Administration of the Instrument

General administration procedures

The stories are administered in such a way that the child is expected to use language to tell the story – pointing is not acceptable because the listener cannot see the pictures.

To administer the stories, the examiner holds the binder up facing the child so that the examiner cannot see the pictures. The examiner turns the pages as the child tells the story. It is important to follow the child’s cues on when to turn the page. This means judging when the child appears to be finished telling the story for a particular picture, usually by nonverbal cues such as looking at the examiner. Sometimes the child will tell the examiner to turn the page – but do not routinely wait for the child to do so, as it would interrupt the flow of storytelling. Allow the child to select a sticker after telling a set of 3 stories.

The stories must be audiorecorded.

Either set A or set B can be administered first, but within a set, the stories must be administered in order.

Instructions and Allowed Prompts for the Training Story

The purpose of the training story is to familiarize the child with the storytelling format and to provide assistance in getting started if necessary. Note that more explicit prompts are permitted with the training story than with the test stories. You can use the test story prompts with the training story, but do not use the training story prompts with the test stories. Be very careful to use the correct prompts with the test stories so that the stories are administered as they were to the normative sample.

Instructions to child:

I have some pictures that tell a story. First I’ll show you all the pictures and we’ll go back to the beginning of the story, and then I want you to look at the pictures and tell me the story that you see in the pictures. I won’t be able to see the pictures so you need to tell me the story really well so I can understand it. Okay?

If the child tells “a story”: Proceed to the first test story.

If the child is inexplicit (e.g., He’s going in there):

You say: Remember I can’t see the pictures. Can you start again? (ONLY for the training story – do not use for the test stories)

If the child labels items in the picture rather than telling a story:

You say: You’ve told me what’s in the picture - now can you tell me a story about the picture?

If the child again labels or says nothing:

You say: How would you start your story?

If the child has trouble getting started (e.g., says nothing, says “I don’t know”, continues to label):

You say: Would you start “One day,” or “Once upon a time”?

If the child repeats “one day” or “once upon a time” and stops:

You say: That’s right, [repeat what child said and pause].

If the child still has difficulty:

Repeat what the child started with and add: ...there was a boy who... [pause].

If the child still has difficulty:

Complete the sentence for the child: One day there was a boy who went shopping. [Note: this prompt is only for the practice story – don’t use it with the test stories.]

If the child has trouble with later pages:

You say: Then what happens in the story?

Instructions and Allowed Prompts for the Narrative Norm Stories (Sets A and B)

Do not ask the child questions or give any prompts other than the ones described below. You can give neutral responses as the child tells the story such as “uh-huh,” “oh,” “okay”.

Instructions:

Now I have some more picture stories. First I’ll show you all the pictures. Then we’ll go back to the beginning of the story, and then I want you to look at the pictures and tell me the story that you see in the pictures. I won’t be able to see the pictures so you need to tell me the story really well so I can understand it. Okay?

If the child has trouble getting started:

You say: How would you start your story? [pause]

If that doesn’t work:

You say: Would you start “one day”, or “once upon a time?”

If child says “one day/once upon a time” and stops:

You say: “oh”, [repeat what child said]. [pause]

If child still doesn’t respond or says “don’t know”:

You say: What happens in the story?

If child says nothing or “don’t know”:

You say: Look at the pictures – what do you think is happening in the story?

If child still can’t get started or go on:

You say: Let’s try the next page.

TERMINATE TESTING IF THE CHILD CANNOT GET STARTED AFTER TWO PAGES OF THE FIRST TEST STORY.

If the child mumbles or says something you don’t understand:

You say: I didn’t hear that – could you repeat that? [You can also remind the child after s/he repeats to talk in a clear voice so that the microphone can hear the story.]

If child wants you to label something in the picture:

You say: What do YOU think?

If child says nothing or “don’t know”:

You say: This is your story – you get to decide. [pause]

If the child is still stuck on a label:

You say: Let’s not worry about that – tell me the rest of your story.

Any time the child gets stuck in the story:

Look at the child expectantly and wait for the child to continue. Be sure and give the child time to respond. Don’t yield to the pressure to fill in the silence. Only give prompts when it appears that the child is not going to say anything. A good strategy is to repeat the last thing the child said rather than giving more explicit help.