Active learning is a general description of any instructional strategy that is used in the classroom to engage students in considering the consequences of their learning or to apply their knowledge to solving problems. This is in contrast to traditional lecturing where the professor does all the talking delivering course content which students passively receive. There are many examples of active learning: think-pair-share, minute papers, peer instruction (polling), team-based learning, problem-based learning, case-based learning, among others. Many of these structured active learning strategies require students to prepare outside of the classroom (e.g. assigned reading or podcasts) in order to be able to apply their learning inside the classroom. The right mix of lecturing and active learning will vary by students' year level and by course objectives as well as an instructor's past experience teaching the course.