Lesson 7 - Red Power



American Indian Movement (AIM) The American Indian Movement, also known as AIM is an Indigenous rights organization founded in the U.S. in 1968. At the time of it's inception, it was an American Indian response to the burgeoning Civil Rights movements of the 1960s across the United States. Activists, such as John Trudell, Dennis Banks, and Russell Means engaged in protests that caught the attention of young Indigenous people in both the US and Canada.
Bill C 31 (Bill to Amend the Indian Act) The Bill to Amend the Indian Act, or more commonly referred to as Bill C-31 was passed in 1985, and put in place to deal with various provisions of gender discrimination found within the Indian Act. The Bill worked to restore status to individuals who were enfranchised as a result of the sexism laden throughout the Indian Act. (Reference)
Citizens Plus ("Red Paper") Following the release of the White Paper, the Indian Association of Alberta responded with a publication titled, Citizens Plus , which became known as the "Red Paper." (Reference)
Clan system A clan system is a societal grouping of families joined together through kinship. (Reference)
Constitution Act of 1867 (British North America Act) Originally known as the British North America (BNA) Act of 1867, was a law passed in British Parliament creating the Dominion of Canada. The BNA Act set out the overall governance structure of the Dominion. The Act was renamed following the patriation of the Constitution in 1982. (Reference | Reference)
Dominion government (Dominion of Canada) Dominion of Canada was used first in the British North America Act of 1867 to refer to the union of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. In 1870, Rupertsland was purchased from the HBC and joined the Dominion.
Enfranchisement Enfranchisement as relating to the Indian Act, is the legal process whereby an individual is no longer considered a status-Indian.
Federation of Métis Settlements (Métis Settlements General Council) The Federation of Métis Settlements (FMS) was established in 1975 to represent and govern the eight Métis settlements in Alberta. Following the 1990 Métis Settlement Act, the FMS was reorganized as the Métis Settlements General Council (MSGC). (Reference)
Grand Council of Crees (Eeyou Istchee) The Grand Council of Crees represents approximately 18,000 members with a Grand Chief acting in a leadership role. The Grand Council has developed a declaration of their rights as Nehiyawak people. The declaration includes such rights as the development of natural resources, their inherent right to self determination, and traditional principles of sustainable development.
Great Law of Peace or Gayanashagowa The Great Law of Peace or Gayanashagowa is the founding constitution of the Haudenosaunee. The Gayanashagowa provides three main principles which are peace, power, and righteousness. (Reference)
Indian The term 'Indian' is found in the legal document called the 'Indian Act' and is used describe a First Nations person. According to the Indian Act, an 'Indian' is a man belonging to an Indian band that has a reserve. Although the Indian Act still uses the term 'Indian', today many consider the word to be a derogatory term.
Inuit Tapirisat of Canada or Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK) Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK) is the national organization representing Inuit people across Canada. The ITK has played a significant role in negotiating land claim agreements with the federal government, as well as funding programs to foster greater cultural growth. (Reference)
Matrilineal clan system A matrilineal clan system traces its lineage through the mother's family. Women also possess leadership and decision making powers.
Métis National Council (MNC) The Métis National Council (MNC) was created in 1983 to represent the Métis people as a unified voice with the federal government. The MNC is comprised of the provincial Métis associations in B.C., Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario. As of 2016, Clément Chartier is the acting president of the MNC.
Native Council of Canada (Congress of Aboriginal People) Formed in 1970, the Native Council of Canada (NCC) represented Métis and non-Status Indians in federal politics. Following the Constitutional discussions in 1982, the Métis split with the NCC to form their own organization known as the Métis National Council. In 1993, the NCC reorganized under the name of the Congress of Aboriginal People (CAP) with the intent of focusing more on the rapidly growing urban Indigenous communities. (Reference)
Native Peoples' Caravan The Native Peoples' Caravan was a crossCanada protest led by Vern Harper and Louis Cameron in 1974. The Caravan travelled across the country en route to Parliament in Ottawa to protest a multitude of grievances from Indigenous peoples.
Nigiqtuq Nigiqtuq is an Inuit concept relating to self restraint and sharing between people.
Patriation Patriation was the process that Canada undertook in 1982 to formally claim sovereignty from the British Parliament.
Red Power Red Power is a term coined by Indigenous scholar Vine Deloria Jr. in the 1960s to describe the rise of a pan-Indigenous civil rights movement occurring across North America. The American Indian Movement (AIM) is often affiliated with Red Power.
Section 35 Section 35 is found within the Constitution Act, 1982. It recognizes and affirms Aboriginal rights for First Nations, Métis, and Inuit.
Self-determination Self-determination refers to Indigenous peoples' right to freely determine their political status and pursue their economic, social and cultural development, unchallenged and away from state control.
Self-government The concept of self-government means that political bodies representing Indigenous peoples the right to create and govern their own affairs. Aboriginal self-government in Canada refers to the state acknowledging and granting Aboriginal political organizations greater power in managing their own affairs. (Reference)
Teslin Tlingit The Teslin Tlingit people comprise five clans: the Raven Child, Frog, Wolf, Beaver and Eagle Clans. The traditional territory of the Teslin Tlingit is located by the confluence of Nisutlin Bay and Teslin Lake in the Yukon.
The Aboriginal Nation Model of Government The Aboriginal Nation Model of Government is a model that validates Aboriginal rights and traditions through the effective control of traditional lands and resources.
The Nunatsiavut Government The Nunatsiavut Government represents Inuit people located in the Nunatsiavut geographical area that is within the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. (Reference)
The White Paper (Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian policy) The White Paper (Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian policy) was a federal government policy paper proposal released in 1969. Under the leadership of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, the federal government sought to abolish the Indian Act and thus extinguish the unique legal status held by Indians. However, due to efforts made by Indigenous leaders, the White Paper was not implemented.
Treaty Nations Treaty Nations are First Nations groups that have signed treaties with the Canadian government.
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was introduced in 2007, and outlines the historical mistreatment of Indigenous peoples by nation states. Although not legally binding, UNDRIP sets out a list of individual and collective rights for Indigenous peoples. (Reference)
Wampum Wampum are shells that often have tubular shape which allow them to be used as beads for ornamental purpose. For Indigenous peoples of the eastern Woodland area of North America, wampum was treated as a form of currency. (Reference)