Lesson 3 - Trick or Treaty



Angugamwe'I Angugamwe'I is a Mi'kmaq word used to describe Treaties and means, "adding to our relations."
Comprehensive Claims/modern day treaties Comprehensive Claims, or "modern day treaties" are land use and title agreements made between the Canadian government and Aboriginal peoples. This era of Treaty making is often cited as commencing in the early 1970s with the Nisga'a in B.C. and the James Bay Cree and Inuit in northern Quebec. (Reference)
Confederation Canadian Confederation brought together British colonies in North America under the unified Dominion of Canada in 1867.
Department of Indian Affairs The Department of Indian Affairs refers to a branch of the Canadian Federal Government responsible for policies relating to Aboriginal peoples. The Department currently goes under the name Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada.
Gusweñta Gusweñta is a Two Row Wampum Belt that serves as a symbolic and binding agreement made in 1645 between Haudenosaunee leaders and Dutch colonial officials. Like other Wampum Belts, this living treaty is made up of purple and white wampum beads. The three rows of white beads each represent the shared tenets of friendship, peace, and 'forever.'
International Law International law is an agreement of rules set between sovereign states and nations.
Malliseet (or Wolastoqiyik) The Malliseet (also referred to as Wolastoqiyik) are an Indigenous people whose territories include present day Maine in the U.S. and parts of Quebec and New Brunswick in Canada. The Malliseet are part of the Wabanaki Confederacy which includes four other Indigenous peoples, including the Mi'kmaq, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki and Penobscot. (Reference | Reference)
Manitoba Act The Manitoba Act of 1870 helped establish the Province of Manitoba and included a provision for 1.4 million acres of land to be reserved for the children of Metis heads of household.
Northwest Resistance of 1885 The Northwest Resistance of 1885 was a series of battles fought between Canadian forces and Indigenous peoples in the prairies. The main battle took place near present day Batoche, Saskatchewan where the Métis resistance under the guidance of Louis Riel and Gabriel Dumont lost against a much larger colonial army.
Numbered Treaties Numbered Treaties refers to a series of agreements (1-11) made between two sovereign Nations - the Dominion of Canada and Indigenous peoples between 1871 to 1921.
Nunavut Land Claims Agreement The Nunavut Land Claims Agreement is an example of a modern treaty and was established in 1993. The agreement saw the Inuit surrender land title, but provided for Inuit private landholding of 350,000 km2 within their traditional territory, as well as wildlife management and harvesting rights, a share of resource development on Crown Lands, land and water stewardship, and public sector employment.
Office of Native Claims Established in 1974, the Office of Native Claims within the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development was created in order to help settle existing claims resulting from Treaties. (Reference)
Passamaquoddy The Passamaquoddy are an Indigenous people whose territories include present day Maine in the U.S. and parts of Quebec and New Brunswick in Canada. Along with the Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, Abenaki and Penobscot peoples, the Passamaquoddy are part of the Wabanaki Confederacy. (Reference)
Peace and Friendship Treaties Peace and Friendship Treaties were agreements between two sovereign nations and often had concepts that encouraged cooperation such as respect, peaceful co-existence, and a sharing of the land's resources. (Reference)
Quahog A hard clam shell found on the Eastern coast of North America.
Revolutionary Bill of Rights In March of 1885, under the leadership of Louis Riel, the Métis drafted a 10-point bill of rights that were to be presented to the Canadian Government. (Reference)
Royal Proclamation of 1763 The Royal Proclamation of 1763 is a document created by the British Crown that outlines rules for European settlement of North America. Although the document grants ownership of North America to the Crown, it states that Indigenous peoples still maintain title to lands and territories until a Treaty is agreed to. (Reference)
Scrip Halfbreed scrip were certificates granted to Métis people in recognition of Aboriginal title. The certificates or coupons were issued in the form of either money or plots of land.
Seven Years War The Seven Years War was a contest between France and Britain with the aim of gaining commercial and imperial supremacy. It is considered the first 'global war' because it was fought in a number of continents including parts of North America. (Reference)
The Robinson Treaties The Robinson Treaties refers to the RobinsonHuron and Robinson-Superior agreements made between the British Crown and various Ojibwa nations in 1850. The Treaties allowed Canada to secure almost all of Northwest Ontario for settlement and resource development. New in these agreements were provisions made for reserves based on sites chosen by Indigenous leaders. These Treaties are credited with laying the foundation for what later became known as Western Canada's Numbered Treaties. (Reference)
"Truck House" clause The "Truck House" clause was a guarantee included in two Treaties made during the Peace and Friend ship era that ensured the Indigenous signatories would have access to trading post. The objective was to promote and continue Indigenous peoples' access to a commercial economy. (Reference)
War of 1812 The War of 1812 was a military engagement fought between the United States and Great Britain. Indigenous allies of the British played a major role in helping defeat the Americans and stop them from expanding into the Canadian colonies (Upper and Lower Canada). (Reference)