analyzes the content of good yeomanry in the medieval Robin Hood ballads (particularly the seminal Gest of Robyn Hode) and how that code is tested in the context of games, sports, and combats. Chapter Four discusses historical plays that emphasize the Elizabethan vision of Robin Hood as the outlaw who maintains his communal ties but whose highest loyalties are to king and country. Eric Hobsbawm (on the 'noble robber' figure) and Benedict Anderson (on 'imagined communities') provide the critical framework for my analysis of Robin's Hood's code and community."]

Lundgren, Tim. "The Robin Hood Ballads and the English Outlaw Tradition." Southern Folklore 53 (1996): 225-247. [Part of a special issue entitled "Outlaws and Other Medieval Heroes." Abstract: "The writer surveys the development of the outlaw-hero tradition recorded in the chronicles and romances of the 10th through the 14th centuries. He examines how the tradition was modified in the late medieval Robin Hood ballads. He observes that early outlaw-hero narratives in England focused around issues of land-ownership and the conflicts generated when outside authority challenged locally established customs. He notes that the late medieval Robin Hood ballads are remarkable for their emphasis on the social class of the protagonist and for the care with which the outlaw's relations to those above him in the social scale are depicted."]

MacLean, Sally-Beth. "King Games and Robin Hood: Play and Profit at Kingston upon Thames." Research Opportunities in Renaissance Drama 29 (1986-1987): 85-93. [On the records of the Robin Hood plays/games held as part of Whitsuntide church ales at Kingston upon Thames in the early sixteenth century.]

MacLeod, Anne Scott. "Howard Pyle's Robin Hood: The Middle Ages for Americans." Children's Literature Association Quarterly 25.1 (Spring 2000): 44-48.

Maddicott, J. R. "The Birth and Setting of the Ballads of Robin Hood." English Historical Review 93 (1978): 276-299.

Marshall, John. "'Comyth in Robyn Hode': Paying and Playing the Outlaw at Croscombe." Leeds Studies in English 32 (2001): 345-368.

Marshall, John. "'Goon in-to Bernysdale': The Trail of the Paston Robin Hood Play." Leeds Studies in English 29 (1998): 185-217.

Marshall, John. "Playing the Game: Reconstructing Robin Hood and the Sheriff of Nottingham." In Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence, Transgression, and Justice. Ed. Thomas G. Hahn. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. Pp. 161-174.

Meyer, Richard E. "The Legacy of Robin Hood." Southwest Folklore 3.4 (1979): 23-31.

Mitchell, W[illiam] R[eginald]. The Haunts of Robin Hood. Clapham via Lancaster: Dalesman, 1970. [Guidebook to northern England, especially sites associated with Robin Hood.]

Nagy, Joseph Falaky. "The Paradoxes of Robin Hood." Folklore 91 (1980): 198-210. ["Argues that the Robin Hood ballads present a liminal world where basic social values are juxtaposed and mixed with their opposites, so as to highlight aspects of social life" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Nelson, Malcolm A[ntony]. The Robin Hood Tradition in the English Renaissance. Salzburg Studies in English Literature, Elizabethan and Renaissance Studies 14. Salzburg: Institut für englischen Sprache und Literatur, Universität Salzburg, 1973.

Nollen, Scott Allen. Robin Hood: A Cinematic History of the English Outlaw and His Scottish Counterparts. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Co., Publishers, 1999. ["From Errol Flynn to Kevin Costner to Daffy Duck, the bandit of Sherwood Forest has gone through a variety of incarnations on the way to becoming a cinematic staple. The historic Robin Hood--actually an amalgam of several outlaws of medieval England--was continually transformed by oral tradition to become the romantic and deadly archer-swordsman who 'robbed from the rich to give to the poor.' This image was reinforced by popular literature, song and, in the 20th century, cinema. This volume provides in-depth information on each film based on the immortal hero. In addition, other historical figures such as Scottish rebel-outlaws Rob Roy MacGregor and William Wallace are examined. Nollen also explores nontraditional representations of the legend, such as Frank Sinatra's Robin and the Seven Hoods and Westerns featuring the Robin Hood motif. A filmography is provided, including production information, and the text is highlighted by rare photographs, advertisements, and illustrations."]

Oakley-Brown, Liz. "Framing Robin Hood: Temporality and Textuality in Anthony Munday's Huntington Plays." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 113-128.

Ohlgren, Thomas H. "Edwardus Redivivus in A Gest of Robyn Hode." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 99 (2000): 1-29. [On Child 119 ("Robin Hood and the Monk"), Child 121 ("Robin Hood and the Potter"), and Child 117 ("A Gest of Robyn Hode") and their treatment of Edward III, King of England.]

Ohlgren, Thomas H. "The 'Marchaunt' of Sherwood: Mercantile Ideology in A Gest of Robyn Hode." In Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence, Transgression, and Justice. Ed. Thomas G. Hahn. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. Pp. 175-190. [Ohlgren argues that the "mercantile" interests of the "Gest" would suggest a wealthy Middle Class audience.]

Ohlgren, Thomas H. "Merchant Adventure in Robin Hood and the Potter." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 69-78.

Ohlgren, Thomas H. Robin Hood, the Early Poems, 1465-1560: Texts, Contexts, and Ideology. With an appendix by Lister M. Matheson. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2007. [Contents: "Lewed peple loven tales olde": Robin Hood and the Monk and the Manuscript Context of Cambridge, University Library MS Ff.5.48 -- "Pottys, gret chepe!": marketplace ideology in Robin Hood and the Potter and the Manuscript Context of Cambridge, University Library MS Ee.4.35 -- From script to print: Robin Hood and the printers -- The "marchaunt" of Sherwood: mercantile adventure in A lytell geste of Robyn Hode -- Conclusion -- Appendix: the dialects and language of selected Robin Hood poems, by Lister M. Matheson.]

Parker, David. "Popular Protest in 'A Gest of Robyn Hode.'" Modern Language Quarterly 32 (1971): 3-20. ["Interprets the long Robin Hood ballad in terms of contemporary class sympathies" (Atkinson, "English Folk Song: An Introductory Bibliography").]

Pearcy, Roy. "The Literary Robin Hood: Character and Function in Fitts 1, 2 and 4 of the Gest of Robyn Hode." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 60-68.

Pearsall, Derek. "Little John and the Ballad of Robin Hood and the Monk." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 42-50.

Perry, Evelyn Mooar. "Maid in Voyage: Maid Marian and Female Heroism in Twentieth-Century Retellings of the Legend of Robin Hood." Ph.D. diss., University of Rhode Island, 1999. [DAI 61 (2000-2001): 169A.]

Phillips, Graham, and Martin Keatman. Robin Hood: The Man Behind the Myth. London: Michael O'Mara, 1996. [Purports to identify the "real" Robin Hood (in fact, their theory is that there were three men who contributed different parts to the legend: Robert Hood of Warwick, and archer in the early 14th century (but who was not an outlaw), someone else who was an outlaw, and someone else who was born in Loxley). As far as I can tell, there are no new discoveries here: each of the three has been discussed in previous Robin Hood literature.]

Phillips, Helen. "Forest, Town, and Road: The Significance of Places and Names in Some Robin Hood Texts." In Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence, Transgression, and Justice. Ed. Thomas G. Hahn. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. Pp. 197-214.

Phillips, Helen, ed. Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. [Proceedings of the 1999 Robin Hood conference at Nottingham ("Robin Hood: Past and Present, Local and Global").
     Contents: Introduction / Helen Phillips -- Everybody's Robin Hood / Douglas Gray -- Little John and the ballad of Robin Hood and the monk / Derek Pearsall -- The hermit and the outlaw: new evidence for Robin Hood's death? / Richard Firth Green -- The literary Robin Hood: character and function in Fitts 1, 2 and 4 of the Gest of Robyn Hode / Roy Pearcy -- Merchant adventure in Robin Hood and the potter / Thomas H. Ohlgren -- 'Oublïé ai chevalerie': Tristan, Malory, and the outlaw-knight / Timothy S. Jones -- A grave tale / David Hepworth -- Framing Robin Hood: temporality and textuality in Anthony Munday's Huntington plays / Liz Oakley-Brown -- 'Meere English flocks': Ben Jonson's The sad shepherd and the Robin Hood tradition / Stephen Knight -- The noble peasant / Linda Troost -- Robin Hood, the prioress of Kirklees and Charlotte Brontë / Helen Phillips -- Robin Hood and the fairies: Alfred Noyes' Sherwood / Lois Potter -- Robin Hood in the landscape: place-name evidence and mythology / Michael R. Evans -- Appendix: written epitaphs of Robin Hood / David Hepworth.]

Phillips, Helen. "Robin Hood, the Prioress of Kirklees and Charlotte Brontë." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 154-166.

Pollard, A. J. Imagining Robin Hood: The Late Medieval Stories in Historical Context. London: Routledge, 2004. [Publisher's description: "A. J. Pollard takes us back to the earliest surviving stories of Robin Hood, the stories, tales and ballads of the fifteenth century and he re-examines the story of this fascinating figure. Setting out the economic, social and political context of the time, Pollard illuminates the legend of this yeoman hero and champion of justice as never before. . . . [T]he book looks at how Robin Hood was 'all things to all men' since he first appeared; speaking to the gentry, the peasants and all those in between. The story of the freedom-loving outlaw tells us much about the English nation, but tracing back to the first stories reveals even more about the society in which the legend arose."
     Contents: "Texts and Context"; "Yeomanry"; "A Greenwood Far Away"; "Crime, Violence and the Law"; "Religion and the Religious"; "Fellowship and Fraternity"; "Authority and the Social Order"; "History and Memory"; "Farewell to Merry England."]

Pollard, A. J. "Political Ideology in the Early Stories of Robin Hood." In Outlaws in Medieval and Early Modern England: Crime, Government and Society, c.1066-c.1600. Ed. John C. Appleby and Paul Dalton. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009. Pp. 111-128.

Potter, Lois, ed. Playing Robin Hood: The Legend as Performance in Five Centuries. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1998.

Potter, Lois. "Robin Hood and the Fairies: Alfred Noyes' Sherwood." In Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-Medieval. Ed. Helen Phillips. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2005. Pp. 167-180.

Potter, Lois, and Joshua Calhoun, eds. Images of Robin Hood: Medieval to Modern. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 2008. [Contents: Introduction / Lois Potter and Joshua Calhoun -- Part I: Medieval -- Origins and others -- Robin Hood: the earliest contexts / Stephen Knight -- The outlaw's song of Trailbaston, the Green man, and the facial machine / Stuart Kane -- Reynardine and Robin Hood: echoes of an outlaw legend in folk balladry / Stephen D. Winick -- Picturing Robin Hood in early print and performance: 1500-1590 / John Marshall -- Image and society -- "Merry" and "Greenwood": a history of some meanings / Helen Phillips -- The late medieval Robin Hood: good yeomanry and bad performances / Kimberly A. Thompson -- "From the Castle Hill they came with violence": the Edinburgh Robin Hood riots of 1561 / Michael Wheare -- Part II: Post medieval -- Image and word -- The work of Robin Hood art in an age of mechanical reproduction / Henry Griffy -- Robin Hood's home away from home: Howard Pyle and his art students / Jill May -- Word and image -- "There was something about that spoke of other things than rags and tatters": Howard Pyle and the language of Robin Hood / Alan T. Gaylord -- The play's the thing: Tom Sawyer re-enacts Robin Hood / Patricia Lee Yongue -- "A song of freedom": Geoffrey Trease's Bows against the barons / Michael R. Evans -- Picturing Marian: illustrations of Maid Marian in juvenile fiction / Sherron Lux -- Image and performance -- Male cross-dressing in Kabuki: Benten the thief / Yoshiko Uéno -- Figures of "Robin Hood" in the Chinese cultural imaginary / Jianguo Chen -- The images of Robin Hood and Don Juan in George Bernard Shaw's Man and superman / Judy B. McInnis -- To steal from the rich and give to the poor: Reginald de Koven's Robin Hood / Orly Leah Krasner -- Recovering Reginald de Koven's and Harry Bache Smith's "Lost" operetta Maid Marian / Lorraine Kochanske Stock.]

Prideaux, W. F. "Who Was Robin Hood?" Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism. Ed. Stephen Knight. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1999. Pp. 51-57

Pringle, Patrick. Stand and Deliver: Highwaymen from Robin Hood to Dick Turpin. London: Dorset Press, 1991.

Richardson, Christine. "The Figure of Robin Hood within the Carnival Tradition." REED Newsletter 22.2 ([Fall] 1997): 18-25. ["Studies carnivalesque reversals of power in May Games and ballads concerned with Robin Hood" (International Medieval Bibliography). [Records of Early English Drama]]

Richmond, Colin. "An Outlaw and Some Peasants: The Possible Significance of Robin Hood." Nottingham Medieval Studies 37 (1993): 90-101. [Rpt. in Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism. Ed. Stephen Knight. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1999. Pp. 363-376.
     "Examines ballads featuring Robin Hood as an expression of the consciousness and aspirations of a class of yeomen and husbandmen in the period 1350-1500;" considers Robin Hood as "a yeoman hero for husbandmen" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

"Robin Hood: Outlaw of the Forest" [TV program]. Prod. and dir. Peter Swain. An episode of Biography. The A & E Television Network. New York: A & E Home Video, 1995. [Edm. Pub. Library Videocassette 398.22 ROB. The scholars who participated include Stephen Knight, Brian Lewis, and Georgina Boyes.]

Simeone, William E. "The May Games and the Robin Hood Legend." Journal of American Folklore 64 (1951): 265-274. [On "folk plays" and games as part of village festivities.]

Simeone, William E. "Renaissance Robin Hood Plays." In Folklore in Action: Essays for Discussion in Honor of MacEdward Leach. Ed. Horace P[almer] Beck. Publications of the American Folklore Society, Bibliographical and Special Series 14. Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, 1962. Pp. 184-199. [On the "literary" Robin Hood plays of the 1590s.]

Singman, Jeffrey L. Robin Hood: The Shaping of the Legend. Contributions to the Study of World Literature 92. Westport, CT, and London: Greewood Press, 1998. [Contents: "Robyn Hod in Scherewod Stod" (on the "Gest" and the fifteenth-century ballads), "Robin Hoodes Daye" (on the fifteenth-century and early sixteenth-century Robin Hood plays and games), "Rather a Merry than an Mischievous Thief" (on sixteenth- and seventeenth-century developments in the legend), "Vain Tales of Robin Hood" (on the social significance of the legend of Robin Hood). There are also two appendices, the first a collection of the records regarding Robin Hood games in various locales, and the second a collection of the records concerning the Edinburgh Riots of 1561 (there was a major riot when the authorities suppressed the annual Robin Hood games).]

Skura, Meredith. "Anthony Munday's 'Gentrification' of Robin Hood." English Literary Renaissance 33 (2003): 155-180. [On Anthony Munday, Matthew Parker, etc.]

Spence, Lewis. "Robin Hood in Scotland." Chamber's Journal 7th ser. 18 (1928): 94-96. [On the Scottish chronicles and other evidence of a particular fascination with Robin Hood in medieval and early modern Scotland (including the association of William Wallace with Robin Hood).]

Stallybrass, Peter. "'Drunk with the Cup of Liberty': Robin Hood, the Carnivalesque, and the Rhetoric of Violence in Early Modern England." Semiotica 54 (1985): 113-145. [Rpt. in The Violence of Representation: Literature and the History of Violence. Ed. Nancy Armstrong and Leonard Tennenhouse. Essays in Literature and Society. London: Routledge, 1989. Pp. 45-76. Also rpt. in Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism, ed. Stephen Knight, pp. 297-327.]

Stapleford, Richard. "Robin Hood and the Contemporary Idea of the Law." Literature Film Quarterly 8 (1980): 182-187.

Stock, Lorraine Kochanske. "Lords of the Wildwood: The Wild Man, the Green Man, and Robin Hood." In Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence, Transgression, and Justice. Ed. Thomas G. Hahn. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. Pp. 239-249.

Stokes, James D. "Robin Hood and the Churchwardens of Yeovil." Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England 3 (1986): 1-25. [On "folk plays" and games as part of village festivities; more specifically, Stokes considers the evidence in churchwarden accounts for the practice of Robin Hood games in Yeovil, Somerset (based on research towards the REED "Somerset" volume). Stokes answers questions about who was chosen to play Robin Hood (various non-gentry members of the community, closely associated with the churchwardens), what the duties of the annual Robin Hood were (to organize the Whitsun Ale, including the entertainments associated with it, and to collect "alms"), etc. Part of the symbolic use of Robin Hood in such an event was to get every member of the parish to donate money in exchange for Robin Hood's "livery," so that the whole parish community becomes united as members of Robin Hood's "outlaw" band, feasting together in the "greenwood," and providing relief for the poor (or other maintenance of the parish) through their donations.]

Swan, George. "Robin Hood's 'Irish Knife.'" University of Mississippi Studies in English ns 11-12 (1993-1995): 51-80. [A contribution to the debate over whether the plays or the ballads of Robin Hood came first; Swan offers evidence that the ballads sometimes adapted the plays rather than the other way around.]

Talbot, Robert. "The Wakefield Master, Robin Hood, and the Agrarian Struggle of the Latter Middle Ages." Ph.D. diss., Duke University, 1995. [DAI 56 (1995-1996): 1768A. Abstract: "This dissertation discusses the medieval poems of Robin Hood and the roughly contemporary fifteenth-century plays of the Wakefield Master. I address both the prevailing view among literary historians that the Robin Hood poems cannot be read in terms of class struggle and the unchallenged assumption of literary interpretation that the Wakefield Master expresses a great deal of sympathy for the plight of the poor peasant. Through a detailed examination of the social context of competition between lords and peasants, such as rental strikes and repressive labor legislation, and a more probing reading of the texts themselves, I find just the opposite to be the case. I argue that while the poems of Robin Hood advocate peasant solidarity in social struggle, the plays of the Wakefield Master represent peasant resistance as a threat to a stable social order and disparage peasant community. The value of this work, then, is as a corrective to the available criticism which has obscured both the ideological motivation of the Wakefield Master and the voice of peasant resistance within the plays--a voice that can be inferred from of the Wakefield Master's efforts to repress it. Its importance also lies in my close reading of the medieval Robin Hood poems which calls attention to the voices of revolt in a literature which is not widely known and has yet to be subject to a detailed literary analysis."]

Tardif, Richard. "The 'Mistery' of Robin Hood: A New Social Context for the Texts." In Words and Worlds: Studies in the Social Role of Verbal Culture. Ed. Stephen Knight and S. N. Mukherjee. Sydney Studies in Society and Culture 1. Sydney: Sydney Association for Studies in Society and Culture, 1983. Pp. 130-145. [Contextualizes the Robin Hood stories, not in terms of the peasants (as do Hilton and Keen) and not in terms of the manorial gentry (as does Holt), but in terms of the "yeoman" of the towns, the journeymen of the craft guilds, who were also part of the "Peasants' Revolt" of 1381 (and some of whom are known to have organized fraternities, and there are reports of secret meetings in forests to plot against their masters in attempts to win better working conditions).]

Thompson, Kimberly A. "The Late Medieval Robin Hood: Good Yeomanry and Bad Performances." In Images of Robin Hood: Medieval to Modern. Ed. Lois Potter and Joshua Calhoun. Newark, DE: University of Deleware Press, 2008. Pp. 102-110.

Thompson, Kimberly A. Macuare. "The Late Medieval Robin Hood Ballads: Radical Economics Revisited." In British Outlaws of Literature and History: Essays on Medieval and Early Modern Figures from Robin Hood to Twm Shon Catty. Ed. Alexander L. Kaufman. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2011. Pp. 179-203.

Thorndike, A. H. "The Relationship of As You Like It to the Robin Hood Plays." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 4 (1902): 59-69. [[William Shakespeare]]

Walker, John William. The True History of Robin Hood. Illus. Ethel W. Walker. East Ardsley: E. P. Publishing, 1973. [Reprint of the 1952 ed. published by West Yorkshire Print Co., Wakefield; with a new index.]

Wasson, John M., ed. Devon. Records of Early English Drama. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986. P. 89. [The earliest reference to Robin Hood games or plays is recorded in Exeter in 1427 (cited in Stock, "Lords of the Wildwood," 239n4). In the "Receivers' Account Rolls" (in the Devon Records Office), for 1426-7, membrane 2*: around St. John the Baptist's Day (24 June; midsummer) there is an expenditure of 20 pence for "lusoribus ludentibus lusum Robyn Hood."]

Watson, Steve. "Touring the Medieval: Tourism, Heritage, and Medievalism, in Northumbria." Studies in Medievalism 11 (2001): 238-261. [Vol. 11 is a special issue, entitled Appropriating the Middle Ages: Scholarship, Politics, Fraud, ed. Tom Shippey and Martin Arnold.
     "Discusses sociological theories for the increased attraction of the Middle Ages in times of insecurity and change, especially with regard to figures like King Arthur and Robin Hood" (International Medieval Bibliography).]

Wiles, David. The Early Plays of Robin Hood. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1981. [Wiles considers the evidence for late medieval and Tudor games of Robin Hood, which appear to have been especially common in Scotland and in certain parts of southern England such as the Thames valley (Henley-on-Thames, etc.). The games are associated with Whitsuntide (not May Day), particularly the parish "Whitsun Ale," and often continued thereafter (sometimes travelling to neighbouring villages) well into June (to the summer solstice). The games are not merely imitations of the ballads but some of the ballads are just as likely to arise out of the games. Further, the games are not originally associated with Morris dances as some have argued (rather, the Robin Hood games are a late medieval development of the King games which are associated with springtime and the bringing in of the May and which go back to the mid-thireenth century, on which see E. K. Chambers, The Mediaeval Stage), but gradually Morris dancing comes to be part of the games and, eventually, replaces the Robin Hood games at the time when the games are being suppressed as "subversive." The games from the start involved dancing, lewd humour, combat games, and carnival festivities and misrule (a temporary leveling or inversion of hierarchy). While the ballads tend to confirm the monarchical status quo, the games are where we find Robin Hood stories becoming carnivalesque and truly antiauthoritarian, and they came to be suppressed in the Elizabethan period because they were perceived as real threats to the state (in 1549, for instance, the summer games in one town did grow into an all-out rebellion, which is now referred to by historians as Kett's Rebellion). Robin Hood in the games is the Summer Lord, a carnivalesque Lord of Misrule (and an outlaw who challenges social order); he is also a Green Man, an embodiment of Spring; and the Robin Hood play-games are the Spring equivalent of the Christmas mumming tradition (Robin Hood is the Spring equivalent of Christmas's St. George). Wiles also considers the characters of Maid Marion (who in some villages is the May Queen, but in other towns is a "man-woman," one of the Morris men in drag) and of Friar Tuck (the centre of much lewd and anticlerical humour). [Cf., however, Alexandra Johnston's "The Robin Hood of the Records," who disputes Wiles's identification of Robin Hood and the Summer Lord. The records indicate, in fact, that the Summer Lord and Robin Hood are distinct characters in most villages, the Summer Lord being a figure of order and the "director" of the feast and games, while Robin Hood is a figure of disorder (and a collector of "loot," which is later turned over for the use of the parish).] Includes in appendices the texts of several plays and May games. Also see the review of the book by J. A. Burrow ("Making with the Merry Men") in the Times Literary Supplement 1 Jan. 1982, p. 9.]

Wilson, Richard. "'Like the old Robin Hood': As You Like It and the Enclosure Riots." Shakespeare Quarterly 43 (1992): 1-19. [Shakespeare's pastoralism glosses over recent and hotly contested changes in forest use.]

Zellefrow, William Kenneth, Sr. "The Romance of Robin Hood." Ph.D. diss., University of Colorado, 1974. [DAI 35 (1974-1975): 5370A. On A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode in the light of the romance tradition, specifically comparing it with "King Horn," "Havelok the Dane," "Athelston," and "Gamelyn."]


Stephen R. Reimer
English and Film Studies; University of Alberta; Edmonton, Canada
Created: 2 July 2002; Last revised: 20 Sept. 2011

email: Stephen.Reimer@UAlberta.Ca
URL: <http://www.ualberta.ca/~sreimer/engl615d/615d-bib.htm>