Lesson 12 - 'Living Traditions': Expressions in Pop Culture and Art



Indigenous Curatorial Collective Formed in 2005 to address the ongoing lack of Indigenous curatorial representation and control in the Canadian arts community, and to provide longterm structural support for Indigenous artists and curators. (Reference)
Bentwood cedar boxes Boxes made by northwest coast Indigenous peoples, bent from a single plank of cedarwood often carved and painted. Bentwood boxes were originally made for practical, ceremonial, and spiritual purposes, but have become highly valued as works of art. (Reference)
Caliche The oldest-known bead in North America is made from this sedimentary composite of calcium carbonate (lime). Caliche is found in desert areas. (Reference)
Catlinite Catlinite is a type of stone found predominantly in Minnesota and used by Indigenous peoples for carving pipes and other items. Catlinite was a significant trade item across North America. (Reference)
Dentalium shells Shells of the scaphopod mollusk that were used in trade, jewellery, art, and as currency by Indigenous peoples across North America. (Reference)
Expo 67 Refers to the "Universal and International Exhibition" that took place in Montréal in 1967 to highlight Canada's centenniary. This global exhibition saw over 26 million visits over its duration. (Reference)
Indian Group of Seven A nickname applied to the seven original members of Professional Native Indian Artists Incorporated, the Indian Group of Seven includes Alex Janvier, Joseph Sanchez, Norval Morrisseau, Daphne Odjig, Jackson Beardy, Eddy Cobiness, and Carl Ray. (Reference)
Indians of Canada Pavilion Meant to be a highlight of Expo 67 and to introduce people to the art and culture of Indigenous peoples, the Indians of Canada Pavilion relied on homogenizing imagery of tipis and totem poles, as well as exterior artworks with a more "traditional" aesthetic to draw tourist crowds. Inside the pavilion, more modern artists demonstrated that Indigenous art was contemporary. The pavilion acted as a site of political and artistic resistance to stereotypes. (Reference)
Kwakwaka'wakw The Kwakwaka'wakw is the name given to the different groups, or tribes, of Kwakʼwala-speaking people who live along the coast of mainland British Columbia and the northeastern coast of Vancouver Island. (Reference)
Lubicon Cree Nation The Lubicon Cree people and land were never surveyed during the development of Treaty 8, and they were thus denied reserve lands or band status. Canada continues to refuse to resolve their outstanding land claim, and allows resource extraction companies to operate on their traditional territory. (Reference)
Mukluks Traditionally mukluks referred to reindeer- or sealskin boots worn in the Arctic. Now the word is used more generally to refer to all high top moccasin-style boots. (Reference)
Porcupine People A nickname for the Mi'kmaq people, in reference to their skilled and intricate quillwork.
Professional Native Indian Artists Incorporated (PNIAI) A self-organized and -managed Indigenous arts and culture advocacy group. Formed in the early 1970s, the group advocated for access to funding and inclusion in galleries for Indigenous artists, and increased public consciousness regarding Native art. (Reference)
Society of Canadian Artists of Native Ancestry (SCANA) Formed in 1984, this group advocated for the inclusion of Native artists in mainstream galleries, especially the National Art Gallery.
The Spirit Sings: Artistic Traditions of Canada's First Peoples A 1988 Indigenous art exhibit showcased in the Glenbow museum. The exhibit faced protests and injunctions from Indigenous peoples over the improper showing of sacred artifacts, and protests by the Lubicon Cree Nation whose fight for control over their land was being undermined both by the Alberta and Canadian governments, as well as Shell Oil, the corporation who largely sponsored the exhibit. (Reference)