Lesson 5 - "Killing the Indian in the Child"



Aboriginal Healing Foundation The Aboriginal Healing Foundation was established to help support Aboriginal-led initiatives related to healing from trauma associated with residential schools. The organization was created through a grant as part of the Gathering Strength initiative put forth by the federal government. ( Reference)
Davin report Officially titled, the Report on Industrial Schools for Indians and Half-Breeds, but more commonly referred to as the Davin Report was a document submitted to Prime Minister John A MacDonald in 1879. The report outlined a justification for the federal government to establish residential schools for Indigenous children. Davin's recommendations included the segregation and isolation of Indigenous children from any and every influence of their cultural traditions. ( Reference)
Ethics of non-interference An ethic of non-interference refers to a philosophical concept wherein individuals respect independence in decision making and thought. In regards to storytelling for instance, it encourages the individual to self-reflect in order to discover the answer on their own as opposed to being told what to think.
Fosterage practice Fosterage practice is the process wherein children spend considerable time with extended family. It is common among Indigenous peoples as it embodies principles of reciprocity within the larger family unit.
Indian Residential Settlement Agreement Implemented in 2007, the Indian Residential Settlement Agreement is a class action settlement established between the Canadian government and approximately 86,000 Indigenous people that had attended residential schools. The settlement stipulates that the government mandate a $2 billion dollar compensation package to the victims. ( Reference)
Inductive discipline Inductive discipline is a child rearing practice whereby an adult explains to the child how their actions or misbehaviour impacts others.
Intergenerational trauma Intergenerational trauma or historical trauma are lasting psychological inflictions resulting from a people's multigenerational suffering.
Mohawk institute The Mohawk Institute was a Anglican operated residential school located in present day Branford, ON. The school was financially supported by the New England Company, a missionary society founded in Britain in 1662. ( Reference)
National Indian Brotherhood (NIB) The National Indian Brotherhood (NIB) was a Canada wide political organization comprising and representing Indigenous peoples. In 1982, the NIB became the Assembly of First Nations (AFN). ( Reference)
Observational learning Observational learning happens when one watches another perform a task or behave in a certain way. It is a type of social learning in that it involves interaction with a person who models the behaviour.
Post-traumatic stress disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental illness caused from an often violent or traumatic experience. Distress and triggering (of negative emotions) can occur without warning and can affect an individual for a period of time. ( Reference)
Role modeling Role modeling occurs when a person is looked upon by others as someone whose behaviour and attributes are respected. Often this takes place when the person whose is the role model is in near proximity to the learner, however, it can also happen through stories, and other forms of communication.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) is a 5-Volume report outlining how best to improve relations between Aboriginal people and non-Aboriginal people. The invasion at Oka is commonly credited as the event that spawned the RCAP. ( Reference)
Seven Generations The Seven, or Seventh Generation philosophy dictates that decisions being made should consider the reverberational effects it will have seven generations into the future. It is often cited as having originated in the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, however, many Indigenous peoples also follow the principals. ( Reference)
Sharing circles Common amongst Indigenous cultures in the Americas is the practice of sharing circles. These are sites of sharing between people and also serve as a method of learning between those engaged in the circle.
St. Anne's Catholic Residential school St. Anne's residential school located in Fort Albany, Ontario. The school was operated by the Catholic church and was in operation from 1904 - 1973. The school is notorious due to the reported extreme harshness inflicted upon students through the use of an electric chair. ( Reference)
Statement of Apology In June 2008, then Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a Statement of Apology for Canada's role in supporting the Indian Residential Schools system. ( Reference)
Statement of Reconciliation and "Gathering Strength" In 1998, the federal government released a report titled "Gathering Strength" that outlined the various means that the government had been responding to suggestions made in RCAP. As part of this process, the government had made a Statement of Reconciliation which acknowledge past injustices. ( Reference | Reference)
Thanksgiving Address The Thanksgiving Address (Ohen:ton Karihwatehkwen) is a Haudenosaunee expression and practice of gratitude used as a prayer to open and close social gatherings. It is based on the concept of oneness with the universe and acknowledges everything in the natural world as being interconnected. ( Reference)
The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) The Assembly of First Nations (AFA) is an organization representing First Nations across Canada in pressing for Aboriginal and Treaty rights. The AFA emerged from the National Indian Brotherhood (NIB) in 1982. ( Reference)
The Story of a National Crime: Being a Record of the Health Conditions of the Indians of Canada from 1904 to 1921 The Story of a National Crime: Being a Record of the Health Conditions of the Indians of Canada from 1904 to 1921 is a published account detailing some of the brutalities put upon Indigenous children in residential schools. The author, Dr. Peter Bryce had worked for the Department of Indian Affairs and published this document following his resignation.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Following the Statement of Apology issued by the federal government, a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was launched in order to help bring to light stories from Indigenous people's experiences in residential schools. The TRC was meant to heal long standing wounds resulting from the hash treatments faced by Indigenous children whom attended the schools.