My interests focus mostly on issues of process and outcome in psychotherapy. I am particularly interested in the role that emotion plays in successful therapy and, more generally, in the process of change itself. Humanistic, experiential, and existential approaches to therapy are of special interest. Another interest is in how certain personality traits, especially self-criticism understood as a trait conferring vulnerability to depression, interact with therapy processes such as the formation of a working alliance. I have recently done research on adaptive and maladaptive forms of self-criticism and my interest in self-criticism dovetails with a larger, more theoretical interest in the nature of the self. Techniques and processes for changing the self in therapy flow from one's conception of the self. I am also very interested in the history of psychology.