Number of Different Words (NDW) measures the number of unique words (also referred to as types in language sampling). Total Number of Words (TNW) counts all the words in the transcript (also referred to astokens).
- Mark boundaries for grammatical morphemes.
- Save a new copy of your transcript (so you have a version with and without hyphens). Adding NW (number of words) to the file name identifies it as the transcript which has morpheme boundaries marked.
- Go through the entire transcript and place hyphens between word stems the following grammatical morphemes:
- plural –s, (e.g., balloon-s)
- third person singular –s, (e.g., run-s)
- possessive –'s, (e.g., boy-'s)
- present progressive –ing, (e.g., bounce-ing)
- past tense –ed, (e.g., bounce-ed)
Note that spelling should be altered (like in 4 and 5 above) when letters are doubled or dropped, so CLAN can recognize the stem of the word. This means that play-ing and play-edwill be counted as two instances of the word play. Separate morphemes even in words that children have mismarked, for example fall-ed, ate-ed. Do not mark boundaries between derivational morphemes (e.g., –ful in beautiful) because it is not clear that children recognize the between stem words and words with derivational morphemes. For example, it is not clear that a child recognizes that beauty and beautiful have the same root, therefore CLAN counts these as two separate words.
- Calculate NDW and TNW using the freq (frequency) command.
- Type freq +t*CHI +r6 –s”[+ bch]” +s”*-%%”
- Click File In and select the correct .cha transcript (marked with hyphens).
- Click Add-> then Done.
- Click Run in the Commands window. This command generates a list of words. The number beside each word indicates how often that particular word occurred in the transcript. A summary of the number of types and tokens is provided at the bottom of the word list. A shortened sample output window is shown below. In this example, NDW = 159 and TNW = 452.
Note: If you receive error messages while running any CLAN commands, check to ensure that your 'lib' (library) and 'mor lib' (morphological library) directories indicate the correct folders. For more information, see the Installing and Running CLAN section of Transcribing Narrative Samples.
Top of Page