These path-breaking essays define the territory for a Canadian social philosophy of ethnicity. They address the major issues of immigration, discrimination, consumerism, government policy, ethics, gender, media, and political strategy. From a variety of perspectives, the authors enter a dialogue that illuminates the central role of ethnicity in Canadian society. This book lays the groundwork for an independent political philosophy of ethnicity that can confront economic and state pressures.
Ian H. Angus teaches in the Department of Communication at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. He is the author of Technique and Enlightenment: Limits of Instrumental Reason (1984), and has written several articles on philosophy, technology, communication, and ethics. [more]
Twelve essays provide a portrait of Ukrainian Canadians analyzing the various ways in which the Ukrainian population has changed over several decades. Contributors include Wsevolod W. Isajiw, Olga Kuplowska, Jean E. Wolowyna, Charles B. Keely, Ivan Myhul, Michael Isaacs, William Darcovich, and many others. See Ukrainians and Alberta in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine. [more]
“The anthology is likely to be a milestone in the development of this particular ethnic literature. Subsequent anthologies will be able to measure what has happened and what will be happening in the next few years and set it against Yarmarok.” - Henry Kreisel
Yarmarok (pronounced as spelled, with the stress on the first syllable), is the Ukrainian word for fair or marketplace. It effectively conveys both the spirit and the substance of this first anthology of Ukrainian writing in Canada to be published in the English language. It includes a wealth of literary works, in a variety of genres and styles, by an array of poets, playwrights and prose writers. Some of the contributors to this volume are at the beginning of their literary careers, while others are established professionals with a long list of creative accomplishments to their credit. The collection is almost equally divided between post-Second World War immigrants who write in Ukrainian (many available here for the first time in translation), and the Anglophone progeny of earlier Ukrainian settlers - all of whom first appeared in print in Canada after 1945.
Jars Balan is the editor of Identifications: Ethnicity and the Writer in Canada (1982), and author of the illustrated history, Salt and Braided Bread: Ukrainian Life in Canada. Yuri Klynovy (d. 1985) was the long-time president of the Ukrainian Canadian Writers’ Association, ‘Slovo.’ The editor of numerous books, a collection of his essays and reviews was published under the title Moim synam, moim pryiateliam (To my sons and to my friends) in 1981. [more]
Presents selected papers from a conference held in Edmonton in 1979, which examined the relationship between ethnicity and the literature of selected writers in Canada. Includes the following essays: “The ‘Ethnic’ Writer in Canada” (H. Kreisel); “Expectations and Reality in Early Ukrainian Literature in Canada” (Y. Slavutych); “Canadian Hungarian Literature” (G. Bisztray); “Ukrainian Influences in George Ryga’s Work” (J. Balan); “Icelandic Canadian Literature” (D. Arnason); “Ukrainian Emigré Literature in Canada” (D. Struk); “The Unheard Voices: Ideological or Literary Identification of Canada’s Ethnic Writers” (J. Young); and “An Introduction to Canadian Yiddish Writers” (S. Levitan). The volume also contains two panel discussions on “Ethnicity and Identity - the Question of One’s Literary Passport” (P.G. di Cicco, M. Campbell, A. Suknaski, R. Wiebe) and “Hyphenated Canadians - the Question of Consciousness” (M. Haas, M. Kostash, G. Ryga, Y. Slavutych). [more]
Published in association with the Lviv-based Piramida Press, Kliuch zhuravliv (A Flight of Cranes) is an almost 800-page novel portraying the lives of two generations of immigrants from western-Ukrainian Galicia region to Western Canada. In this major literary work, Sigmund Bychinsky offers a fascinating story dealing with the pioneer Ukrainian experience in Canada and covering a time span from 1892 to 1922.
Depicting the fate of several families from the village of Opari in the Drohobych district, the novel describes their decision to leave, the trip overseas, and the difficult first years on a homestead. In a compelling manner, the text documents the gradual adaptation of the main protagonists, the Fedyk family, and their fellow emigrants to their new lives on the Canadian prairies. Assimilation, discrimination, participation in electoral politics and the Great War, and bitter religious rivalries among Ukrainians are among the many issues dealt with in the novel, which includes loosely autobiographical episodes, as well as historical events.
Bychinsky began work on his novel during the early 1930s and completed it in 1945. However, despite his efforts to publish his manuscript in Winnipeg, the epic tale never made it into print, and is now published for the first time.
Kliuch zhuravliv is not only an important landmark in the Ukrainian Canadian literature, but also a unique historical document dealing with a significant and understudied chapter in the history of Canada. The author himself aptly defined his novel as: “a chronicle and a novel of real type, without embellishment, but with a strong desire to portray faithfully the lives of our [Ukrainian] folk in a foreign environment … and among foreign people."
A native of Urman near Berezhany in western Ukraine, Sigmund (Zenon) Bychinsky (1880-1947) emigrated to the United States in 1904 before relocating to Canada three years later. He lived in Winnipeg, Edmonton, and the Vegreville area from 1907 to 1910 before moving back to Pennsylvania for six years. From 1917 to 1919 he resided near Canora, Saskatchewan, then returned to Winnipeg, where he edited the newspaper Kanadiis’kyi ranok (Canadian Dawn) until 1928. During the next two years, Sigmund and his wife Anna lived and worked as Protestant missionaries in western Ukraine, after which they permanently quit Europe for North America, spending the remainder of their lives in the state of Michigan.
In Canada, Sigmund served for a time as the editor of Kanadiis’kyi farmer (Canadian Farmer), while simultaneously overseeing the publication of the first collections of original Ukrainian-Canadian writing. Among his many literary achievements, Sigmund wrote biographies of Martin Luther and Jan Hus, as well a book about Protestantism; wrote a groundbreaking Ukrainian-language history of Canada; and, with his wife, Anna, played a major role in assisting Dr. Alexander Jardine Hunter in the translation and publication of The Kobzar of Ukraine (1922), featuring selected poems by Taras Shevchenko. In the realm of prose fiction, Bychinsky wrote a handful of short stories set in the New World, several of which appeared in the Lviv journal. [more]
A classic of Canadian literature. A novel about a young Ukrainian girl growing up in Western Canada.
"Yellow Boots is at once an ethno-cultural documentary, a people’s portrait-of-the-artist, and a feminist fable of identity. In its articulation of the dignity and the value of immigrant life regardless of race, class, gender or nationality it is a landmark in the development of a truly open and representative Canadian literature."
Janice Kulyk Keefer
"Yellow Boots has triumphantly stood the test of time. The pioneering society it chronicles has long since passed into history, but the poeple remain vibrantly alive. Lilli’s struggle for independence is particularly moving and is still relevant for young women today."
Co-published with NeWest Press.[more]
A chronological examination of government reports, theses, novels, magazine articles and writings by educators and churchmen prior to 1970.
Ukrainian Canadians: A survey of their portrayal in English-language works provides an important guide to the current state of Ukrainian-Canadian studies. The survey highlights the changing place of Ukrainians in Canadian society as the author examines works from the early articles and reports by Anglo-Celtics who were concerned that this peasant community should be assimilated quickly into the mainstream of British-Canadian life, to the theses of recent years by students of Ukrainian-Canadian history which reflect the maturity ofn this community, whose members have taken their place among the professional and business classes and who have become a highly visible and vocal minority in Canada’s “third element".
The author takes a chronological look at all kinds of works: government reports, theses, novels, magazine articles, and works by educationalists and churchmen, to show changes in areas of concentration, dominant themes, and in emphases and interpretation. Since the war, research into Ukrainian-Canadian development has been conducted from historical, sociological, demographic, and philological perspectives and these are all examined. The book concludes with a bibliography of consulted sources, supplemented by biographical sketches of those authors on whom information is available, and a note on existing Ukrainian-Canadian bibliographies. [more]
A description of the construction, history, and use of the instrument in Canada.
This volume appears in the Canadian Series in Ukrainian Ethnology, co-published with the Huculak Chair of Ukrainian Culture and Ethnography. [more]
Research by Ruth Lysak-Martynkiw and Nadia Kreptul
Colour photographs of Ukrainian textiles and weaving artifacts displayed at the Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village near Edmonton in 1988.
Co-published with the Friends of Ukrainian Village Society, with support from the Alberta Ukrainian Commemorative Society. [more]
Ethnography is the study of everyday people in cultural context. It involves the study of songs and stories, material culture, customs, art and all types of traditional elements in life. Customs at Christmas, at weddings and other special times reveal the soul of a community. Ukrainian folklore has been associated with the study of village traditions in previous centuries; now it also includes 20th century culture, both in Ukraine and in Canada. The Canadian Series in Ukrainian Ethnology publishes scholarship dealing with the culture and folklore of Ukrainians and Ukrainians in Canada. It is published jointly by the Huculak Chair of Ukrainian Culture and Ethnography and the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies.
The Word and Wax explores the fascinating medical folk ritual of wax pouring used by some members of the Alberta Ukrainian community as a means of driving away fear and curing minor ailments. The ceremony is of the magico-religious and oral-incantational genre of folk medicine, incorporating Christian as well as non-Christian imagery. The Word and Wax is essential reading to anyone interested in the rich folkloric tradition brought to Alberta by early Ukrainian immigrants to Canada.
The volume includes transliterations of the incantations of nine wax healers who practice or have practiced in Alberta. [more]
A comprehensive, interdisciplinary examination of the life of the first Ukrainian immigrants. The volume consists of eight parts. It begins with a prologue by Roman Onufrijchuk which sets the stage for understanding the difficult process of cultural transmission and accomodation, made even more difficult for the first Ukrainian settlers who were from the peasant strata as well as pioneers. It ends with a more theoretical epilogue by Ian H. Angus that points up the unique significance of ethnocultural communities in rescuing Canadian identity from the universalizing grip of homogenizing cultures like that of the United States.
In between, the volume explores (in the second part) the historical conditions in Western Ukraine and western Canada at the turn of the century, the overall nature of the rual Ukrainian bloc settlement in east central Alberta (the largest in Canada) and the contrast between the cluster village in Ukraine and the railroad village in the West. In this part John-Paul Himka presents the hypothesis which is tested indirectly by subsequent presentations: “... Ukrainian immigrants in Canada were at first not only culturally more traditional/backward than most Canadians but also more traditional/backward than their contemporaries in Western Ukraine."
The next four parts on material culture, the life of women, customs and beliefs, and cultural institutions and organizations in the new world could be said to constitute the heart of the volume. The life of the first immigrants is analyzed in detail in terms of the problems of shelter, agricultural technology, the status and responsibilities of women, the endurance of customs and beliefs and the evolution of institutions and organizations that were similar to, yet distinct from, those in the Old Country. The analysis is as strong as the field work on which it depends, and there is no doubt a lesson here for all ethnocultural groups: research in the field should begin early while most of the immigrant generation is still alive.
The seventh part on the “open-air” museum may be seen as the applied part of the conference and is, of course, most directly relevant to the needs and concerns of the Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village. As a type, the village has numerous models in other countries and its problems like its accomplishments are in some respects unique.
Published in association with Historic Sites Services, Alberta Culture. [more]
What are the visible symbols through which Ukrainians in Canada express their identity? The twenty-three essays in this volume address various aspects of the codes, archetypes, and symbols that recur in Ukrainian-Canadian material culture, art, music, dance and mores. [more]
Translated by Louis T. Laychuk
A translation of the memoirs of William Czumer - a chronicle of Ukrainian life in Canada during the first twenty-five years of settlement.
William Andrew (Vasyl Andrii) Czumer, a pioneer schoolteacher, was born on 5 February 1882 in the village of Drohoyiv, Peremyshl County, Galicia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian empire. He arrived in Winnipeg in 1903 and, after a brief stint as a railroad worker, became a member of the first class to enrol in the Ruthenian training School established by the government of Manitoba in Winnipeg in 1905 to prepare teachers for schools in the Ukrainian settlements. He taught in Manitoba and Alberta (1907-13), operated the Smoky Lake Mercantile Store in Smoky Lake, Alberta (1921-38) and helped to establish Merchants’ Wholesale in Edmonton, from which he retired in 1961. William Czumer died on 2 August 1963, leaving behind a fascinating collection of early memoirs which are presented here for the first time in complete and unabridged English translation. [more]
A biography of the Canadian Slavist, linguist, literary scholar, and translator Constantine Andrusyshen (1907–83). Andrusyshen was a well-known literary scholar and translator during his lifetime. The chief legacy of his considerable intellectual effort, his Ukrainian-English Dictionary, continues to be popular years after his death. But his role in the development of Slavic studies in Canada overshadows even this contribution in importance, for Andrusyshen was one of the country’s most important pioneers in this field. His appointed in 1945 … [more]
The Politics of Multiculturalism is the memoir of an academic whose expertise in the education of Canadian minorities led him to take on a major political role in the Canadian multicultural movement. Born in the Ukrainian bloc settlement of east-central Alberta and educated at the universities of Alberta, Minnesota, and Harvard, Manoly R. Lupul combined the outlook of a liberal secular humanist with a conviction that modern society could be enriched by the cultural potential of ethnicity. His concern for the expansion of minority linguistic and cultural rights in Canada was sharpened by a direct encounter with the policy of Russification in Ukraine during a sabbatical leave in the late 1960s.
Dr. Lupul’s involvement in Canadian multiculturalism began with the drafting and passage of Alberta’s first school legislation for bilingual programs (1971); similar laws were subsequently enacted in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. He went on to serve as an executive member of the Canadian Consultative Council on Multiculturalism and a member of the Alberta Cultural Heritage Council. In 1976 Dr. Lupul became the founding director of the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Alberta, the first publicly funded institution of its kind outside Ukraine. He contributed significantly to the development of the multiculturalism section of the Canadian constitution (1982).
This memoir, based not only on personal writings and recollections but also on extensive documentation, brings together much information previously unavailable in print. In his frank account, Dr. Lupul offers unrivalled first-person insight into the aspirations that gave rise to Canada’s policy of multiculturalism and the interplay of forces that shaped and blunted its development. The book will appeal to readers interested in Canadian culture and politics and, more generally, in the problem of promoting minority-group rights in democratic societies. [more]
The making of modern Ukrainian identity is often reduced to a choice between “Little Russia” and “Ukraine.” In this collection of essays Making Ukraine: Studies on Political Culture, Historical Narrative, and Identity, Zenon E. Kohut shows that the process was much more complex, involving Western influences and native traditions that shaped a distinct Ukrainian political culture and historiography. The author stresses the importance of the early modern period, in which the Ukrainian elite adapted the legacy of Kyivan Rus’ into its conception … [more]
A collection of more than 400 of the most pertinent documents relating to the origin, growth, and decline of Ukrainian pro-communist organizations. The content of this work is divided into three sections: The Roots of Ukrainian Communism, 1904–18, The Inter-War Period, 1918–40, The Second World War and After.[more]
It is a little-known fact that during the First World War and in the immediate postwar period (1914–1920), Canadian Internment Operations imprisoned more than 8,000 individuals. The majority of those interned were civilian non-combatants, Ukrainians and other immigrants who had come to Canada from the Austro-Hungarian Empire to work in industry or to settle on western homesteads. Twenty-four receiving stations and internment camps were established across Canada. A camp at Banff/Castle Mountain operated between 1915 and 1917. More than 600 … … [more]
This collection of eight essays provides a detailed examination of the wartime experience of Canada’s Ukrainian community. Chapters include: The Internment of Ukrainians in Canada The Enemy Aliens and the Canadian General Election of 1917 The Ukrainian Image: Loyal Citizen or Disloyal Alien Ukrainian Canadians and the Wartime Economy Ethnic and Class Tensions in Canada, 1918-20: Anglo-Canadians and the Alien Worker Aliens in Britain and the Empire During the First World War Ukrainian Canadian Response to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919… [more]
Annotated index to Український Голос (Ukrainian Voice), a major weekly newspaper published in Winnipeg, Canada, since 1910. Volume 6, Period of Further Consolidative Efforts and Demographic Dispersion, 1950–1959 Volume 7, Period of Continued Organizational Consolidation and First Steps to Obtain Constitutional Recognition, 1960–1969 Volume 8, Striving for a New Canada: Official Biligualism and Multiculturalism, 1970–1979 … [more]
The Ukrainian experience in Canada is placed here firmly within the context of Canadian history. First, the Ukrainian experience in Canada is placed firmly within the context of Canadian history, as well as the history of immigrants and immigration. The social and economic forces that “pushed” Ukrainian peasants out of eastern Galicia and northern Bukovyna and “pulled” them to Canada are examined. The efforts of French-Canadian Roman Catholic primates in western Canada to subordinate the immigrants to their authority are analyzed. Attempts by Anglo-Protestant social reformers to “Canadianize” the immigrants through the medium of Protestant missions and the public school system are also discussed.
The book’s second major subject is the impact of the Ukrainian national movement, which penetrated the villages of eastern Galicia and northern Bukovyna during the last quarter of the nineteenth century and shaped the outlook of the men who assumed leadership within the Canadian immigrant community. In particular, it demonstrates how the national movement’s radical, secular and populist precepts fuelled anticlericalsim, sustained opposition to machine politics and heavy-handed methods of “Canadianization,” and promoted self-reliance and resistance to economic exploitation. Ukrainian Candian attitudes to the First World War, the Russian Revolution and the struggle for independence are also considered.
Martynowych’s account also delves into the everyday lives of ordinary Ukrainian immigrants in rural bloc settlements, urban colonies, frontier construction camps and one-industry towns from coast to coast. An attempt has been made to survey material conditions of life, to examine occupational structures and entrepreneurial activity, and to consider social differentiation and the emergence of class divisions. The formation, proliferation and activities of local institutions such as parishes, reading clubs, drama groups, co-operatives, national homes, socialist circles and labour temples are also analyzed, as are the efforts of Ukrainian nationalists and socialists to transmit their ideologies and mobilize popular support through such institutions.
Orest T. Martynowych studied history at the University of Manitoba (B.A. Hons., M.A.) and at the Univeristy of Toronto. He was Research Associate at the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, University of Alberta, from 1985 to 1989.
Published in commemoration of the centennial of Ukrainian emigration to Canada. … [more]
A guide to twenty-six churches in the historic Ukrainian settlement area east of central Alberta. Published in association with the Inventory of Potential Historic Sites, Alberta Culture and Multiculturalism. [more]
his title represents the proceedings of the first scholarly conference to examine the Ukrainian religious experience in Canada. Sixteen scholarly essays explore liturgical traditions, ecclesiastical traditions, historical factors in the maintenance of religion and ethnicity, along with case studies. Chapters include: The Vatican, Kremlin and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church A Study in the Ethnic Use of Religious Symbols The Role of the Patriarchal Movement in the Ukrainian Catholic Church among others. A fascinating fourteen page essay … [more]
This volume contains the proceedings of the first conference in Canada on research into Ukrainian-language education. Eighteen articles examine the teaching of Ukrainian in partial-immersion classrooms in Canada, focusing on the Ukrainian-English classrooms in Edmonton. Chapters include: Literary Ukrainian and Its Dialects English Calques in Canadian Ukrainian Ukrainian-Language Acquisition in the Immersion Classroom Form-Classes (Parts-of-Speech) and Their Frequency in Canadian Children’s Ukrainian Language and Canadian … [more]
John D. Pihach’s Ukrainian Genealogy is a guide to tracing one’s Ukrainian ancestry in Europe. Consideration is also given to North American records that are specifically Ukrainian or relate to the immigrant experience. Because the overwhelming majority of people of Ukrainian origin in Canada and the United States have roots in western Ukraine or southeastern Poland, the guide concentrates on the resources of those regions. This handbook is intended primarily for those whose ethnic roots are Ukrainian, although some of the material in it may be useful to other groups with roots in Ukraine.
Chapters 1 and 2 discuss general topics that are preliminary to research. Personal names are examined in chapter 3. Chapters 4 and 5 outline the early religious experiences of Ukrainians in North America and the church records that are available. Chapter 6 addresses the crucial question of determining the name of the European ancestral community. Chapter 7 explains how to locate places on a map, describes the various administrative divisions that existed in the past, and looks at the many types of maps that pinpoint the location of the ancestral village and even the actual home. The resources for learning the history of a specific region are covered in chapter 8. Chapters 9 and 10 are devoted to church-based birth, marriage, and death records, the principal overseas genealogical resource. Chapters 11 and 12 survey other overseas materials. Several appendixes describe Ukrainian transliteration schemes and present a key to the scripts of the languages that were used in record keeping; provide a starting point for research by other ethnic groups with roots in Ukraine; and list useful Web sites.
John D. Pihach received a B.Sc. degree in physics from the University of British Columbia and studied studio fine arts at Vancouver Community College. He has spent many years wandering about Asia and Europe and has made a dozen trips to Eastern Europe, where he has done genealogical research at several archives. He works as a weather observer and is the library chairperson of the East European Genealogical Society in Winnipeg and author of several articles in Galician genealogy. [more]
This issue features two essays on Vasile Avramenko, a brief history of the Ukrainian Youth Association, as well as articles on Father Nicholas Shumsky and the struggle for a Ukrainian Catholic identity, surveillance of the Ukrainian community in Canada by the Royal Canadian Mounties, and a feminist re-read of Vera Lysenko’s &dlquo;Yellow Boots.” [more]
This issue marks the one hundredth anniversary of Ukrainian Settlement in Canada in 1991-1992. As is fitting for such a significant milestone, the focus of the volume is historical, although it does not, except as background, concern the pioneer immigration itself. The essays presented here begin to address the issues of the interwar years … [more]