The University of Alberta offers a MD/PhD Program that is open to all students. The program allows students to earn both a MD and a PhD degree, and prepares them for a career as a medical-research scientist. Acceptance into the Program is contingent upon the student having already been accepted into the MD Program, approval of the MD/PhD Committee, and on obtaining funding (i.e., a graduate studentship, supervisors support, or external support). The PhD typically takes four to six years to complete (depending upon the department), while four years is required to complete the MD degree. In general, the student completes the first two years of the MD program, transfers into a PhD program, and when the PhD is completed returns to the final two years of the MD program. Admission requires that the student has completed the pre-professional medical program and normally holds a Bachelor's degree, a graduate degree, or transfers in from a graduate program (either MSc or PhD).